Engine Block Heaters and Battery Heaters

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 19th, 2014

Technology 101

As Matter loses Heat it shrinks from a Gas to a Liquid to a Solid

There is no such thing as cold.  Cold is simply the absence of heat.  Which is a real thing.  Heat.  It’s a form of energy.  Warm things have a lot of energy.  Cold things have less energy.  The Kelvin scale is a measurement of temperature.  Like degrees used when measuring temperature in Celsius or Fahrenheit.  Where 32 degrees Fahrenheit equals 0 degrees Celsius.  And 0 degrees Celsius equals 273.15 kelvin.  Not ‘degrees’ kelvin.  Just kelvin.

When something cools it loses heat energy.  The molecular activity slows down.  Steam has a lot of molecular activity.  At 212 degrees Fahrenheit (100 degrees Celsius or 373.15 kelvin) the molecular activity decreases enough (i.e., loses energy) that steam changes to water.  At 32 degrees Fahrenheit (0 degrees Celsius or 273.15 kelvin) the molecular activity decreases enough (i.e., loses energy) that water turns into ice.

The more heat matter loses the less molecules move around.  At absolute zero (0 kelvin) there is no heat at all.  And no molecular movement.  Making 0 kelvin the ‘coldest’ anything can be.  For 0 kelvin represents the absence of all heat.  As matter loses heat it shrinks.  Gases become liquid.  And liquids becomes solid.  (Water, however, is an exception to that rule.  When water turns into ice it expands.  And cracks our roadways.)  They become less fluid.  Or more viscous.  Cold butter is harder to spread on a roll than warm butter.  Because warm butter has more heat energy than cold butter.  So warm butter is less viscous than cold butter.

Vehicles in Sub-Freezing Temperatures can Start Easily if Equipped with an Engine Block Heater

In a car’s internal combustion engine an air-fuel mixture enters the cylinder.  As the piston comes up it compresses this mixture.  And raises its temperature.  When the piston reaches the top the air-fuel mixture is at its maximum pressure and temperature.  The spark plug then provides an ignition source to cause combustion.  (A diesel engine operates at such a high compression that the temperature rise is so great the air-fuel mixture will combust without an ignition source).  Driving the piston down and creating rotational energy via the crank shaft.

For this to happen a lot of things have to work together.  You need energy to spin the engine before the combustion process.  You need lubrication to allow the engine components to move without causing wear and tear.  And you need the air-fuel mixture to reach a temperature to burn cleanly and to extract as much energy from combustion as possible.  None of which works well in very cold temperatures.

Vehicles operating in sub-freezing temperatures need a little help.  Manufacturers equip many vehicles sold for these regions with engine block heaters.  These are heating elements in the engine core.  You’ll know a vehicle has one when you see an electrical cord coming out of the engine compartment.  When these engines aren’t running they ‘plug in’ to an electrical outlet.  A timer will cycle these heaters on and off.  Keeping the engine block warmer than the subfreezing temperatures.

The Internal Combustion Engine is Ideal for use in Cold Temperatures

At subfreezing temperatures engine oil because more viscous.  And more like tar.  This does not flow well through the engine.  So until it warms up the engine operates basically without any lubrication.  In ‘normal’ temperatures the oil heats up quickly and flows through the engine before there’s any damage.  At subfreezing temperatures oil needs a little help when starting.  So the oil sump is heated.  Like an engine block heater.  So when someone tries to start the engine the oil is more like oil and less like tar.

Of course, for any of this to help start an engine you have to be able to turn the engine over first.  And to do that you need a charged battery.  But even a charged battery needs help in sub-freezing temperatures.  For in these temperatures there is little molecular action in the battery.  And without molecular activity there will be little current available to power the engine’s starter.  So there are heaters for batteries, too.  Electric blankets or pads that sit under or wrap around a battery.  To warm the battery to let the chemicals inside move around more freely.  So they can produce the electric power it needs to turn an engine over on a cold day.

