How Christianity gave us the United States and made the World a Better Place

Posted by PITHOCRATES - December 31st, 2013

History 101

The Pope kept European Rulers from Oppressing their People lest they get Excommunicated from the Church

In 39 AD the Romans crucified Jesus of Nazareth.  Because they said he called himself the King of the Jews.  Or rather those with political power who felt threatened by Jesus’ popularity said this.  His death was to protect power and privilege of those who had it.  Ultimately, though, His death would do more to destroy power and privilege.  For the Golden Rule allowed people to live together in peace.  To build communities.  And to help one another.

Emperor Diocletian split up the vast Roman Empire into four parts.  The tetrarchy.  The rulership by four.  Each of the four parts had its own emperor.  When Diocletian stepped down from power those emperors began vying for power.  By 312 two emperors were in open war with each other.  Constantine.  And Maxentius.  On October 28, 312, they met in battle near the Milvian Bridge over the Tiber.  On the eve of battle Constantine had a vision.  The Christian God would help him win the upcoming battle if he placed the Christian symbol on his soldiers’ shields (accounts differ it was either the Chi-Rho sign or the Latin cross).  He did.  He won.  And became Constantine the Great.  Sole ruler of the Roman Empire.  And because of his victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge he began his conversion to Christianity.  Making the Roman Empire Christian.

Christianity spread throughout and united Europe.  And the Pope kept European rulers from oppressing their people.  Lest they get excommunicated from the Church.  In time, though, some resented rule from Rome.  In particular when Pope Leo X sold indulgences (a way to help purify one from sin) to fund the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome.  This was one of many problems that had many calling for a reform of the Church.  One in particular, Martin Luther, published his The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517.  Kicking off the Protestant Reformation.

Plymouth Colony succeeded when Communal Property became Private Property

Henry VIII, King of England, was a good Catholic.  But his wife wasn’t giving him any sons.  And he wanted a male heir.  So he asked the Pope for an annulment from his wife.  Catherine.  So he could marry Anne Boleyn.  The Pope refused.  So Henry left the Catholic Church.  And initiated the English Reformation.  Making England Protestant.  England would swing back and forth between Catholicism and Protestantism without being either but something in between.  Making a group of Protestants very unhappy.  As they felt the English Reformation did not go far enough.  A group referred to derisively as Puritans.  They were so hated that they were being persecuted along with the Catholics.  So they left England.  Landing in the Netherlands first.  Then they sailed across the Atlantic.  They sighted land on November 9, 1620.  They eventually came ashore and established Plymouth Colony.

About half of Plymouth Colony died within the first few years.  From disease.  And hunger.  The economic system they were using was killing them.  Communal property.  Everything the colonists produced belonged to everyone.  People produced according to their ability and took from the common store according to their needs.  A sort of Marxism.  Before there was even a Karl Marx.  To save the colony Governor William Bradford abandoned the idea of communal property in 1623.  Communal property became private property.  And the colony was saved.  As people worked twice as hard to produce more on their land than they did on communal land.  And because they did they replaced famines with bumper crops.  So instead of dying off the American colonies became the prosperous New World.

The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) came to the New World.  By the time it ended Catholic France lost its North American possessions to Protestant Great Britain.  To pay off the enormous debt of that war Parliament decided to tax their British American colonists.  Who made out very well in the conflict without the costs the British incurred.  But they did this without discussing it with the colonists.  Treating them as second-class citizens in the British Empire.  Who had no representation in Parliament.  Which led to anger over taxation without representation.  Leading to the Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773).  Which led to the Intolerable Acts and the Quebec Act (1774-1775).  Which led to the shot heard ’round the world.  The Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775).  Which ultimately led to July 2, 1776.  When the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence.  After a few revisions it was formally passed 2 days later.  On July 4, 1776.  Known forever after as Independence Day in the United States.

In the United States your Last Name does not Determine the Quality of your Life

The American Revolutionary War did not start out well.  As the British pushed them back with little effort.  Until Benedict Arnold (future traitor) did some superb soldiering.  Impeding the advance of General Burgoyne.  The Americans met him in battle for the last time on October 7, 1777.  On the second day of fighting in the Battle of Saratoga.  And won.  Forcing an army in the mightiest empire in the world to surrender.  Shocking the world.  And getting the French to take notice.  Who then entered the American War of Independence.  The turning point of the war.  And world history.  For France was anxious to get back what they had lost to the British.  As was Spain.  Who joined the conflict as France’s ally.  Turning the American War of Independence into a world war.  And a war of attrition.  As their new foes forced them to send British forces all around the globe.  Leaving fewer to fight in North America.  With a British public growing weary of the war in North America.

