The Inauguration Date was originally in March to allow for Long Travel Times
It was difficult to be a career politician at the federal/national level at the Founding. Thanks to the horse. The primary means of transportation over great distances. Either on horseback. Or pulled in a buggy. Neither of which provided for a comfortable ride. With that discomfort compounded by the fact you were leaving family and friends behind. People you wouldn’t see again for a very long time.
When John Adams served in the Continental Congress he rode for some two weeks through brutal winter weather on hard, frozen ground. Ground so hard and dangerous that they let the horses only walk. Whether it was traveling to Cambridge to meet with the newly appointed General Washington facing off with the British in Boston. Or riding on to the federal capital in Philadelphia. The ride was long, brutal and cold. As well as lonely. For Adams missed his wife and family when away serving his country. Which he did often. And longed to return home.
James Madison was a Virginian. And hated traveling up to the federal capital in Philadelphia. And then later in New York. For he hated being away from his wife. And he hated those long rides on hard, bumpy roads. As Madison suffered from some digestive disorders. Leaving him with chronic discomfort in his abdomen. And lower. For he probably suffered from hemorrhoids, too. Making those long, bumpy rides unbearable. This is why the inauguration date was originally in March instead of January like it is today. They had to allow for long travel times and bad weather for the new office holders to get to their offices. Unlike today where you can fly from anywhere in the United States to Washington D.C. in one day.
James Reynolds had his Wife seduce and sleep with Alexander Hamilton so he could Blackmail Him
George Washington was president when the nation’s capital was in New York City. Which was a long way from Mount Vernon. Washington’s Virginian home. Other Virginians were the first Secretary of State. Thomas Jefferson. The first Attorney General. Edmund Randolph. And the first Speaker of the House. James Madison. While the first Vice President, John Adams, and the first Secretary of War, Henry Knox, came from Massachusetts. The first Treasury Secretary, Alexander Hamilton, on the other hand, was a New Yorker. Living in New York City. Close to the capital.
Ironically, the man closest to his wife was the one to have an extramarital affair. Alexander Hamilton. Who was targeted by a couple of con people. Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds. That’s right, Mr. Reynolds used his wife, Maria, to seduce Alexander Hamilton. Including actually having sexual relations with him. Just so he, James Reynolds, could blackmail Hamilton for money. Threatening to tell Hamilton’s wife. And ruining his good reputation as a gentleman if he didn’t pay. He paid. For awhile. And with his own money. Reynolds was later arrested for counterfeiting. And told the opposition party of Hamilton’s affair. Thomas Jefferson. And his fellow Republicans (the forerunner to the Democrat party, not the Republican Party of today whose first president was Abraham Lincoln).
Thomas Jefferson loved his wife and hated being apart from her. The last place he wanted to be in 1775/1776 was at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. A lonely year spent a very long way from his wife. Who was sickly. And died in 1782. Jefferson was at her bedside when she passed. And he was devastated. He had promised her he would never remarry. And he never did. He later accepted the post as United States Minister to France. A much greater distance from Virginia. Which is probably the first time he wanted to be far away from his beloved Monticello. To escape the desolation of life without his wife.
The Founding Fathers served Reluctantly and didn’t leave Office Richer than when they entered Office
Hamilton and Jefferson hated each other. They vehemently disagreed with each other’s vision for the United States. When Jefferson got wind of the Hamilton affair he pounced on it. Well, not so much him. But the Republican Party which he was the de facto head of. And a guy by the name of James Callender. A pamphleteer and journalist. And all around scandalmonger. He made the Hamilton affair public for the Jefferson Republicans. Who, being men of the Enlightenment, would not sink to such a low level. But Callender would. And did. Who Jefferson helped with some financial support. But Callender ended up in jail for sedition. And when he got out he wanted Jefferson to make him post master general of Virginia in return for services rendered. Jefferson refused. Then Callender turned on Jefferson. Revealing that it was him that was bankrolling his journalistic scandal mongering. And that he fathered children with his slave Sally Hemings.
George Washington was the commanding general of the Continental Army from 1775 until 1783. And he spent most of that time with his army in the field. Away from his beloved Mount Vernon. Just after he returned to civilian life came the Philadelphia Convention. And a new nation. The first president of that new nation? Much to his displeasure it was him. George Washington. Who was the only one people were willing to give the powers of the new federal government to. And after sacrificing so much he did not want to see it all be for nothing. So he served one term as president. Then another. In New York. A long way from Virginia. And pretty much hated every minute of it. Especially the bickering between his ‘children’. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. He was never happier than when he left office in 1797. Sadly, he lived just shy of three years in retirement.
The Founding Fathers hated being in office. They hated being away from home. And the long travel time to and from home. Which meant when they were serving in office they did not see their family and friends. Unlike today. Where modern transportation allows career politicians to enjoy the graft in Washington. While breaking it up with numerous vacations back home. Without having to endure two weeks of bouncy rides with hemorrhoids. Or riding horseback in blowing snow. Being a career politician today is like being part of an aristocracy. Where you travel first class. And live first class. Unlike the Spartan loneliness at the Founding. And the animus. Washington’s, Jefferson’s, Madison’s and Hamilton’s lives all got worse from serving. Washington was cheated out of a long retirement he more than earned. Jefferson suffered bitter loneliness after losing his wife and probably did turn to the comfort of a slave. (Sally Hemings had accompanied him to Paris to care for his daughter. And later was a house servant. Though he didn’t legally free her and her children from slavery they did live their lives out as free people after he died. Which was probably a compromise by Jefferson to reconcile his feelings for her while protecting his historical legacy). Something that blemishes his reputation to this day. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson went from practically best friends to bitter enemies before they left Washington (though they rekindled their friendship later in retirement). James Madison was the father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Believed in a strong federal government and wrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton to help ratify the Constitution. Then he switch sides. And sided with Thomas Jefferson and fought for limited government. Then he was president during the War of 1812 and believed in a strong federal government again after struggling through that war with a weak government. Madison spent his later years rewriting letters and correspondence. Making large revisions to his historical legacy. While Alexander Hamilton’s stand on principle ultimately led to his death in a duel with Aaron Burr.
Washington, Jefferson and Madison all returned home after serving as president poorer than when they left for Washington. That just doesn’t happen today. Today once you get elected to a federal office in Washington you return home a millionaire. Because being a professional politician today pays very well. Which is why there is less standing on principle in Washington and more doing what it takes to remain in power. Such as lying to the American people. “If you like your health insurance and your doctor you can keep your health insurance and doctor.” The Founding Fathers served reluctantly. And their lives were worse for serving. But the country was far better off because they did. And that’s something else that just doesn’t happen today.
Tags: Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Callender, career politician, Continental Congress, federal government, Founding, Founding Fathers, George Washington, Hamilton, inauguration date, James Callender, James Madison, James Reynolds, Jefferson, John Adams, Madison, Mount Vernon, Mr. Reynolds, Mrs. Reynolds, New York, Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Washington
With the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 Islam spread Unchecked into Christian Lands
Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire to a place on the Bosporus. Where the ancient city of Byzantium once sat. Where Asia met Europe. Where the Mediterranean Sea met the Black Sea. And the great rivers beyond. The Danube. Dnieper. And the Don. Constantine named his new city Constantinople. And made it a jewel. With great Christian churches. To celebrate his new conversion to Christianity. Which started following the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Where on the eve of battle Constantine and his soldiers had a vision of the Christian God. Promising them victory if they placed His symbol on their shields. Which they did. And they won.
Constantine spared no expense in his new city. Which was easy to do because it was a very wealthy city. For the greatest trade routes went through the Bosporus. Which is why when the western half of the Roman Empire fell the eastern half, or the Byzantine Empire, carried on for another thousand years. Give or take. As it thrived on that trade pouring through it. Especially from the Far East. Along the Silk Road. Which peaked during the Byzantine Empire. Bringing the exotic goods of the Far East west. From silk to porcelain to spices. Which flowed unhindered to Christian Europe while the Christians still controlled the Byzantine Empire.
But all good things must come to an end. Thanks to the Seljuk Turks. And the rise of the Ottoman Empire. Islam had united the Arab people. And with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 Islam spread unchecked into Christian lands. Up through the Balkans into southern Europe. Lands they would contest for time and again. Making for some bitter Christian-Muslim animosity that continues into modern times. But more crucially at the time was the loss of control over that trade from the Far East. Making those goods not as reasonably priced as they once were. Which proved to be quite the problem. As the European Christians had grown quite fond of them. Luckily for them, they could do something about that. Thanks to all of those wars they fought with the Muslims. The Crusades. Which brought back a lot of Greek books of science that were collecting dust in some of the old great Greek cities all around the Mediterranean. Founded during the Hellenistic period. Which came before the Roman Empire. Thanks to a fellow by the name of Alexander the Great. Who spread Greek learning throughout the known world after he conquered it.