Once an engine block, the engine oil and battery are sufficiently warmed by external electric power the engine can start.  Once it warms up it can operate like it can at less frigid temperatures.  The engine alternator powers the electrical systems on the vehicle.  And recharges the battery.  The engine coolant heats up and provides heat for the passenger compartment.  And defrosts the windows.  Once the engine is warm it can shut down and start again an hour or so later with ease.  Making it ideal for use in cold temperatures.  Unlike an electric car.  For the colder it gets the less energy its batteries will have.  Making it a risky endeavor to drive to the store in the Midwest or the Northeast during a winter such as this.  Something people should think about before buying an all-electric car.



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Melting Snow and Ice

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 5th, 2014

Technology 101

When Temperatures fall below Freezing Liquid Water turns into Solid Water

You know what the best thing about water is?  You don’t have to shovel it.  Well, that, and its life-giving properties.  Let’s face it.  We couldn’t survive without the stuff.  We couldn’t grow food.  We even couldn’t live without drinking water.  So perhaps its life-giving properties is the best thing about water.  But a close second would be that thing about not having to shovel it.

When it rains water soaks into our green areas.  It runs off driveways and sidewalks into green areas.  And into streets.  Where it runs off into a storm drainage system.  Which takes it to a river or lake.  The rain lets our gardens grow.  And any excess water conveniently just goes away.  We may have a puddle or two to slosh through.  But even those go away without us having to do anything.  Water is nice that way.  As long as the temperature is above its freezing point.

When the temperature falls below the freezing point of water bad things start to happen.  Liquid water turns into solid water.  And hangs around for awhile.  Accumulating.  On our driveways, sidewalks, porches and roads.  It’s pretty much everywhere we don’t want it to be.  Making it difficult to walk.  And drive.  We slip and fall a lot in it.  The sun may melt it a little during the day.  Creating puddles of water where the snow once was. But when the sun sets those puddles freeze.  And become even more slippery.  Making solid water more dangerous than liquid water.  So a big part of making it through winters in northern climes, then, is transforming solid water back into the liquid form.

Even though Bourbon melts Ice Cubes Bourbon would be a Poor Choice to melt Snow and Ice

All material can be in three different stages.  It can be a solid.  A liquid.  Or a gas.  What determines the phase of this material depends on a couple of things.  Mostly temperature and pressure.  And the chemical properties of the material.  At ambient temperature and pressure material typically exists stably in one phase.  Water, for example, is stable in the liquid phase on an 80-degree summer day.  Allowing us to swim in it.  While on a freezing February day it is stable in the solid phase.  Which is why we hold the Winter Olympics in February.  The cold temperatures give us the best solid water conditions.

If we raise the temperature of water we can turn it from a liquid to a gas.  We could also do this by lowering the ambient air pressure.  Such as putting it into a vacuum.  For a liquid remains a liquid as long as the vapor pressure (the tendency for particles to escape from the liquid they’re in) of the liquid is less than the ambient air pressure.  If we lower the ambient air pressure below the vapor pressure of the liquid we can lower the boiling point of that liquid.  This is why different liquids have different boiling points.  They have different vapor pressures.  Oxygen has a very high vapor pressure and requires a high pressure and cold temperature to keep oxygen in a liquid phase.

When we take ice cubes out of the freezer and add them to a glass of bourbon they melt.  Because the ambient temperature outside of the freezer is above the freezing point of water.  So the solid water changes its phase from solid to liquid.  It would follow, then, that pouring bourbon on snow and ice would help melt it.  Of course we don’t do that.  For wasting bourbon like that would be criminal.  Not to mention costly.  Even if you used the cheap stuff.  Making bourbon a poor choice for melting snow and ice.

Salt dissolves into a Brine Solution that lowers the Melting Point of Snow and Ice

We see that a material will change its phase at different temperatures and pressures.  Which is good to know.  But it doesn’t help us to melt snow and ice during winter.  For we can’t lower the atmospheric air pressure to lower the boiling and melting points of water.  And we can’t raise the ambient temperature above the melting point of water.  If we could our winters would probably be a lot more comfortable than they are now.  So because when we can’t change the air pressure or temperature of the ambient environment the snow and ice is in we do something else.  We use chemistry to lower the melting point of snow and ice.  And the most common chemical we use is salt.