America won.  Eventually.  Taking 8 years until the Treaty of Paris officially ended the conflict (September 3, 1783).  And peace and prosperity followed.  Thanks in large part to Jay’s Treaty (ratified by the Senate in November 1794).  Which improved relations between Great Britain and the new United States of America.  And began a Special Relationship between two nations of a common people, culture, religion and tradition.  When the treaty expired there was a minor hiccup in that Special Relationship that resulted in war.  The War of 1812 (1812-1815).  But peace and prosperity soon resumed.  With the South having a larger say in the national direction thanks to the Three-Fifths Compromise in the United States Constitution (1787).  Giving the South greater representation in the House of Representatives as they counted 3/5 of each slave to determine their number of representatives.  As the North industrialized and immigration filled their factories and swelled her population the South was losing that larger say.  One thing led to another that eventually resulted in the American Civil War (1861-1865).

The agrarian South had more in common with feudal England than they did with the industrial North.  Rich landowners (the planter elite) comprised an aristocracy that controlled politics.  While peasants/slaves worked the land.  The South was holding onto the Old World.  Where there was power and privilege.  While the North was building the New World.  Though the South talked about states’ rights they used the power of the federal government wherever they could.  Such as the Fugitive Slave Act (1850).  When war broke out the South won most battles.  Until General Grant started his great advance down the Mississippi River.  With the Vicksburg Campaign (May 18 – July 4, 1863) culminating in the capture of Vicksburg.  And control of the Mississippi River.  Severing the Confederacy into two.  Pretty much guaranteeing a Union victory.  It was just a matter of time.  In the east the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863) also ended in a Union victory.  President Lincoln went to the Gettysburg battlefield for the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery there.  Where he gave his Gettysburg’s Address (November 19, 1863).  Which ended with “we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.”  And so far it hasn’t.  Remaining that shining city upon a hill.  The destination of people everywhere yearning liberty.  And a better life.  Where all men are created equal.  And your last name does not determine the quality of your life.

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Civil War Sesquicentennial and Memorial Day, Honoring our War Dead

Posted by PITHOCRATES - May 30th, 2011

Union Armies Advance along the Mississippi, Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers into the Confederacy

While General Robert E. Lee and his right hand, General Stonewall Jackson, won battle after battle in the east, the Union Army won the war in the west.  A West Point graduate and veteran of the Mexican War was an unemployed failure at the beginning of the war.  In need of commanders, the Union Army gave Ulysses S. Grant a command.  He jumped off from Cairo, Illinois, nervous and lacking self-confidence.  As his army advanced to Fort Henry, protecting the Tennessee River, he found the fort already had surrendered after a naval bombardment.  His counterpart was just as nervous as he was.  Filled with a new sense of confidence, he advanced to Fort Donnellson, protecting the Cumberland River.  Assaulted it.  And took it.  Opening the Tennessee and the Cumberland rivers to Union navigation.  Grant then took the Tennessee to a place called Pittsburg Landing.  Near a one-room church at a little crossroads.  Shiloh.

The Confederate’s finest general would meet Grant in the 2-day Battle of ShilohAlbert Sidney Johnston.  Who won the first day of battle.  But did not live to see the second day.  With Johnston dying the night of the first day, the attack was not pressed.  A mistake.  For the Army of the Ohio reinforced Grant that night.  And turned defeat into victory.  It was the first of the bloody, big battles that would define the Civil War.  Over 23,000 dead and wounded, stunning a nation that expected some Napoleonic battle charges, one army retiring from the field of battle and a victory parade.  Not four years of battles where they count the dead and wounded by the tens of thousands.