Christopher Columbus sailed West to establish Far East Trade without going through Muslim-Controlled Constantinople
From those books the Europeans were able to become better sailors. On ships that could catch the wind and navigate their way great distances. Portugal and Spain led the way. Prince Henry (1394-1460), the Navigator, trained navigators in Portugal. His students pushed further and further down the African coast until Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope (1486). Vasco de Gama would round the Cape of Good Hope and sail up the eastern coast of Africa all the way to India (1498). Pedro Álvares Cabral was heading south to round the Cape of Good Hope in (1500). Swung out too far west. And ran into Brazil in South America.
Spain then financed the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Who had read that the earth was round. And wanted to prove it. As well as spread Christianity. Columbus wanted to find a way west to the Far East. Sure it was just beyond the horizon of the Atlantic Ocean. After a voyage longer than his near mutinous crew expected they finally landed on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas (1492). Thinking he found an ocean passage to the Far East. Around the Muslim controlled land route. He would later understand that he had found the New World. Which we would be calling Columbia. Had his dispatches beat a Florentine passenger’s on a Portuguese ship who wrote about what he saw. Amerigo Vespucci. Which is why there is not a North Columbia, a Central Columbia and a South Columbia. Instead, there is a North America, a Central America and a South America.
With Columbus’ success Spain financed others. Vasco Núñez Balboa. Who crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean (1513). Ferdinand Magellan. Who sailed around South America through the Straits of Magellan and into the Pacific Ocean. Sailing on to the Far East. And back home. Being the first to circumnavigate the globe (1519-1522). Hernán Cortés. Who conquered the brutal Aztec regime in Mexico (1521). Eventually the Spanish would bring great riches of gold and silver back to the Old World. Meanwhile France financed Jacques Cartier in his attempt to find a Northwest Passage to the Pacific. Who sailed up the St. Lawrence River to Montreal (1534). Then Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec (1608). Where they established a lucrative fur trade with the native Indians.
Cultivating Tobacco took Large Tracts of Farmland which required more Laborers that they had in the Colonies
Queen Elizabeth of England financed Walter Raleigh. Who explored the coast of North America (1584). Looking for a place to settle a colony. On a subsequent voyage he brought 100 settlers with him. And settled a colony at Roanoke, North Carolina (1585). Which became the Lost Colony of Roanoke (1591). The Virginia Company of London, a joint-stock company, would have better luck. They raised financing by selling stock shares to investors who would share in any profits of the colony. Christopher Newport led a voyage that established the first permanent English settlement in the New World. At Jamestown (1607).
Though the Americas were not the Far East it was a vast landmass with inexhaustible resources. And endless tracts of fertile soil. The possibilities were endless. The marriage of John Rolfe to Pocahontas (1614) provided an uneasy peace between the settlers and their Indian neighbors. Then Rolfe figured out how to cure tobacco (1612). Something the English began smoking after Columbus observed the Cubans sticking burning rolls of tobacco in a nostril. The English refined smoking with a pipe. And they really enjoyed it. Importing vast quantities from the Spanish colonies in America. Thanks to Rolfe, though, the English could produce their own tobacco. Once they worked out a few problems.
Cultivating tobacco took large tracts of farmland. But to put large tracts of farmland into production you needed laborers. And in 1612 Virginia there just weren’t a lot of colonists living there yet. The demand for labor far outstripped the supply. So they tried to satisfy that demand with indentured servants. Preferably from Europe. Even criminals from English jails. As well as from Africa. Who worked in bondage during their indentures. Then went free. Until around the 1660s. When things changed. Starting in the southern colonies. Where slavery became hereditary. For Africans, at least. Like it was in the Old World. Where peasants and serfs were bonded to the land. Once a slave. Always a slave. And if your parent was a slave so were you. Like it was in ancient Athens. At the end of the Western Roman Empire. And in the Muslim world.
Muslim didn’t only enslave Christians. They also established slave markets with African slave traders. Who opened their markets to the Portuguese, the Spanish, the French and the English. To help them meet that soaring demand for labor during the early days of the New World colonies. When there were so few colonists. Who found their way to the New World in the first place because of the Muslim conquest of Constantinople. Which sent the Europeans to the seas to find a western way to the Far East. And when they did they discovered the New World. Creating the largest market ever for African slaves. And the greatest convulsions in the New World as they struggled to end slavery in the Americas.
Tags: African slaves, America, Bosporus, Byzantine Empire, Cape of Good Hope, Christian, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, colonies, colonists, Columbia, Columbus, Constantine, Constantinople, England, Far East, France, Islam, Mediterranean, Muslim, New World, North America, Old World, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Roanoke, Rolfe, Roman Empire, slave, slavery, South America, Spain, tobacco, trade, Virginia
The Father of the Constitution nudged the Father of the Country out of Retirement
The Confederation Congress did not work as well as some had hoped. Despite having won their independence from Great Britain there was still no feeling of national unity. Sectional interests prevailed over national interests. Greatly affecting the ability of the national government to function. Negating the benefits of union. And offering little respect for the young nation on the world stage. The new nation simply was not taken seriously at home. Or abroad. Prompting a meeting of states delegates in Annapolis in 1786. Twelve delegates from five states showed up. The states just didn’t care enough. The convention adjourned after only three days. But not before Alexander Hamilton put a plan together for another convention in Philadelphia for the following year.
The states were happy with the way things were. They did not want to give up any of their powers to a new central authority. But the problem was that the states were fighting against each other. Trying to protect their own economic interests and their own trade. Some could extend this behavior out into the future. And they did not like what they saw. States with similar interests would form regional alliances. And these alliances would ally themselves with some of the European powers who were also on the North American continent. The northern states (having industry and commerce) would join together and ally with the industrial and commerce powerhouse Great Britain. The agrarian southern states would join together and ally with Great Britain’s eternal enemy. France. And the western territories dependent on the Mississippi River to get their agricultural goods to marker would ally with the European power in control of the Mississippi River. Spain. Who were both eternal enemies of Great Britain. And the centuries of warfare on the European continent would just extend to North America. Some saw this as the American future if they didn’t unite and put the nation’s interests ahead of sectional interests.
The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 almost didn’t happen. For there was as much interest in it as there was in the Annapolis Convention in 1786. James Madison, the father of the Constitution, made the meeting in Philadelphia a reality. By his persuasive efforts with his neighbor. George Washington. Father of our Country. Then in retirement at Mount Vernon with no interest to reenter public life after resigning his commission following the Revolutionary War. He could have been king then but declined the numerous offers to make him so. Happy that they won their independence he just wanted to live out his years on his farm. Like Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus. Who left his plough to become dictator of the Roman Republic. To defend the Roman Republic. He defeated the enemy. Resigned his dictatorship. And returned to his plough. Earning a cherished place in our history books. Something Washington had just done. Only taking some 8 years instead of 16 days like Cincinnatus. His place in history had come with a far greater price. And he did not want to risk losing what he had earned after paying so dearly for it. But Madison knew that it would take Washington’s presence to get the other states to send their delegates. So Madison was persistent. The Father of the Constitution nudged the Father of the Country out of retirement. And made the retired general do the last thing he wanted to do. Return to public life. As he was already an old man who outlived the average lifespan of Washington men.
Madison didn’t believe a Bill of Rights would Stop a Majority from Imposing their Will on the Minority
It took four long, miserable months to produce the new constitution. It was a hot and insufferable summer. And they kept the windows of Independence Hall closed to block out the city noise. And prevent anyone from hearing the debates. So the delegates could speak freely. And after those four long months the delegates signed the new document. Not all of them. Some hated it and refused to sign it or support it. And would actively fight against it during the ratification process. As they did not like to see so much power going to a new federal government. Especially as there was no bill of rights included to help protect the people from this new government. The document they produced was based on the Virginia Plan. Which was drafted by James Madison. Which is why we call him the Father of the Constitution. So Virginia was instrumental in producing the new constitution. And the delegates finally agreed to it because of another Virginian. George Washington. Making Virginian ratification of the new constitution conditional for other states to ratify it. So all eyes were on Virginia. For without Virginia all their efforts in Philadelphia would be for naught. Because if Virginia did not join the union under the new Constitution that meant George Washington would be ineligible to be president.