To melt snow and ice salt needs heat and moisture.  The moisture comes from the snow and ice.  Or from the humidity in the air.  The heat comes from the warmth of the earth or air.  Heated by the sun.  It also comes from the friction between tires and the road.  When salt comes into contract with water and heat it dissolves into a brine solution.  And this brine solution has a much lower melting point than water.  Which in turn lowers the melting point of the snow and ice it comes into contact with.  Allowing it to be in the liquid phase at temperatures below freezing temperatures.  Melting that snow and ice so it can run off like rain water.

The warmer it is when it snows the quicker salt will melt that snow.  While the colder it is the longer it takes to melt.  If it gets too cold (around 15 degrees Fahrenheit) salt proves to be ineffective.  In temperatures below 15 degrees Fahrenheit other chemicals work better.  Such as calcium chloride.  But calcium chloride is more costly than sodium chloride (salt).  Ambient temperatures, time of day, sunny or cloudy, wind, etc., all determine the chemical to use.  And the amount of chemical to use.  They consider all of these factors (and more) before sending those ‘salt’ trucks out on the roads.  Allowing us to drive in the worst of winters just as we drive in the best of summers.  It may take more time.  And there may be a little more cussing.  But we still go to work, take our kids to school, go shopping, etc., when it snows.  Thanks to chemicals.  Chemistry.  And the people that put those chemicals and that chemistry to work.



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Triple Expansion Steam Engine

Posted by PITHOCRATES - November 6th, 2013

Technology 101

Pressure and Temperature have a Direct Relationship while Pressure and Volume have an Inverse Relationship

For much of human existence we used our own muscles to push things.  Which limited the work we could do.  Early river transport were barges of low capacity that we pushed along with a pole.  We’d stand on the barge and place the pole into the water and into the river bed.  Then push the pole away from us.  To get the boat to move in the other direction.

In more developed areas we may have cleared a pathway alongside the river.  And pulled our boats with animal power.  Of course, none of this helped us cross an ocean.  Only sail did that.  Where we captured the wind in sails.  And the wind pushed our ships across the oceans.  Then we started to understand our environment more.  And noticed relationships between physical properties.  Such as the ideal gas law equation:

Pressure = (n X R X Temperature)/Volume

In a gas pressure is determined my multiplying together ‘n’ and ‘R’ and temperature then dividing this number by volume.  Where ‘n’ is the amount of moles of the gas.  And ‘R’ is the constant 8.3145 m3·Pa/(mol·K).  For our purposes you can ignore ‘n’ and ‘R’.  It’s the relationship between pressure, temperature and volume that we want to focus on.  Which we can see in the ideal gas law equation.  Pressure and temperature have a direct relationship.  That is, if one rises so does the other.  If one falls so does the other.  While pressure and volume have an inverse relationship.  If volume decreases pressure increases.  If volume increases pressure decreases.  These properties prove to be very useful.  Especially if we want to push things.

Once the Piston traveled its Full Stroke on a Locomotive the Spent Steam vented into the Atmosphere 

So what gas can produce a high pressure that we can make relatively easy?  Steam.  Which we can make simply by boiling water.  And if we can harness this steam in a fixed vessel the pressure will rise to become strong enough to push things for us.  Operating a boiler was a risky profession, though.  As a lot of boiler operators died when the steam they were producing rose beyond safe levels.  Causing the boiler to explode like a bomb.

Early locomotives would burn coal or wood to boil water into steam.  The steam pressure was so great that it would push a piston while at the same time moving a connecting rod connected to the locomotive’s wheel.  Once the piston traveled its full stroke the spent steam vented into the atmosphere.  Allowing the pressure of that steam to dissipate safely into the air.  Of course doing this required the locomotive to stop at water towers along the way to keep taking on fresh water to boil into steam. 