The Union armies advanced in the west.  General William Rosecrans won a bloody battle near Murfreesboro (called the Battle of Stones River in the North).  And then went on to take Chattanooga without a fight with some well executed marches, leaving the enemy on unwinnable ground.  So they abandoned Chattanooga.  Rosecrans followed.  To a career-ending battle called Chickamauga in northern Georgia, the Gettysburg of the West.  The Confederates exploited a hole in the Union line and sent the Union Army running all the way back to Chattanooga.  The only thing saving the army from annihilation was the great stand at Horseshoe Ridge on Snodgrass Hill by General George Thomas, keeping the door open to Chattanooga long enough to save the army.  With the Union army back in Chattanooga, the Confederates laid siege.  This time, they had the high ground.  If you ever traveled on I-75 near Chattanooga, you probably saw billboards for Lookout Mountain and Ruby Falls.  This is the high ground the Confederates held during the siege.

Lincoln Promotes Grant Commander of all Union Armies after his Successes in the West

Meanwhile, Grant was making progress down the Mississippi River, trying to cut the Confederacy in half.  And the biggest obstacle on the river was the impregnable Fort Vicksburg.  Sitting high on a bluff on a hairpin turn of the river.  It commanded the river.  As traffic slowed to negotiate the turn Vicksburg cannon could plink them out of the water.  Grant tried numerous ways to best Vicksburg.  Even building a ship canal through the bayou on the west side of the river.  Nothing worked.  So with the help of Admiral David Porter and the Union Navy, some gunboats ran the Vicksburg gauntlet while the army marched through the bayou.  They got south of Vicksburg.  Crossed the river.  And attacked.  First took Jackson, Mississippi.  Then marched back towards the river and laid siege to Vicksburg.  The fort fell on the Fourth of July.  A day after Picket’s Charge at Gettysburg.  And the day Lee began his retreat from Gettysburg.  With the fall of Vicksburg, Grant had cut the Confederacy in half.

They promoted Grant.  Grant promoted William Tecumseh Sherman in his place.  And left to lift the siege of Chattanooga.  Which he did.  And then the Union Army drove the Confederates from Lookout Mountain.  And sent them in a retreat that never ended.  Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to commander of all Union armies.  Grant then left for the Eastern Theater.  While Sherman and Thomas took over in the west.  Sherman advanced and took Atlanta.  A vital rail junction.  Then marched unopposed through Georgia to the sea.  Shrinking the size of the Confederacy into an island of Union-held territory.  He made the South “howl.”  And he made it hungry and in want of the necessities of life.  The war wasn’t over.  But the outcome was now inevitable.

Meanwhile, Grant now advanced with General George Meade who commanded the Army of the Potomac.  And followed Lee.  Looking to outflank Lee and force him onto some favorable ground for one last battle to end the war.  For his forces outnumbered Lee’s.  He just needed one open battle to end it all.  They soon squared off in battle.  Not on open ground.  But in a tangle of forest.  The Battle of the Wilderness.  Both sides suffered heavy losses.  But Lee no doubt sensed impending doom.  Where all the previous commanders retreated after suffering such losses, Grant didn’t.   He was relentless.  He took a lot of casualties.  But he inflicted more.  Worse, Lee had run out of replacements.  It was a battle of attrition in the bloodiest sense. 

Grant, Sherman, Lee and Johnston Win the Peace

This kicked off the Overland Campaign.  A series of bloody battles that pushed the Confederates back towards Richmond.  But it was a costly campaign.  Losses were high.  On both sides.  Lee, having been an engineer during the Mexican War, used his engineering skills in building defensive fortifications.  To even the odds against a numerically superior attacking force.  And did.  Grant’s bloodiest days were at Cold Harbor.  Veterans by then were writing their names on scraps of paper and pinning them inside their uniforms.  So if they fell in battle someone could identify their bodies and send them home for burial.  After the last assault, days passed before they called a truce to tend to the dead and wounded between their lines.  Most of the wounded by then had died.  One wrote in his diary presumably as he lay dying from a mortal wound.  When they found his diary, the last entry read, “June 3. Cold Harbor. I was killed.”

Though paying a high price for every inch of ground, Grant did what no other commander had done.  Push Robert E. Lee back.  All the way to Richmond and Petersburg.  Where his army was besieged by Grant’s.  The Confederacy had nothing left to give Lee.  Sherman had emerged from Georgia and was now attacking up the coast.  Lee broke from the besieged lines and made it as far as Appomattox Courthouse.  Grant had him surrounded.  They met.  Grant’s terms were so favorable that Lee accepted them.  Surrendered his army.  Ending the specter of a protracted guerilla war.  Sherman later met with General Joseph Johnston.  Who surrendered his forces after receiving favorable terms, too.  Lee and Johnston’s actions were followed by other commanders who laid down their arms and gave up the fight.  Even the feared General Nathan Bedford Forest.  Whose cavalry still ran at will within Union controlled territory. 