Of course getting Virginia to ratify was another story. Because George Washington and James Madison were not the only Virginians in politics. There was also George Mason. Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776). Which Thomas Jefferson may have borrowed from when writing the Declaration of Independence. And Mason also wrote the Virginia State Constitution (1776). Mason opposed granting the new federal government so much power and refused to sign the Constitution in Philadelphia. And then there was Patrick Henry. Perhaps the greatest Patriot orator. And of “Give me Liberty, or give me Death!” fame. Which he shouted out during the Stamp Act (1765) debates. He was also Virginia’s first governor under the new state constitution. Mason and Henry were Patriots of the 1776 school. The kind that hated distant central powers. Whether they were in London. Or in New York. Mason wanted a bill of rights. Henry, too. As well as amendments transferring a lot of power from the federal government back to the states. Or, better yet, no federal constitution at all. Which Henry would work towards by leading a fierce ratification opposition.
Perhaps the greatest flaw of the new constitution as many saw was the lack of a bill of rights. This was a contentious issue during the convention. It was the reason why Mason refused to sign it. As there was nothing to check the powers of the new government and protect the people’s liberties. So why did they not include a bill of rights? Because it was not necessary. According to Madison. Who fought against it. Because the new federal government was a government of limited powers. It wasn’t like the state governments. The new federal government only did those things the states didn’t do. Or shouldn’t do. Like treat with other nations. Provide a common defense. Regulate interstate trade. Things that expanded beyond a state’s borders. And what powers it had were enumerated. Limited. It did not repeal individual rights protected by state constitutions. And had no authority over those rights. Whatever rights a person enjoyed in their state were untouchable by the new federal government. Therefore, a bill of rights was not necessary. Which actually protected rights greater than listing them. For whatever rights they forgot to list the federal government would assume were fair to abuse. Finally, Madison didn’t believe a bill of rights would stop a majority from imposing their will on the minority. A tyranny of the majority. Something he saw firsthand as a young man returning from college. Where the state of Virginia harassed and imprisoned Baptist ministers for holding Baptist services in Anglican Virginia. Something he didn’t forget. Nor did the Baptists.
If James Madison were Alive Today he would Likely Endorse the Republican Candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan
Patrick tried hard to prevent the ratification of the constitution in Virginia. But failed. When it came time for the Virginian legislature to elect their federal senators Henry campaigned hard against Madison and saw him defeated. When it came to the federal House elections Henry drew the new Congressional districts that made Madison campaign in a district full of people that mostly disagreed with him. Which it took a change of his position on adding a bill of rights to the Constitution to overcome. His position gradually changed from opposed to being lukewarm to being a strong supporter. In part due to some correspondence with Thomas Jefferson then serving in France. And the Baptists’ concerns over rights of conscience. Something Madison had longed believed in. Believing religious liberty was essential to a free people. As the Constitution stood there were no safeguards specifically against the oppression like that the Anglicans imposed on the Baptists earlier. What the Baptists wanted was a bill of rights.
Madison promised, if elected, to introduce an amendment to the Constitution addressing their concerns. In fact, a bill of rights would be the first Constitutional amendment. And he would introduce it and fight for it until it was ratified. Based on this promise the Baptists threw their support behind Madison. Got him elected to the House of Representatives. And Madison delivered on his promise. Championing a bill of rights through Congress. The Father of the Constitution also became the Father of the Bill of Rights. And then it was a knockdown drag-out fight in the Virginian legislature to get the new Bill of Rights ratified. Where the opposition to ratification was led by none other than Patrick Henry. But he would lose that fight, too. And the nation would have a federal government with limited, enumerated powers. With individual liberties protected by a bill of rights. Providing a federal government powerful enough to do the things it needed to do like treat with other nations, provide a common defense, regulate interstate trade, etc. Those things that expanded beyond a state’s borders. And in the following decade we would be prosperous because of it.
None of this could have happened without Virginia’s ratification of the Constitution. Which opened the door for George Washington to be our first president. And helped New York ratify the Constitution. With the ratification in Virginia. And the letter writing campaign in support of ratification. Which appeared in newspapers. Articles written by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton (mostly) and John Jay. Now published as the Federalists Papers. Thanks to the tireless efforts of Madison and Hamilton the nation had a new form of government. But Madison and Hamilton would soon part ways once Hamilton was Secretary of the Treasury. And took great liberties with the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution. Expanding the power and scope of the federal government far beyond what Madison had ever envisioned. Which moved Madison into closer company with George Mason and Patrick Henry. Desperately trying to hold onto states’ rights and oppose the expansion of the federal government. Like he would oppose the great overreach of the federal government today. The transfer of power from the states to the federal government. And the expansion of suffrage to include those who don’t own property or pay taxes. Leading to mob rule at times. Populism. And a tyranny of the majority.
Madison suffered ill health most of his life. Stomach disorders and dysentery. Brought on by the pressures of public service. If he were alive today he probably wouldn’t remain alive long. Seeing what has happened to his Constitution would probably kill him. If he had the chance to vote today he would vote for the party that championed limited government. The party that would stop the growth of the federal government. And reduce its size. The party that governed for all people and not the will of the populist mob. The party that did NOT govern through class warfare but through sound principles. If James Madison were alive today he would likely endorse the Republican candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan.
Tags: 1787, 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, Alexander Hamilton, Baptists, Bill of Rights, Cincinnatus, Constitutional Convention, enumerated powers, father of the Constitution, Father of the Country, federal government, George Mason, George Washington, Hamilton, Henry, James Madison, limited government, limited powers, Madison, Mason, Mob rule, national interests, Patrick Henry, Philadelphia, ratification, sectional interests, state governments, Thomas Jefferson, tyranny of the majority, union, Virginia, Washington
When the Radicals attacked Parliament and the King’s Ministers Jefferson’s Summary View attacked King George
When Thomas Jefferson entered politics he was still a quiet and shy awkward young man. He was not the public speaker Patrick Henry was. And did not enjoy being in the spotlight. That said he was incredibly book smart. When he was in college he spent up to 15 hours a day reading. And another 3 hours practicing his violin. Which probably explained why he was quiet and shy. And not a real lady’s man. His first love was and always remained his books. And it was this insatiable thirst to read and learn that made him one of the greatest writers of the Revolutionary era. It was also where he was most comfortable. For it was something a quiet and shy young man could do best in his solitude.
After earning a law degree he went into law. Then he won a seat in the Virginian House of Burgesses. And joined the opposition against the taxing efforts of British Parliament. As well as their regulation of trade. Going so far as to join a boycott of British imports. Unless it was something really nice that he really, really wanted. For he was a bit of a dandy who enjoyed the finest fashions, furnishings, wines, pretty much anything French, etc. If it was fashionable in high society Jefferson probably had it. But you wouldn’t believe he was a dandy by his writing. For he wrote some powerful stuff while still in the House of Burgesses. Especially his A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). Published at a time when there was a lot of friction between the colonies and the mother country. As furious debate raged about Parliament’s right to tax and regulate trade in the colonies. To summarize his Summary View Jefferson stated, “The British Parliament has no right to exercise authority over us.” Like many of the Revolutionary generation, Jefferson did not like some distant central power imposing their will on them. But Summary View went even farther.
At the time most British Americans still wanted to be subjects of Great Britain. They just wanted the same rights subjects living in England had. Namely, representation in Parliament. Denied that they attacked the dictatorial powers of Parliament. And the king’s ministers. But they didn’t attack King George. Jefferson did. When the other radicals attacked Parliament and the king’s ministers Summary View attacked King George. While the other radicals wanted fair and equal treatment as subjects of the British Crown Jefferson was already moving beyond that. He was ready for independence from the British Crown. For he had no love of monarchy.
The States drafting their own Constitutions was a de facto Declaration of Independence
Much of the trouble in the colonies began with the Stamp Act of 1765. But in Summary View Jefferson said their problems went further back. To 1066. To the Norman Conquest of England. A time when, according to the Whig interpretation of history that Jefferson had read, things changed. All land belonged to kings after 1066. Not to the people. But before the Norman Conquest there was the Saxony model of government. Tracing its lineage back to Saxony Germania. Along the North Sea. Where once upon a time in a mystical place the good people of Saxony enjoyed representative government. A beautiful system of government under which people lived in harmony and bliss. Until feudalism came along. And kings arose. Who snuffed out these old ways. So Jefferson hated all monarchies. The nobility class. And birthrights. He didn’t believe in the divine rights of kings. To him they were just a bunch of bullies who came along and changed the rules of the game by force for personal gain. And King George III was no different.
When Peyton Randolph left the Continental Congress Jefferson replaced him. At the time he was a very minor player in Virginian politics. But his Summary View created a reputation that preceded his arrival. And he was warmly welcomed. Especially by the more radical elements. The Americans had not yet declared their independence but they were already at war with Great Britain. Blood was spilled at Lexington and Concord. And General Washington was now in command of the Continental Army then laying siege to the British in Boston. More importantly, some states were already drafting their own constitutions. To form new governments to replace the royal government. Which to many (including Jefferson) was the most pressing business. As it was a de facto declaration of independence. Which was even more important than the drafting of the Declaration of Independence. Something the more senior members delegated to the junior member from Virginia. Because they had more important things to do.
