Cane Sugar, Crystallized Sugar, Sugar Trade, West Indies, Wealth and War

Posted by PITHOCRATES - May 7th, 2013

History 101

As Muslim displaced Christians from the Lands of the Roman Empire Sugar moved West

There is a war on sugar.  It’s making us fat.  And it’s making us sick.  Because it tastes so damn good.  We crave it.  And always have.  Since the first days we chewed on sugarcane.  Sucking out the juice.  Which was where that sweet delight was.  It was so good that the people in New Guinea (just north of Australia) learned how to plant it and raise it themselves.  Instead of just looking for it in the wild.  Around the eighth millennium BC.  From there it spread.  North.  To Southeast Asia.  Southern China.  And into India.  Where they took sugar to the next level.  They didn’t just chew on sugarcane to suck out the juice in India.  They refined it into a crystallized substance.  Around 350 AD.  Concentrating that sweetness.  And making it portable.  Then the Arabs entered the picture.

The Arabs took the Indian sugar-making technique and made it into big business.  They established plantations to grow it in tropical climes.  Where the two things that made sugarcane grow best—heat and water—were plentiful.  They built the first sugar mills to refine the cane.  Basically presses to squeeze out the juice.  Which they then boiled the water out of.  Leaving behind sugar crystals.  And added it to their foods.  As Muslim Arabs displaced Christians from the lands of the Roman Empire sugar moved west.  The Arabs introduced sugarcane plantations as far west as southern Spain.  When Christian Crusaders returned from fighting Muslims in the Holy Land they brought back crystallized sugar to Europe.  And they quickly fell in love with those white crystals.  By the late 13th century even England had grown a sweet-tooth.  Who would go on to consume so much of the stuff that they would rot their teeth away.

Then the Europeans entered the sugar business in the 15th century.  At first it was just the wealthy that enjoyed sugar.  Then it spread to the common people.  As demand grew they established new plantations to meet that demand.  In southern Spain.  The Atlantic island of Madeira.  The Canary Islands.  The Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa.  All had good growing climates for sugarcane.  And each plantation had its own processing plant.  For a ship’s hold full of crystallized sugar was far more valuable than a ship’s hold full of harvested sugarcane.  Making these plantations labor intensive endeavors.  And working the fields was backbreaking work.  To step up production required a larger labor force than was available.  And to meet that demand they turned to using African slaves.

Sugar was a Turning Point from an Agrarian World of Slaves and Indentured Servants to the Modern Industrial World

By the 16th century the Europeans were taking sugarcane across the Atlantic.  And African slaves.  The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French and British brought sugarcane and slaves to Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Barbados, the Virgin Islands, Guadaloupe, Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti) and elsewhere in the Americas.  With the Caribbean Islands becoming the sugar capital of the world.  France’s Saint-Domingue being the single largest producer in the world.  Until their slave uprising.  It was France’s wealthiest possession in the Western Hemisphere.  And its loss changed French ambition in the New World.  For Napoleon had his eyes on rebuilding the French Empire in North America that was so rudely interrupted by France’s loss in the Seven Years’ War.  But with the loss of Saint-Domingue and all that sugar wealth Napoleon lost all interest in the New World.  And sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States.  To prepare for war with Britain.  Again.

The British and the French both had lucrative sugar plantations in the West Indies.  When the American Revolutionary War turned into a world war the British and French squared off once again.  Especially in the West Indies.  Where they wanted to protect their possessions producing that valuable sugar.  And take the other’s possessions.  So they could expand their holdings.  And their wealth from the sugar trade.  As well as put down any slave uprisings.  Such as would later happen in Saint-Domingue.  Some say the reason the British lost the American Revolutionary War was because they diverted too much of their military resources to the Caribbean.  But the French were diverting a lot of their military resources to the Caribbean, too.  Which is one reason why the war lasted 8 years.  As the French were more interested in taking the British possessions in the West Indies than American independence.  Their first efforts fighting alongside the Americans (Rhode Island in 1778.  Savannah, Georgia, in 1779) did not help the cause.  It was only when the French fleet could be spared from the action in the West Indies that they joined General Washington in trapping General Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781.  With Cornwallis’ surrender effectively ending the war.  Even though they wouldn’t sign the final peace treaty until 1783.

By the end of the international slave trade Europeans sent approximately 10 million Africans to the New World.  Mostly to Brazil and the Caribbean.  To work in the sugar plantations.  Where slave ships left Africa.  They unloaded slaves in the New World.  Loaded the sugar these slaves grew.  Shipped the sugar back to the Old World.  Unloaded the sugar and loaded on finished goods.  Then sailed back to the African slave stations.  Where they traded their finished goods for more slaves.  There was big money in The Trade Triangle (trade from Africa to the New World to the Old World and back to Africa).  But sugar also helped to kick off the Industrial Revolution.  For the iron industry grew to make the machinery of the sugar mills.  As each plantation processed their sugarcane into crystallized sugar that was a lot of cast iron gears, sprockets, levers, axles, boilers, etc.  Basically a turning point from an agrarian world of slaves and indentured servants.  To the modern industrial world and wage-earners.