The war was over.  And the easy peace Abraham Lincoln wanted and discussed with Grant and Sherman before his assassination prevailed.  Not without a few hiccups.  But it prevailed.  Thanks to Grant, Sherman, Lee and Johnston.  There would be no guerilla war.  Instead, there would be reunification.  But still soldiers died.  The last being a Union soldier.  John Jefferson Williams, a private in Company B of the 34th Regiment Indiana Infantry.  Killed on May 13, 1865.  In a battle occurring after the official end of the Civil War.  The Battle of Palmito Ranch.  Ironically, a Confederate victory.  On the banks of the Rio Grande.  Near Brownsville Station in Texas.  Little over a month after Lee’s surrender.

The Civil War changed the United States from an ‘Are’ to an ‘Is’

Over 620,000 died during the Civil War.  It was America’s deadliest war.  A war that started with the cessation of the South over the issue of slavery.  That was the political reason for the war.  But that wasn’t why most fought.  To free the slaves.  Or keep them enslaved.  For those fighting the battles had other reasons. 

Some started out with thoughts of military glory.  But those thoughts soon vanished after their first battle.  Instead, what kept them fighting after that first battle was one simple thing.  They wanted to go home.  To the family they left.  To the life they left.  And the way home was through one bloody battle after another.  Which they fought with grim determination.  Accepting that the odds were not in their favor of ever going home.  But the war would end one day.  It had to.  After they fought enough battles.  And those still standing could then go home.  Of course, what that home would be like depended on the outcome of the war.

Before the war people identified their country by their home state.  Especially in the South.  People were Virginians.  Georgians.  South Carolinians.  They weren’t Americans.  We were a nation of united states (small ‘u’ and small ‘s’).  Foreign nations, when addressing the United States would ask, “Are the United States…”  After the war, they would start asking, “Is the United States…”  As the historian Shelby Foote said, the Civil War changed the nation from an ‘are’ to an ‘is’.  Singular.  Which is more the way the North felt.  The South preferred the ‘are’ interpretation.  So that’s another reason why they fought.  To keep the country like it was before the war.  The way their homes were.  So they could go home.  To the way it was.  For the North it meant keeping it an ‘is’.  For the South, it meant keeping it an ‘are’.

I want to go Home

Home is the most powerful force in the world.  When those soldiers pinned their names inside their uniforms before those ill-fated assaults at Cold Harbor, they were thinking of home.  Some would make it.  Many would not.  It’s what made them form ranks and charge into that withering fire.  Because that was the way home.

For every Grant, Sherman, Lee and Johnston, there are thousands of names we will never know.  Like the men who fell at Cold Harbor.  And all those who died in Civil War battles few will ever know the name of.  Or battles since.  Leyte GulfOmaha Beach.  The Hürtgen Forest.  The Battle of the BulgeOkinawa.  The Chosin ReservoirKhe SanhHuếFallujahKandahar.  And the list goes on.  So many battles.  And so many dead.  Whose last thoughts were probably a single word.  Home.

Many of us are fortunate enough to be home this Memorial Day.  Be thankful for that.  And think of those who never made it back home.  Think of them.  If you drink, raise a toast in their honor.  The bravest of the brave.  Who knew the way home was through yet another battle.  They may not have survived that last battle, but their spirit lived on.  And returned home.  Where it lives on.  Forever part of the home they once left.

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LESSONS LEARNED #16: “The military part of the military has been a success story. The Big Government part of the military has not.” -Old Pithy

Posted by PITHOCRATES - June 3rd, 2010

BIG GOVERNMENT DID NOT create the greatest military power of all time.  It’s not a top down success story.  It’s a bottom up success story.  You win wars by winning battles.  And you win battles with a rifle in your hands.  Those who matter don’t hear the clash of arms from afar.  They hear it from within the battle itself.

The successes of the military are due to the people who fight the battles.  They are not due to governmental bureaucrats.  In fact, you can say the fighting people achieve success despite the governmental bureaucrats.  I can give you a list of esteemed military personnel that would agree with me.  Here’s an abbreviated list:  George Washington and Robert E. Lee.   Of course, you can’t ask either of them because they’re dead.  But the history speaks for itself.  Their most difficult enemies were the politicians.  And the ones on their side.  Not the enemies’.