In May and June of 1776 Jefferson’s mind was back in Virginia. And he wrote three drafts of a new constitution for Virginia. His constitution was similar to the future U.S. Constitution. It included a separation of powers. A 2-house (i.e., bicameral) legislature. An independent judiciary. And, most importantly of all, a WEAK executive. Leaving political power in the hands of the people via their representatives in the legislature. There would be no royal governors or kings in the new state government. Just pure self-government. Just like in that mystical place where the Saxons lived in harmony and bliss. And so it would be in Virginia. There would be democracy. At least for the people who owned property and paid taxes, that is. For if you wanted to tell government what they could do you had to have skin in the game. And pay taxes. But after taking care of this Virginian business he got around to writing the Declaration of Independence. And that thing that no one wanted to waste their time doing? It became the seminal document of the United States. Making Jefferson a superstar among the Founding Fathers. In posterity John Adams regretted that he didn’t waste his valuable time to write it.
If Jefferson were Alive Today he would likely Endorse the Republican Candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan
After the Americans won their independence Jefferson accepted a diplomatic post in France where he accomplished little. Jefferson championed open markets and free trade. And he worked tirelessly with the French to adopt a free trade agreement. So cheap raw materials (like Virginian tobacco) could flow to France. And cheap manufactured goods could flow to the United States. But the political reality in France stymied him. The French refused to lower tariffs so they could protect their domestic markets. Not to mention that those high custom duties allowed corrupt officials to pocket more for themselves. His only success in France was a Dutch loan John Adams secured while Jefferson was tagging along. Adams understood the complex world of international finance. Jefferson did not. Other than large sums of money tended to corrupt people. Custom agents. And governments. So it was a wise thing to keep the centers of finance apart from the center of government. Which is why the federal capital is in Washington DC and not in New York City.
Jefferson was in France during Shay’s Rebellion. An armed protest against new taxes imposed by Boston. Those in the fledgling government worried about suppressing this uprising (the Continental Congress had few resources other than to ask states for contributions) to prevent the collapse of the new nation. While Jefferson said, “The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions, that I wish it to be always kept alive…I like a little rebellion now and then.” And, “The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.” Later, serving as Secretary of State in the Washington administration, he battled with Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton over the size of government and the meaning of the Constitution. Hamilton wanted to expand the power of the federal government to help jumpstart America into becoming a mighty empire like the British Empire. With the government partnering with the private sector. Pooling great amounts of capital together to build incredible things. While Jefferson wanted all Americans to be yeoman farmers physically working their own land. With as small a federal government as possible. And one that spent as little money as possible and remained debt-free. In fact, when he was president he slashed spending so much that the nation could barely afford the navy to protect its shipping from the Barbary pirates.
So it is pretty clear that Thomas Jefferson hated big government. He spent his entire political life trying to limit the power and scope of government. To make government as impotent as possible. To the point where he even supported a little rebellion every now and then to keep government in its place. What would he think of the federal government today? It would probably make him physically ill. The spending? The debt? The federal register? These would make him long for the responsible governing of King George. And his pro-American policies. If he were able to vote today he would vote for the lesser of two evils. And that would be the party of limited government. To stop the out of control growth of the federal government. And hopefully reduce its size. If Jefferson were alive today he would likely endorse the Republican candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan for president and vice president.
Tags: 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, Alexander Hamilton, British, British Crown, British Parliament, Constitution, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, England, federal government, France, free trade, Great Britain, Hamilton, House of Burgesses, Jefferson, John Adams, King George, limited government, Mitt Romney, monarchy, Norman Conquest, Parliament, Paul Ryan, representative government, Republican, Romney, Ryan, Saxony, self-government, Summary View, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginian, Virginian House of Burgesses
In 1792 the Outstanding Debt at all Levels of Government was 45% of GDP
Wars aren’t cheap. Especially if they last awhile. The American Revolutionary War lasted some 8 years until the British and Americans signed the Treaty of Paris (1782) officially ending all hostilities. So the Revolutionary War was a very costly war. The ‘national’ government (the Continental Congress) owed about $70 million. The states owed another $25 million or so. And the Continental Army had issued about $7 million in IOUs during the war. Added up that comes to $102 million the new nation owed. About 45% of GDP. (Or about 35% without the state debt added in.)
To put that in perspective consider that the Civil War raised the debt to about 32% of GDP. World War I raised it to about 35%. World War II raised it to about 122%. Following the war the debt fell to about 32% at its lowest point until it started rising again. And quickly. In large part due to the cost of the Vietnam War and LBJ’s Great Society. Government spending being so great Nixon turned to printing money. Depreciating the dollar’s purchasing power in every commodity but one. Gold. Which was pegged at $35/ounce. Losing faith in our currency foreign governments traded their U.S. dollars for gold. Until Nixon decoupled the dollar from gold in 1971. Ushering in the era of Keynesian economics, deficit spending and growing national debts. Because of increased spending for social programs governments everywhere now have debts approaching 100% of GDP. And higher. But I digress.
So 45% of GDP was huge in 1792. And it continued to be huge. Taking a devastating civil war and a devastating world war to even approach it. It took an even more devastating world war to exceed it. And now we’ve blown by that debt level in the era of Keynesian economics. Without the devastation of another World War II. This debt level has grown so great that for the first time ever in U.S. history Standard and Poor’s recently lowered the United States’ impeccable sovereign debt rating. And restoring that debt rating at today’s spending levels will be a daunting task. But imagine trying to establish a sovereign debt rating after just becoming a nation. Already with a massive debt of 45% of GDP.
In Hamilton’s Report on Public Credit the New Government would Assume Outstanding Debt at all Levels of Government
There was only one choice for America’s first president. The indispensible one. George Washington. Some delegates at the Philadelphia Convention in 1787 who were skeptical of the new Constitution only supported it because they had someone they could trust to be America’s first president. George Washington. Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, Thomas Jefferson and James Madison were indispensible at times. But not as indispensible as Washington. For without him the Continental Army would have ceased to exist after that winter at Valley Forge. That same army would have mutinied (for back pay and promised pensions) after the war if he didn’t step in. Our experiment in self-government would have ended if he did not relinquish his power after the war. We wouldn’t have ratified the Constitution without having Washington to be America’s first president. And our experiment in self-government would have ended if he did not relinquish his power. Again. After his second term as president.
With the state of the government’s finances after the war there was another Founding Father that was indispensible. Not as indispensible as Washington. But close. For without him the Washington presidency may have failed. As well as the new nation. Because of that convoluted financial mess. The Continental Congress borrowed money. The states borrowed money. Some of which went to the Continental Congress. The army took stuff they needed to survive in exchange for IOUs. There were bonds, loans and IOUs at every level of government in every state. Complicating the matter is that most of the instruments they sold ended up in the hands of speculators who bought them for pennies on the dollar. As the original holders of these instruments needed money. And did not believe the Continental Congress would honor any of these obligations. For before the Constitution the government was weak and had no taxing authority. And no way to raise the funds to redeem these debt obligations.
A few tried to get their arms around this financial mess. But couldn’t. It was too great a task. Until America’s first secretary of the treasury came along. Alexander Hamilton. Who could bring order to the chaos. As well as fund the new federal government. He submitted his plan in his Report on Public Credit (January 1790). And the big thing in it was assumption. The federal government would assume outstanding debt at all levels of government. Including those IOUs. At face value. One hundred pennies on the dollar. To whoever held these instruments. Regardless of who bought them first. “Unfair!” some said. But what else could they do? This was the 1700s. There weren’t detailed computer records of bondholders. Besides, this was a nation that, like the British, protected property rights. These speculators took a risk buying these instruments. Even if at pennies on the dollar. They bought them for a price the seller thought was fair or else they wouldn’t have sold them. So these bonds were now the property of the speculators.
Jefferson and Madison traded Hamilton’s Assumption for the Nation’s Capital
Of course to do this you needed money. Which Hamilton wanted to raise by issuing new bonds. To retire the old. And to service the new. Thus establishing good credit. In fact, he wanted a permanent national debt. For he said, “A national debt, if not excessive, is a national blessing.” Because good credit would allow a nation to borrow money for economic expansion. And it would tie the people with the money to the government. Where the risk of a government default would harm both the nation and their creditors. Making their interests one and the same.
That’s not how Thomas Jefferson saw it, though. He had just returned from France where he witnessed the beginning of the French Revolution. Brought upon by a crushing national debt. And he didn’t want to tie the people with the money to the government. For when they do they tend to exert influence over the government. But Hamilton said debt was a blessing if not excessive. He did not believe in excessive government debt. And he wanted to pay that debt off. As his plan called for a sinking fund to retire that debt. Still, the Jefferson and Hamilton feud began here. For Hamilton’s vision of the new federal government was just too big. And too British. Madison would join Jefferson to lead an opposition party. Primarily in opposition to anything Hamilton. Who used the Constitution to support his other plan. A national bank. Just like the British had. Based on the “necessary and proper” clause in Article I, Section 8. Setting a precedent that government would use again and again to expand its powers.