There is a Correlation between America’s Obesity Problem and the Switch from Cane Sugar to Corn Sugar

By the 19th century technology was making better sugar at lower costs.  The British designed a low-pressure boiler.  As water boils at a lower temperature when at lower pressure they were able to refine sugar with less energy.  Cutting production costs.  And waste.  As higher temperatures caramelized some of the sugar.  Though caramelized sugar can be delicious on crème brûlée you don’t want it when you’re producing crystallized sugar to sell.  Then the Americans improved this process by creating the multiple-effect evaporator.  A multi-stage device where the pressure is lower in each successive stage.  They use steam to boil water in the first stage.  This vapor then provides the energy to boil water in the next stage.  Which is at a lower pressure.  And, therefore, has a lower boiling point.  That vapor then boils water in the next stage which is at a lower pressure.  And so on.  Where one energy input creates a lot of useful work cost-efficiently.

With the advance in refining equipment refinery plants grew more complex.  And expensive.  So instead of building one on every plantation they built fewer but larger ones.  And shipped raw product to them.  Modern ships and economies of scale made this the new business model.  Companies grew and opened other refineries.  And expanded vertically.  Growing sugarcane as well as refining it.  One of the best at this was the American Sugar Refining Company.  That at one point controlled 98% of the sugar processing capacity in the United States.  Which earned it a spot on the original Dow Dozen.  The first 12 industrial stocks the Dow used in calculating their Dow Jones Industrial Average in 1896.  And remained a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average until 1930.

Eventually the Americans couldn’t compete with foreign sugar producers any more.  They enlisted the help of Congress to impose tariffs on cane sugar imports.  Forcing Americans to pay more for their sugar.  Then they started making sugar out of government subsidized corn.  High-fructose corn syrup.  Which pretty much sweetens anything manufactured in the United States today.  That some say causes more health problems than cane sugar.  Including obesity.  Those in the high-fructose corn syrup business vehemently deny this.  But there is a correlation between America’s obesity problem and the switch from cane sugar to corn sugar.  Because of the different way the body metabolized corn sugar it did not satiate our appetite.  Leading us to over consume.  Such as with sugary drinks.  Which have gotten so large in size that New York City Mayor Bloomberg tried to make these large sizes illegal.  Because America’s over consumption of sugar was making us obese.  While Britain’s over consumption of cane sugar only rotted their teeth away.  It didn’t make them obese.  Which makes the case that corn sugar is less healthy than cane sugar.  Despite what the corn sugar lobby says.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Benjamin Franklin, Bon Homme Richard, John Paul Jones, Whitehaven, Dominica, Rhode Island, Count d’Estaing, Anti-French Riots and Serapis

Posted by PITHOCRATES - April 26th, 2012

Politics 101

The First French Action in the New World that was in Support of their New American Allies was in Rhode Island

The French loved Benjamin Franklin.  He was America personified.  They loved his science.  And his Poor Richard’s Almanac.  In 1779 King Louis XVI of France bought a merchant ship from the French East India Company and gave it to the Americans to use in their common war with Great Britain.  The U.S. captain fittingly named the Duc de Duras the Bon Homme Richard.  Which translates to Good Man Richard.  Richard as in Poor Richard’s Almanac.  To make it a favorite of the French.  Who were already quite enthused by this young American captain.  Who was a Scotsman by birth.  John Paul Jones.  From his actions off (and on) the British coast the previous year.  In the first year of the Franco-American alliance in the American Revolutionary War (1775–1783).

With the French on board Benjamin Franklin wanted to capitalize on this new alliance.  With friendly ports on the far side of the Atlantic Franklin instructed John Paul Jones to harass the British coast.  To bring the war home to the British people.  And that’s exactly what Jones did.  Then in command of the Ranger.  Coming ashore at Whitehaven in April of 1778.  A seaport on the north east coast of England.  His intent was to set fire to the ships and port facilities.  To disrupt British shipping.  He didn’t do the great damage he had hoped.  But it really brought the American Revolutionary War to British soil.  And the British were not amused.  But the French were.