THE AMERICAN REVOLUTIONARY WAR was a lot like the Vietnam War, only without the Ho Chi Minh Trail.  Both had the mightiest military power in the world taking on a military lightweight.  Therefore, both used Fabian tactics.  Like Roman general Quintus Fabius Maximus, the underdog avoided major engagements with the enemy.  (Excluding the Tet Offensive, of course, which was very un-Fabian-like.)  Theirs was not to win.  No, theirs was not to lose.  For he who fights and runs away lives to fight another day. 

But the big difference between these wars was supply.  The Viet Cong and the NVA had the Ho Chi Minh Trail.  No matter how many of them you killed or how many of their supplies you destroyed, more just kept coming down that trail.  George Washington and his ragtag armies, on the other hand, were, well, ragtag.  Plead as he might for supplies the Continental Congress delivered little.  Including pay.  His armies were chronically under-supplied, under-fed and under-paid.  But still they carried on. 

When they took winter quarters in December 1777 on the barren hills on the west side of the Schuylkill River in eastern Pennsylvania, they had not received any supplies from the Quarter Master General since the previous July.  Now the winter at Valley Forge was not the coldest during the War, but it was cold.  Especially if you were barefoot and half naked.  And this was the condition of the average soldier.  While the British quartered themselves in the warm houses of Philadelphia and enjoyed the comforts of regular meals and warm beds, the Americans left trails of blood in the snow from their bloody, bare feet.  They slept by fire for warmth.  Shirts as well as blankets were lacking.  And there was a lack of food, for man and animal.  Hundreds of horses starved to death that winter.

But the British did well that winter.  Why?  Why did they have food, drink, clothing, blankets and forage for their horses?  Because not everyone felt the Spirit of ’76 as earnestly as others.  Thomas Paine, just before the Battle of Trenton a year earlier (at perhaps the low point of morale in the Army) wrote, “These are the times that try men’s souls: The summer soldier and the sunshine patriot will, in this crisis, shrink from the service of his country; but he that stands by it now, deserves the love and thanks of man and woman.”  There were no summer soldiers or sunshine patriots at Valley Forge.  They were in warm houses.  Well fed.  And making money.  From the War.  There were supplies, yes, but there were more profitable markets than Washington’s armies.

So while graft and speculation made some rich, the Army suffered at Valley Forge.  The Continental Congress did little for them.  The states did little for them.  They suffered that ordeal alone.  Together.  And they became better soldiers.  Benjamin Franklin wrote a letter of introduction for a Prussian captain, Baron Friedrich von Steuben.  He came with exaggerated credentials.  Franklin said he was a general under Frederick the Great even though he was only a staff officer.  And an unemployed staff officer at that.  But he knew how to make and drill an army.  And he did.  Washington held the Army together.  The men persevered.  And the army that emerged from Valley Forge could face any European army on the field of battle.  And they fought on.  And about 4 years later, General Cornwallis would surrender at Yorktown.

THE UNITED STATES offered the command of the Union Army in the American Civil War to General Robert E. Lee.  He declined.  He could not raise his sword against his own country.  Virginia.  So he would fight on the Confederate side in what they called the War of Northern Aggression.

There is an interesting exchange in the movie Gone with the Wind before war breaks out.  Rhett Butler is discussing the South’s prospects with his fellow southern gentlemen. 

RHETT BUTLER: I think it’s hard winning a war with words, gentlemen.
CHARLES: What do you mean, sir?
RHETT BUTLER: I mean, Mr. Hamilton, there’s not a cannon factory in the whole South.
MAN: What difference does that make, sir, to a gentleman?
RHETT BUTLER: I’m afraid it’s going to make a great deal of difference to a great many
gentlemen, sir.
CHARLES: Are you hinting, Mr. Butler, that the Yankees can lick us?
RHETT BUTLER: No, I’m not hinting. I’m saying very plainly that the Yankees
are better equipped than we. They’ve got factories, shipyards, coal mines…and a fleet to bottle up our harbors and starve us to death. All we’ve got is cotton, and slaves and…arrogance.

No.  The South’s prospects were not very encouraging.  And the North’s advantages would make up for her failings.  In time.