At the time the nation’s capital was temporarily in New York. A final home for it, though, was a contentious issue. Everyone wanted it in their state so they could greatly influence the national government. Hamilton’s struggle for assumption was getting nowhere. Until the horse-trading at the Jefferson dinner party with Hamilton and Madison. To get the nation’s capital close to Virginia (where it is now) Jefferson offered a deal to Hamilton. Jefferson and Madison were Virginians. Give them the capital and they would help pass assumption. They all agreed to the deal (though Jefferson would later regret it). Congress passed the Residency Act putting the capital on the Potomac. And all the good that Hamilton promised happened. America established good credit. Allowing it to borrow money at home and abroad. And a decade of prosperity followed. Hamilton even paid down the federal debt to about 17.5% of GDP near the end of America’s second president’s (John Adams) term in office (1800). Making Hamilton indispensible in sustaining this experiment in self-government. Keeping government small even though it was more powerful than it was ever before. Of course his using that “necessary and proper” argument really came back to bite him in the ass. Figuratively, of course. As government used it time and again to expand its role into areas even Hamilton would have fought to prevent. While Jefferson no doubt would have said with haughty contempt, “I told you so. This is what happens when you bring money and government together. But would you listen to me? No. How I hate you, Mr. Hamilton.”
Tags: 1792, Alexander Hamilton, Americans, assumption, bonds, British, Constitution, Continental Army, Continental Congress, debt, federal government, Founding Father, GDP, George Washington, Hamilton, IOUs, James Madison, Jefferson, loans, Madison, national debt, necessary and proper, property rights, Report on Public Credit, Residency Act, Revolutionary War, sovereign debt, speculators, spending, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Washington
The People trusted no One Man with Great Power except, of course, George Washington
America had a new constitution. It wasn’t easy. For the American states covered a lot of geography. And ideology. These were a very different people. Who had only joined together in union to resist their common enemy. Great Britain. But now that common enemy was no more. What now? These delegates who worked behind closed doors for 4 months in some of the hottest and most humid weather had done the best they could. It was less a triumph of solidarity than the recognition that this was the best anyone was going to do considering how vast and disparate the people were. So now it was up to the states to ratify it. But would they?
Good question. For there was a lot of opposition to transferring power, any power, from the states to a new central authority. They had just cut the ties to one king. And they didn’t do this just to submit to another king. Of course, America would have no king. For they would simply call their new executive president. But it was still one man. And many feared that this one man given some power may take more power. So whoever the first president was had to be one of impeccable character and integrity. A true Patriot. One whose Revolutionary credentials were beyond questioning. Someone who was in the struggle for independence from the beginning and never wavered in the cause. Someone the people universally loved. And respected. Of course that could be but one man. George Washington.
This is why we call George Washington the Father of our Country. For without him there would have been no country. For the people trusted no one man with great power. But they trusted Washington. And respected him. Would even have made him king they trusted him so. So because Washington was available to be the first president the delegates in Philadelphia signed the new Constitution. For all their sectional differences this was one area where everyone agreed. They were willing to risk having this new central government because they trusted it in the hands of this one man. George Washington.
When Patrick Henry and George Mason opposed the new Constitution it was Doubtful Virginia would Vote for Ratification
Of course they weren’t just going to hand the presidency to Washington. But the electors in the Electoral College simply weren’t going to have a better candidate to vote for. Washington didn’t want the job. He just wanted to enjoy retirement on his farm before he died. And based on the longevity of Washington men he was already living on borrowed time. But he would serve. Again. Because he fought too long and too hard to see the new nation collapse before it could even become a nation. And he had no illusions about how horrible the job would be. It was one thing giving orders in the Continental Army where people did what he told them. But it was another dealing with Congress during the war. Who couldn’t accomplish anything for the spirit of liberty. As the states tended to look more after their own interests than the army fighting for their liberty. Leaving his army barefoot, half naked and starving during the winter at Valley Forge. And through most of the war.
So, no, being the president wasn’t going to give him the peace and serenity he could find under his vine and fig tree at home. It would just put him closer to the partisan bickering. But he was willing to sacrifice his own wants and desires yet again. To serve the people. But would the people want him? For it wasn’t up to the delegates at the Constitutional Convention. All they could do was make their case to the people. Then let the people decide if they wanted this new government. And perhaps the most critical state was Virginia. Which not only gave us George Washington. But George Mason. Patrick Henry. Thomas Jefferson. And James Madison.
Patrick Henry said, “Give me liberty or give me death!” He was a great orator whose speeches could awe listeners. He dripped Patriotism (even refused to attend the Philadelphia Convention as he feared it would lead to monarchy). So did George Mason. His Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) no doubt inspired his fellow Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, who studied the same philosophers as Mason did. So when Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence you could read some Virginia Declaration of Rights in it. So his Revolutionary credentials were solid. So when Henry and Mason opposed the new Constitution (Mason was a delegate at the convention but refused to sign it) it cast doubt over whether Virginia would ratify the new Constitution.
George Mason and Patrick Henry joined James Madison in fighting for Ratification of the Bill of Rights
Mason supported republican government. But he didn’t trust a large republican government. Not without a bill of rights. Which is why he refused to sign the Constitution at the convention. James Madison, the Father of the Constitution, argued against any bill of rights. For he did not think it was needed. For the Constitution enumerated the powers of the federal government. Citing specifically what it could do. And whatever wasn’t specifically enumerated they couldn’t do. Madison feared if they included a bill of rights that it could backfire on them later. For someone would argue that the Constitution stated the government can’t do A, B and C. But it didn’t say anything about D. So clearly the federal government can do D because it wasn’t included in the list of things it couldn’t do. Madison saw that if you listed some rights you must list all rights. Which changes the Constitution from forbidding the federal government from doing anything not enumerated to something that allows the government do whatever it wants as long as it is not listed in a bill of rights.
For some, though, a bill of rights was conditional for ratification. George Mason simply wouldn’t vote for ratification unless the Constitution included a bill of rights. Even Thomas Jefferson wrote Madison from Europe urging him to include a bill of rights. The tide of Virginian opinion appeared to be against him on the issue. And Madison needed Virginia. For if Virginia didn’t ratify the chances were slim for ratification in other states. Which did not bode well for the country. Because of how vast and disparate the people were. The northern states weren’t like the southern states. And neither was like the western territory. If there was no union the north would probably form a confederation. And being a maritime region they’d probably seek out closer ties to Great Britain and their Royal Navy. With some of the bloodiest fighting in the south perpetrated by the British and their Loyalist allies this would probably align the southern states to Britain’s eternal enemy. France. With two of Europe’s greatest powers entrenched in the east the western territories would probably align with that other European power. Spain. Who controlled the mouth of the Mississippi River. The gateway to the world for western agriculture. Turning America into another Europe. Wars and all.
Madison worked tirelessly for ratification. Working with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on a series of articles published in newspapers making the case for ratification. Later bound together into the Federalist Papers. And then changing his stand on a bill of rights. Promising to include a bill of rights as the first order of business for the new federal congress. This brought George Mason around. He even helped Madison on the bill of rights. Which helped tip Virginia towards ratification despite a fierce opposition led by Patrick Henry. But after ratification he, too, helped Madison pass the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. The Bill of Rights. Which Madison delivered during the first Congress as promised. And then worked tirelessly for its ratification.
Tags: Bill of Rights, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, enumerated powers, federal government, George Mason, George Washington, Henry, James Madison, Jefferson, Madison, Mason, Patrick Henry, Patriot, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Convention, president, ratification, republican government, revolutionary credentials, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginia Declaration of Rights, Washington
British Sea Power allowed the British to Remain in a Hostile Land for the Eight Years of the Revolutionary War
The American Revolutionary War began in April of 1775 with the Battles of Lexington and Concord. For years following these battles George Washington yearned to meet the British in a grand battle and defeat them. What he got instead was a lot of smaller battles that sent him in retreat. For despite fighting on the far side of an ocean the British had a large professional army. A vast merchant marine to supply them whatever they needed. And the world’s preeminent navy. The Royal Navy.
That sea power allowed the British to remain in a hostile land for the following 7 years. Allowed them to remain in New York. Allowed them to take the war to the South unopposed. It allowed them to move armies. And supply armies. As well as control the world’s sea lanes to maintain their commerce. The Royal Navy tipped the balance of power well to the side of the British. And perhaps it was their undoing as well. Trusting that their naval superiority would always be there.