The French were eager to get some payback for their embarrassing defeat in the Seven Years’ War (1756–1763).  And to recover some of their lost New World territories.  Beginning in the West Indies.  On the island of Dominica in September of 1778.  The first of a series of victories in the West Indies where the French navy began helping the Americans in their War of Independence.  By taking these islands from the British.  Which helped the Americans by keeping the British busy.  And depriving the Royal Navy of some useful ports.  But these actions benefited the French more than the Americans.  Which was keeping with French interests in joining this war.  Payback for their prior defeats at the hands of the British.  And regaining lost territory.  The first French action in the New World that was in support of their new American allies was in Rhode Island.  In the first Franco-American combined action in the war.  Which didn’t go well.  Or end well.

The French arrive with a Fleet Including some 16 Warships and about 4,000 French Soldiers

1777 ended well for the Americans.  They defeated a British Army at the Battle of Saratoga.  Because of this the French joined in alliance with the Americans in their war against Great Britain.  Valley Forge followed.  Which was pretty horrible.  But Baron von Steuben drilled the Continental Army.  Made them as good as any European Army.  And when General Clinton was moving his army from Philadelphia back to New York in the Spring Washington wanted to go on the offensive.  His chance came at the Battle of Monmouth.  Washington ordered an attack on the rearguard of Clinton’s army.  General Charles Lee hesitated.  Then ordered a retreat.  Which Washington turned around.  As had the British in their retreat to New York.  The Americans and the British then engaged in a long day of attacks and counterattacks.  Stopping only after exhaustion set in.  Von Steuben’s trained Continental Army fought the British Army to a draw.  As impressive a feat as the win at Saratoga.  Perhaps more so.  And so close to a win.  Had Lee followed Washington’s orders perhaps it would have been.  But, alas, it wasn’t.  And in the morning the British were gone.

The French were on their way.  But they did not arrive early enough to prevent Clinton from getting his army across to Manhattan.  But the appearance of the French fleet did paralyze the British into inaction.  The French fleet included some 16 warships and about 4,000 French soldiers.  With some 50,000 British regulars in New York surrounded by a fleet of 100 or so made New York NOT the best place to test the grand Franco-American alliance.  Instead the first test of that grand alliance would be in Newport, Rhode Island.

The plan was to land the French soldiers to join an American force to assault the British forces with the support of the guns of the French fleet.  What happened was a tragic comedy of errors.  A militia force arrived late.  While the Franco-American force was waiting a British naval squadron appeared.  Count d’Estaing, the French naval commander, re-embarked the French troops and prepared for battle.  Then a violent storm blew in.  Scattering the opposing naval forces.  The British then limped back to New York to refit.  And the French limped to Boston to refit.  The American commander was furious at the French.  He published an order condemning the French.  American morale fell.  Militia went home.  The British seeing this decided to attack.  The Americans held their ground.  Fought to another draw.  Then slipped away under the cover of night.  Yet another missed opportunity.

When the Serapis asked the crippled Bon Homme Richard if she was striking her colors Jones replied, “I have not yet begun to fight.” 

The Americans were not amused with the French actions.  Anti-French riots broke out in Boston where the French fleet was refitting.  All the old animosities from the previous war resurfaced.  When the Americans fought alongside the British against the French.  It took the combined efforts of d’Estaing, John Hancock, Nathanael Greene and Alexander Hamilton to maintain the peace between the Franco-American alliance in Boston.  Their counterparts in Charlestown, South Carolina, were not so successful.  Where the French and the Americans fired upon each other with cannon and small arms.  And there was blood.  Dead and wounded.  Not the greatest of beginnings between the grand alliance.

While the French fleet failed to pay any dividends for the Americans some other naval action was.  Harassing the sea lanes between London and the West Indies.  Causing great headaches to British commerce.  Harassing the fisheries off of Nova Scotia.  Capturing enemy ships.  And who was doing all of this damage to the British fleet?  And to British pride?  That Scotsman fighting for America.  John Paul Jones.  Who did not know the meaning of the word ‘surrender’.

In September of 1779 Jones came into contact with a convoy of 40 British merchant ships coming from the Baltic under the protection of the 44-gun Serapis and the 28-gun Countess of Scarborough.  Jones commanded a 4-vessel squadron including the Bon Homme Richard and the Alliance captained by French Captain Pierre Landais.  And engaged.  The battle lasted some three and a half hours.  And into the night.  The Bon Homme Richard and the Serapis rammed into each other yet still continued the fight.  The Alliance fired broadside after broadside into the Bon Homme Richard and yet Jones continued the fight.  When the captain of the Serapis asked the crippled Bon Homme Richard if she was striking her colors (surrendering) Jones reportedly replied, “I have not yet begun to fight.”  And he kept fighting until the captain of the Serapis struck his colors sometime after 10 PM.

Again, not an auspicious start for the Franco-American grand alliance.  But a pretty impressive one for a nearly nonexistent U.S. Navy.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,