The American Civil War was not a war of Fabian tactics.  The First Battle of Bull Run (or the First Battle of Manassas as the Confederates called it) was a shock.  Casualties (killed, wounded and lost) were high.  About 4,800 in total.  No one had anticipated such carnage.  If that wasn’t enough to sober them up, then came Shiloh in the West.  This 2-day battle claimed about 23,750 casualties.  This exceeded the total of the Revolutionary War, the War of 1812 and the Mexican-American War combined.  By the time the Civil War was over, casualties would top 1,000,000.  Over 600,000 Americans would eventually die.  Including a president.

Why such high casualties?  A couple of reasons.  This was one of the first wars benefitting from the Industrial Revolution.  Better and more powerful weapons created more powerful armies.  And a network of railroads brought them efficiently to the battlefield.  Unfortunately, these armies still employed Napoleonic tactics.  Mass in formation, fire and charge with bayonets.  Rifled barrels, though, replaced smoothbore muskets.  This tripled the effective range of an infantryman’s weapon.  Improved cannon, like the Parrot gun, made cannon fire more devastating.  So, while they stood en masse and fired, and marched forward with bayonet, they faced a withering, accurate fire.  Before the Battle of Cold Harbor, life expectancy in battle was such that soldiers sewed their name inside their jackets.  Why?  They wanted their fallen bodies identified and sent home for burial.

Another reason for the high casualties?  Two of the best armies in the world were fighting each other.  American was killing American.  In the beginning, the Confederates had the edge.  Robert E. Lee and General Stonewall Jackson were displaying by far the greater competence in battle.  But that was in the east.  In the west, Generals Grant and Sherman advanced along the Mississippi River with dogged determination.

At the Battle of Chancellorsville, though, Stonewall Jackson would fall from friendly fire as he reconnoitered the front.  He lost his left arm.  Lee would lament that Jackson may have lost his left arm, but he had lost his right.  Jackson would subsequently die from complications of pneumonia 8 days later.  A couple of months from that, Lee would be in Gettysburg, the ‘high water mark’ of the Confederacy.  And after 3 days of battle, he would lead his defeated army back across the Potomac.  Meanwhile, in the west, Grant had just taken Vicksburg and, as a result, control of the Mississippi river.

Lee’s foray into Pennsylvania may have not been a wise move.  It was only the second time a Confederate army invaded the North (the last resulted in the bloodiest single day of the war – Antietam).  Battle in the north favored the North.  Shorter lines of communications.  Better network of railroads.  Coal mines.  Factories.  It was a bold plan.  But a poorly executed plan.  The armies came into contact, after all, because barefoot Confederate soldiers looking for shoes came into contact with dismounted Union cavalry.  That’s what was in Gettysburg.  Shoes.  That, and one big-ass road intersection that brought all those armies together.

Lee’s forces started the Battle of Gettysburg prematurely because of singular defect in the South.  Supply.  Lee faced the same problems Washington did.  The Confederate Army was superior to the Union Army at many times.  They often outgeneraled the North.  And often outfought the North.  But they took heavy losses.  As did the North.  But, as Rhett Butler pointed out, the North was in a position to replace their losses.  The South simply was not.  It became a war of attrition.  And the north simply outlasted the South.  And had the time to become a superior army. 

The problem was the very thing they were fighting for.  States’ rights.  The north was able to wage total war.  The South, try as they might, could not.  States had some warehouses full of material, but a state allotted its material stores for its own regiments.  A state may have had a surplus of shoes, but they held them for their own soldiers while others went barefoot.

The southern soldier suffered beyond human endurance.  Days would go by without food or provision.  Some would pick up horse droppings and pick out undigested kernels to eat.  When they broke out of the siege around Richmond/Petersburg, they marched for days to promised provisions.  When they reached the rail cars, they opened them to find unneeded equipment.  Not food.  But they still fought on, emaciated as they were.  Until they found themselves surrounded near Appomattox Courthouse.  When faced with the choice of surrender or guerrilla warfare, Lee chose surrender.  He saw one country destroyed.  He did not wish to see another.

WASHINGTON DID PREVAIL in the end.  Despite his government.  Lee did not.  In part because of his government.  All the while the soldier in the fight persevered through great privations.  But never gave up.  They fought, and died, together.  For God.  For country.  And for each other.  All the while, no doubt, cursing their respective governments.

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