British generals Clinton (superior in rank and resting comfortably in New York) and Cornwallis (junior in rank and chasing American armies in the South) did not see eye to eye. Their boss, Lord George Germain, Secretary of State for the American Department, didn’t help matters. It was his job to suppress the American rebellion. But he didn’t understand the country. Or the people. Thinking of America in European terms. He thought the Americans were no match for a professional European army assembled on the field of battle. And he was right. But the Americans didn’t fight the war like Europeans. Which proved to be a great disadvantage for the British.
With the French Fleet heading to Chesapeake Bay Washington Scrapped his Plan to Attack New York
General Burgoyne had a grand strategy to cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. A three-pronged attack that required General Howe (who preceded Clinton) coming up from New York. Germain approved the plan. And two of the three prongs proceeded accordingly. East through the Mohawk Valley. And south down the upper Hudson valley. Howe was to come up the Lower Hudson valley and meet the other two prongs around Albany. But Germain did not order Howe to do so. So Howe didn’t. Executing his own plans in Pennsylvania. Which led to Burgoyne’s surrender at Saratoga (1777). And the entry of France into the War (on the condition that the Americans would not make a separate peace with the British). The Spanish later (allied to the French). The Dutch, too. And an armed neutrality of the other powers who did not want to partake in the war and would not submit to the advances of the Royal Navy on the high seas. Making it difficult to blockade arms and supplies from reaching the Americans.
The first Franco-American actions proved disappointing. In fact a lot of public sentiment turned against the French. Especially after they abandoned an offensive action in Rhode Island. Leaving the Americans to retreat again. Then Cornwallis moved north. Toward Virginia. And there was another window for French cooperation after some action in the West Indies. And there was a French Army in Newport, Rhode Island, commanded by Comte de Rochambeau, a veteran of the Seven Years’ War. So he knew a thing or two about fighting the British. These forces arrived after Clinton pulled his forces out and returned them to New York. Which is where Washington wanted to attack with this Franco-American force.
Washington and Rochambeau drew up some plans. The French fleet coming from the West Indies commanded by Comte de Grasse was to support the attack. However, this was the battle Clinton was waiting for. And he was ready for it. Washington tested the New York defenses and found them formidable. And there was a British fleet in New York Harbor. Then he got a letter from De Grasse. Rochambeau had left him some freedom in his orders. Instead of going to New York he was heading to the Chesapeake Bay. Where Cornwallis’ army was. It wasn’t New York but it was still a British army. And he would have a large French fleet in support. Washington soon scrapped his New York plans. And looked to Virginia instead.
Cornwallis and Burgoyne lost their Armies because the British never Coordinated their Forces in a Unified Plan
Quickly and quietly the Franco-American force moved from around New York towards Virginia. They were across the Delaware River before Clinton knew where they were going. Or what they planned to do. They kept Admiral Graves in the dark as well. Who kept his British fleet around New York. Waiting to support the army when the Americans and French launched their attack on New York. By the time they figured out what Washington and the Franco-America force were up to it was too late. The French fleet beat them to the Chesapeake Bay. The superior French fleet repelled the smaller British fleet which returned to New York. Leaving Cornwallis on his own. As he faced an enemy that outnumbered him more than two to one. A force that numbered 5,700 professional Continentals and 7,000 professional French troops. As well as 3,100 militia.
Cornwallis was entrenched in Yorktown. With Banastre Tarleton (of Waxhaw Massacre fame) across the York River in Gloucester. As Cornwallis looked out at the gathering force against him laying siege to his army he saw the French on his right. And the Americans on his left. Their trenches slowly moving closer to his. Across the York the French were closing in on Tarleton. Soon the American artillery was within effective range. And George Washington lit the first fuse. It was over in less than a month. And included a bayonet charge led by America’s first Secretary of the Treasury, Alexander Hamilton. Recognizing the seriousness of Cornwallis’ position Clinton sent a fleet to help lift the siege. But by the time it arrived Cornwallis had already surrendered.
Cornwallis lost his army for the same reason Burgoyne lost his army at Saratoga. Lord Germain. Who failed to coordinate his generals in the American Department. While the Americans did. For most of the war the British had the superior army and the superior navy. Yet they could not win. Because these superior forces were never coordinated together in a unified plan. Opposition in Parliament forced Germain out of office after the fall of Yorktown. And called for the resignation of the Prime Minister. Lord North. Which he gave. A first for a British Prime Minister. The new government would end the war with the Americans with the Treaty of Paris (1783). Where the Americans did very well. And conducted separate peace treaties with the Spanish and the Dutch. As well as the French. Which the French were not pleased with. And they did not do as well as the Americans in the peace. Worse, they would find themselves in their own revolution within a decade. The American Revolution being a major cause of the French Revolution. By saddling France with an enormous war debt. And filling their people with the spirit of liberty.
Tags: American Revolutionary War, Americans, British, British Fleet, Burgoyne, Chesapeake Bay, Clinton, Comte de Grasse, Comte de Rochambeau, Cornwallis, de Grasse, de Rochambeau, France, Franco-American, French, French fleet, George Washington, Germain, Gloucester, Howe, Lord George Germain, New York, Revolutionary War, Royal Navy, siege, Tarleton, Treaty of Paris, Virginia, Washington, York, York River, Yorktown
The Scotch-Irish and Germans in the South had a connection to the Stuart/Hanover King George III
It turns out the first British general to lose an army on the field of battle to the Americans was the only one with a coordinated plan. General Burgoyne planned to separate and isolate New England with a coordinated three-prong attack. He’d attack down Lake Champlain and the upper Hudson. St. Leger would attack out of Oswego and head east along the Mohawk valley. With Howe coming up the Hudson. Bringing all three prongs together around Albany. And it may have worked if Burgoyne had overall command of British forces in America. But he didn’t. For there was no one in charge of all British forces coordinating their resources in a unified plan. So General Howe ran around Pennsylvania instead of going up the Hudson to meet Burgoyne at Albany. Downriver from Saratoga. Where Burgoyne surrendered his army.
Now Burgoyne wasn’t the greatest general the British had. But he had about the only grand strategy to defeat the Americans. For no one else tried to marshal Britain’s superior forces towards some strategic end. Lucky for the Americans as it gave them the time to survive through Valley Forge. Where they emerged as good as any European army. Which rebuffed the British when they turned to the Middle States. Cities they captured they eventually gave up and left for the Americans. And returned to New York. Where a large British force stayed ensconced throughout the American Revolutionary War. While another British force tried their luck in the South.
Things could have been different in the South. For there were a lot of Loyalists in the South. Especially in the back country of North and South Carolina. A great mutt of nationalities. Including a lot of Scotch-Irish. And Germans. Who had a connection to King George III. Who was the king of England and Wales. As well as Scotland, Ireland and Hanover. A German province. And family. Related to the British House of Stuart. Yes, those Stuarts. Who had ruled England for such a long time. And still do to this day. Thanks to their Hanoverian relations. So there was hope in the South for Britain. Made even more promising by the fact that these Scotch-Irish and Germans didn’t get along well with the local American governments.
Tarleton’s Waxhaw Massacre inflamed anti-British Sentiment and Turned a lot of Neutrals into Patriots
In truth once you moved away from the big cities the South was neither Loyalist nor Patriot. It was both. Depending on where in the South you were. In fact there was a lot of bloody fighting in the South that the British had no part in. This bloody fighting was between neighbors and families. Which is why it was so bloody. For civil wars are the cruelest of wars. Because of the vengeance factor. Whenever your enemy did unspeakable acts of atrocities to their former friends and family the retaliation was in kind. Or worse. It was an ideal environment to wage war in. A little overwhelming force and coordination with the Loyalist side could have paid large dividends for the British. Sort of like D-Day in World War II. The Allies dropped paratroopers behind the beach defenses to support the beach invasions. A multi-pronged British force could have done the same. Attacked the coastal areas while the Loyalists kept the Patriots busy, preventing them from joining the action in the coastal areas.
Instead the British won great battles. And captured cities. But the surrounding countryside was rife with partisan guerilla war. The British did not bring a large enough force to subdue the countryside. Or to protect the cities they won. Where Patriot leaders like Francis Marion, Thomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens and Daniel Morgan rode freely, making hit and run raids at will. While British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton lead a cavalry unit made up of Loyalists Tories. The Loyal Legion. (Mel Gibson’s character in the movie The Patriot was a composite based on these Patriots. And his enemy was based on Tarleton). And waged a cruel war that won him no love from those who had remained neutral in the South. Such as following the fall of Charleston. Tarleton set out to try and subdue the countryside. And met a force of some 300 Virginians commanded by Colonel Buford at Waxhaw Creek. When they met Tarleton demanded Buford’s surrender. He refused. They fought. Overwhelmed, the Americans raised the white flag. Tarleton’s men then killed the surrendering Americans by bayonet. Perhaps the cruelest act of the war. And from this came the battle cry ‘Tarleton’s quarter’. Meaning take no prisoners when fighting the British. The British win at Waxhaw secured much of the south for them. But the massacre inflamed anti-British sentiment. Turning a lot of neutrals into Patriots.
For the most part both the British and the American regular soldiers fought according to accepted rules of warfare. And committed no such atrocities like the Waxhaw Massacre. In fact, it wasn’t even the British who committed this atrocity. It was American Loyalists fighting for Tarleton. Part of that civil war in the South. Which grew ugly. The British and their Tory American allies were like Vikings. Doing a lot of pillaging. And not being very nice to the Patriot ladies. While their men were away they not only looted their homes but stole the possessions they were wearing at gun and sword point. And who knows what else. Acts perpetrated on no orders. But by the free-for-all in a land consumed by civil war. And once again the crueler the war the more it inspired people to continue the fight. While their men were away continuing the good fight their women were at home. Securing supplies for their Patriot men. And getting them to those fighting the good fight. Brave women these Patriot women. And heroes.
General Daniel Morgan’s Victory at the Battle of Cowpens was the Turning Point of the War
The ‘hero’ of Saratoga came south to take command of American forces. Horatio Gates. Who came in to take command just prior to the surrender at Saratoga. Where the battle was truly won by future traitor Benedict Arnold. And Daniel Morgan’s riflemen. Who would leave the military soon thereafter. After a long and distinguished career. But those in Congress gave the credit to Gates. As they did the Southern Department. Something General Washington was not in favor of. And for good reason. For Gates displayed a certain incompetence that put his army in danger. And suffered one of the greatest American defeats at the Battle of Camden. In the general route that followed Gates got on a horse and fled from the battlefield. And did not stop fleeing until he reached Charlotte. Some 60 miles away.
General Nathaniel Greene replaced General Gates in the Southern Department. He was who Washington wanted for the position in the first place. And Morgan emerged from retirement to join the department under Greene. Where they and those other Patriot partisans were causing all sorts of trouble for the British in the South. General Morgan was proving to be quite the problem so General Cornwallis detached Tarleton and his Loyal Legion to handle the Morgan problem. And caught up to him at Cowpens. Suffering one of the greatest British defeats of the war. (The final battle in The Patriot is based on the Battle of Cowpens. Though in real life Tarleton survived and returned to England, forever haunted by this great defeat). Which proved to be the turning point of the war. Setting the stage for another British army to surrender.
The failed British Strategy in the South allowed a revitalized American army to push the British across Virginia. To the coast. Where they were hoping to get support from the Royal Navy. Only to see the French navy. For the French had joined the American cause after the victory as Saratoga. And were now joining forces with the Americans under General Washington. At a little place called Yorktown. Where Cornwallis found his back to the water. And the French navy. While surrounded on land by a Franco-American force. And for the second time in the American Revolutionary War a large British army surrendered on the field of battle to an American general. Only this time “northern laurels” didn’t turn into “southern willows” as they had for Gates. The victory at Yorktown was only the prelude to an American win in the Revolutionary War. And the birth of a new nation.
Tags: American Revolutionary War, Americans, Banastre Tarleton, Britain, British, Buford, Burgoyne, Camden, Civil War, Cornwallis, Cowpens, Daniel Morgan, England, French, Gates, General Burgoyne, General Cornwallis, General Washington, Germans, Greene, Hanover, Horatio Gates, Loyal Legion, Loyalist, Morgan, navy, partisan, Patriot, Revolutionary War, Saratoga, Scotch-Irish, Southern Department, Stuart, Tarleton, the South, Tory, Virginia, Washington, Waxhaw, Waxhaw Massacre, Yorktown
The French claimed great Territories in the New World but they did not Settle them nor could they Defend Them
In the Age of Discovery the Old World discovered the New World. The Portuguese bumped into Brazil while sailing around Africa. And they stayed awhile. Which explains how the language from tiny Portugal is one of the top ten spoken languages in the world today. Because of Brazil. Population 205,716,890 in 2012. The Spanish pretty much discovered and settled the rest of South and Central America. Working their way up the Pacific coast of North America. And into Mexico, Texas and Florida. Because of this Spanish is now the 4th most spoken language in the world. The British discovered and settled North America east of the Appalachians between Maine and Georgia. They also settled parts of Canada south of the Hudson Bay. And some of the Maritime Provinces. Today English is the 2nd most spoken language in the world. The French also came to the New World. But they weren’t as successful. Today French is only the 10th most spoken language in the world.
The Age of Discovery was also the age of mercantilism. Which is why the Old World was racing to settle the New World. So they could establish colonies. And ship back raw materials to the mother country. And in Spain’s case, all the gold and silver they could find. Which they found a lot of. Mercantilism is a zero-sum game. To maximize the export of manufactured goods. And to maximize the import of raw materials and bullion. To always maintain a positive balance of trade. And whoever had the most overseas colonies sending raw material back to the mother country won. And as they expanded throughout the New World they eventually began to bump into each other. As well as the Native Americans. Who weren’t mercantilists. But hunters and gatherers. Like all Europeans were some 5,000 years or so earlier. Before they became farmers. Moved into cities. Where they took control of their environment. And became more efficient. Growing ever larger populations on smaller tracts of land. Which proved to be a great threat to the Indians. For when these Europeans took their land they also increased their numbers. Greatly. And this fast growing population had the latest in war-fighting technology.
Soon they were stepping on each others’ toes in the New World. The British and the Spanish north of Florida. The British and the French between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians. In New Brunswick. And large parts of Ontario and Quebec. A lot more territory was in dispute between the British and the French. And that’s because the French claimed so much territory in North America. Their claims included the lands around the St. Lawrence Seaway. All the land around the Great Lakes. And pretty much the total watershed into the Mississippi River. The French had profitable business in the fur trade. They used the rivers in North America for that trade. With a few forts scattered along the way. Where they traded with the Indians. But the big difference between the French and everyone else is that the French claimed the land. But they didn’t settle it. Which made the Native Americans tolerate them more than the other Europeans in the New World. But in the days of the mercantilist empires that was a problem. Because everyone wanted everyone else’s land. And if it wasn’t settled with large and growing populations, someone else was just going to take it.
The Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act of 1774 tried to make Peace with the Indians but Inflamed the Americans
And that’s what happened in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). The European powers came into conflict with each other over their North American territories. The British came out the big winners. And the French were the big losers. Losing pretty much everything east of the Mississippi to the British. And everything west of the Mississippi to Spain. The various Indian tribes fought alongside the various European powers. But it is the fighting on the side of the French that we know them for in this war. Where their fighting against the British Americans was some of the cruelest fighting in the war. For the Indians liked the non-settling ways of the French. While they didn’t care for the settling ways of the American colonists at all. Who kept encroaching on their hunting grounds. So at the conclusion of the French and Indian War the Native Americans were restless. Something the British were keenly aware of. And after the long and expensive war they just fought they didn’t want a return to hostilities. So King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Setting the border between the British American colonists and the Indian lands along the watershed of Appalachia. Lands where the rivers flowed to the Atlantic Ocean were the American colonists’ lands. Lands where the rivers flowed into the Mississippi River and its tributaries (east of the Mississippi) were Indian lands.
This did not go very well with the American colonists. For they planned to expand west until they could expand west no further. At the shore of the Pacific Ocean. Especially Virginia. Who wanted to expand into Kentucky. And into the Ohio Country (across the Ohio River from Kentucky). Before the Proclamation of 1763 could even go into affect the Indians rose up in the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country and Ohio Country. Where the British displaced the French. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763–66). A rather nasty and brutal war where the Indians killed women and children as well as prisoners. And the British used biological warfare against the Indians. Giving the Indians smallpox-infested blankets. In 1774 Parliament passed the Quebec Act. Which did a lot to further annoy the American colonists. Especially that part about extending the province of Quebec (the former French territory from Labrador all the way to the Great Lakes region) south into the Ohio and Illinois country. Many lumped the Quebec act in with the Intolerable Acts of 1774 which were to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. All these acts of Parliament and proclamations of the Crown failed in one of their main objects. Maintaining the peace on the frontier. One year later there was another shooting war in North America. And this one did not end well for the British.
The American Revolutionary War evolved into a World War. Once the Americans defeated a British army at Saratoga the French joined the American cause and declared war on Great Britain. Eager to get back their North American territories. The Spanish would join the French in alliance and declared war on Great Britain. Primarily to settle some old scores in the Old World as opposed to helping the American cause. They had the lands west of the Mississippi and control of that same river. They had no desire to see the Americans advance any further west. In fact, they wanted to expand their territory at the expense of both the Americans and the British. The Indians, meanwhile, saw the Americans as the greatest threat and allied with their two-time past enemy. The British.
The Indians were Little More than Bystanders while the Europeans Traded their Land with each Other
The war in the frontier lands of the West was as nasty and brutal as ever. The British coordinated their war effort against the Americans from their frontier outposts. Where they traded with their Indian allies. Some even paying the Indians for each scalp they brought back from their raids. And so the Indians crossed the Ohio River into Kentucky. Throughout the war. And attacked these frontier settlements. While the Americans fought a defensive war. Until one man arose. Who believed the strongest defense was a strong offense. And he took the war to the Indians and the British in the West. Saving Kentucky. And conquered the Northwest Territory.
George Rogers Clark’s plan for conquering the Northwest was bold. First take Vincennes (in southern Indiana near the Illinois border). Travel up the Wabash River. Down the Maumee River. And then on to Detroit. After taking Detroit head north to Michilimackinac (on the northern tip of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula). The Virginian authorities liked the plan. And commissioned him colonel in the Virginian forces. And authorized him to conquer the Northwest. For Virginia. So Clark led his men down the Ohio River. And traveled all the way to Kaskaskia near the Mississippi River in southern Illinois. Not far from St. Louis. Took it. And marched to Vincennes. And took Fort Sackville at Vincennes. Shortly thereafter Henry Hamilton (who had a reputation for buying scalps from the Indians), governor of Detroit, Left Detroit and headed to Vincennes. Gathering Indians along the way. Recaptured Vincennes. Then Clark returned and in one of the most fabled actions of the entire Revolutionary War took back Vincennes. Despite the British and Indians greatly outnumbering Clark’s force. Detroit lay open. But Clark did not have the men or provisions for that conquest.
Meanwhile the Spanish were looking to cash in on their alliance with France. And moved against British outposts from New Orleans. Taking Baton Rouge. Natchez. Mobile. And Pensacola. To turn back the Spanish Governor Sinclair of Michilimackinac gathered a force and headed to the Spanish outpost St. Louis. With the ultimate goal of taking New Orleans. It did not go well. The following year the Spanish launched an offensive of their own to take Detroit. They got as far as St. Joseph on the other side of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Around the bottom of Lake Michigan from Chicago. A lot of land changed hands in the Northwest. But thanks to Clark much of it remained in American hands at the end of the war. Who came out the big winners in this war. The British ceded all their claims east of the Mississippi to the Americans. Including all of the Illinois and Ohio country. Including Michigan and the lands surrounding the Great Lakes south of Canada. The French did not drive the peace as they had hoped. And recovered none of their North American territories. The Spanish emerged with pretty much what they had when they entered. Only with the Americans across the Mississippi instead of the British. Who were much more interested in westward expansion than the British. But they didn’t have to worry about the Americans crossing the Mississippi. For Napoleon strong-armed the Louisiana Territory from the French in exchange for some land in Tuscany. Who would later sell it to the Americans. While being rather vague on the exact boundaries. Which the Spanish would have to worry about in the years to come as the Americans headed west. Towards Spanish country on the west coast.
Of course the Indians were the greatest losers. For they were little more than bystanders while the Europeans traded their land with each other. Making the Native Americans ever more restless. And unwilling to give up their hunting and gathering ways. Which sealed their faith. For while they retreated west the American population exploded. Due to their efficient use of the land. It was the New World against the Very Old World. Modern farming civilizations displaced the hunters and gatherers everywhere in the world. A trend that started some 5,000 years earlier. And the history of North America would be no different. The Indian ways since then have been fast disappearing. The Indian languages were so rarely spoken in the 20th century that the code based on it was the one code the Japanese couldn’t crack during World War II.
Tags: Age of Discovery, American cause, American Revolutionary War, Americans, Appalachia, Appalachian, Britain, British, British Americans, Clark, colonies, Detroit, English, Europeans, France, French, French and Indian War, frontier, frontier outposts, George Rogers Clark, Great Britain, Great Lakes, hunters and gatherers, hunting grounds, Illinois country, Indian allies, Indians, Kentucky, Louisiana Territory, Lower Peninsula, mercantilism, Michilimackinac, Mississippi, Mississippi River, Native Americans., New Orleans, New World, North America, Northwest Territory, Ohio Country, Ohio River, Old World, Parliament, Proclamation of 1763, Quebec, Quebec Act, Quebec Act of 1774, Revolutionary War, Spain, Spanish, St. Louis, Vincennes, Virginia
The Declaration of Independence declared that Government should be By the People, Of the People and For the People
Tearing down the old order is one thing. Building a new one is something completely different. For there’s been a lot of tearing down throughout history. And rarely does peace and prosperity spontaneously follow. Which is something that no doubt weighed heavily on the minds of those who voted on July 2, 1776, to declare formerly their independence from Great Britain. What, exactly, were they to do next? The most powerful navy and army in the world no longer protected them. Instead, they were now the enemy of the most powerful navy and army in the world. Which meant they couldn’t protect themselves. Their international trade on the high seas. Or even protect their own people from each other. For if the British constitutional protections no longer applied to them, what did? Anything? Or would anarchy rule?
The Americans declared independence because they were not getting equal treatment under British law. Much of which they liked. The execution of it is what they had a problem with. That and the built-in privileges for some. And, of course, the established state religion. Which made many of them come to the colonies to escape in the first place. So there was a lot in British law they could use. And some that could do with a little tweaking. Which is something they could do now that they were starting from scratch.
They had just renounced the royal authority in their states. Which left these states without a formal framework of law. And the opportunity to make new law. Based on the principles in the Declaration of Independence. That government should be by the people, of the people and for the people. So when the Continental Congress adjourned after committing their high treason (declaring their independence) the delegates went home. Back to their states. To begin the building process of the new order.
The Vehicle for Peaceful Change of Government was and is the Constitutional Convention
Virginia was first. George Mason drafted their new constitution. And included a Bill of Rights. George Mason was a leading mind of the day. And produced a document that served as a template for other states. As well as other countries. It did away with privilege. And the state established Anglican religion. Among other reforms. In Massachusetts the process was a little different.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. He voted for independence. And supported the violent revolution that followed. For he believed when a government harms the people that these people have a right and a duty to abolish that government. But that didn’t mean a violent revolution whenever the people disagreed with government policy. Because that would lead to anarchy. And this was an issue that weighed heavily on the brilliant mind of John Adams. Who created the procedure of overthrowing a government without suffering through a period of anarchy. The vehicle for this peaceful change of government was the constitutional convention. Which provided the framework for the states to develop their constitutions.
The Massachusetts House appointed a committee to draft their constitution. When they finished their draft they submitted it to a constitutional convention made up of elected state delegates. Who approved it and sent it to the towns for approval. They rejected it. For it lacked a bill of rights. Among other required features. So they started the process again. They called another constitution convention. This one included John Adams. Who had just returned from France. He took an active part of the deliberations. And the drafting of the second constitution. They then submitted this constitution to the towns for approval. The towns approved it. And the state of Massachusetts had a new government. New Hampshire followed this process. As did the other states. But it just wasn’t in the American states. Nations throughout the world have adopted this process ever since.
The Founding Fathers gave their People Great Power and hoped their Religious Institutions would help them act with Great responsibility
Most colonies disestablished the Anglican Church. Including the taxes that supported it. And the oaths of Anglican faith required for public office. But that didn’t mean the states wouldn’t establish their own religions. Or force the support of it through taxation. Which is what Massachusetts did. Either for the preferred Congregational Church. Or any other Christian religion. As long as everyone attended church. For as the Massachusetts Bill of Rights states, “the happiness of a people and the good order and preservation of civil government essentially depend upon piety, religion, and morality…”
Of course the Quakers and Baptists in Massachusetts objected to paying taxes for what they saw as a violation of conscience. In Virginia the Anglican Church of England was still supported by the state. Supported by taxation. And the state penalized dissenters. Particularly the Baptists (something James Madison remembered well when later working for the passage of the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution). In direct violation of their own Virginian Bill of Rights. The Virginian Assembly would subsequently pass an act exempting all dissenters from taxation and abuse. Thomas Jefferson would take this a step farther with his Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom in 1786. A piece of legislation that he was particularly proud of. Even included it on his gravestone.
With great power comes great responsibility. The Founding Fathers gave their people great power. Representative government. And a means to overthrow that government. The constitutional convention. That they hoped their religious institutions would protect. And help their people act with great responsibility.
Tags: Adams, American, anarchy, Anglican, Anglican Church, Baptists, Bill of Rights, British law, Church of England, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, George Mason, Great Britain, independence, Jefferson, John Adams, Massachusetts, privileges, Religion, taxation, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom
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