Not all steam engines vented their used steam (after it expanded and gave up its energy) into the atmosphere.  Most condensed the low-pressure, low-temperature steam back into water.  Piping it (i.e., the condensate) back to the boiler to boil again into steam.  By recycling the used steam back into water eliminated the need to have water available to feed into the boiler.  Reducing non-revenue weight in steam ships.  And making more room available for fuel to travel greater distances.  Or to carry more revenue-producing cargo.

The Triple Expansion Steam Engine reduced the Expansion and Temperature Drop in each Cylinder

Pressure pushes the pistons in the steam engine.  And by the ideal gas law equation we see that the higher the temperature the higher the pressure.  As well as the corollary.  The lower the temperature the lower the pressure.  And one other thing.  As the volume increases the temperature falls.  So as the pressure in the steam pushes the piston the volume inside the cylinder increases.  Which lowers the temperature of the steam.  And the temperature of the piston and cylinder walls.  So when fresh steam from the boiler flows into this cylinder the cooler temperature of the piston and cylinder walls will cool the temperature of the steam.  Condensing some of it.  Reducing the pressure of the steam.  Which will push the piston with less force.  Reducing the efficiency of the engine.

There was a way to improve the efficiency of the steam engine.  By reducing the temperature drop during expansion (i.e., when it moves the piston).  They did this by raising the temperature of the steam.  And breaking down the expansion phase into multiple parts.  Such as in the triple expansion steam engine.  Where steam from the boiler entered the first cylinder.  Which is the smallest cylinder.  After it pushed the piston the spent steam still had a lot of energy in it looking to expand further.  Which it did in the second cylinder.  As the exhaust port of the first cylinder is piped into the intake port of the second cylinder.

The second cylinder is bigger than the first cylinder.  For the steam entering this cylinder is a lower-pressure and lower-temperature steam than that entering the first cylinder.  And needs a larger area to push against to match the down-stroke force on the first piston.  After it pushes this piston there is still energy left in that steam looking to expand.  Which it did in the third and largest cylinder.  After it pushed the third piston this low-pressure and low-temperature steam flowed into the condenser.  Where cooling removed what energy (i.e., temperature above the boiling point of water) was left in it.  Turning it back into water again.  Which was then pumped back to the boiler.  To be boiled into steam again.

By restricting the amount of expansion in each cylinder the triple expansion steam engine reduced the amount the temperature fell in each cylinder.  Allowing more of the heat go into pushing the piston.  And less of it go into raising the temperature of the piston and cylinder walls.  Greatly increasing the efficiency of the engine.  Making it the dominant maritime engine during the era of steam.



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Feedback Loop Control System

Posted by PITHOCRATES - October 30th, 2013

Technology 101

Living through Winters became easier with Thermostats

When man discovered how to make fire it changed where we could live.  We no longer had to follow the food south when winter came.  We could stay through the winter.  And build a home.  As long as we could store enough food for the winter.  And had fire to stay warm.  To prevent our dying from exposure to the cold.

There’s nothing like sitting around a campfire.  It’s warm.  And cozy.  In large part because it’s outside.  So the smoke, soot and ash stayed outside.  It wasn’t always like that, though.  We used to bring that campfire inside the home.  With a hole in the roof for the smoke.  And families slept around the fire.  Together.  Even as some fornicated.  To propagate the species.  But that wasn’t the worst part about living around an indoor campfire.

Your distance from the fire determined how hot or cold you were.  And it was very hot by it.  Not so hot away from it.  Especially with a hole in the roof.  Worst, everyone got colder as the fire burned out.  Meaning someone had to get up to start a new fire.  The hard way.  Creating an ember.  Using it to start some kindling burning.  Then adding larger sticks and branches onto the kindling until they started to burn.  Which was a lot harder than turning the thermostat to ‘heat’ at the beginning of the heating season and forgetting about it.  Then turning it to ‘off’ at the end of the heating season.

A Feedback Loop Control System measures the Output of a System and Compares it to a Desired Output

Replacing the indoor campfire with a boiler or furnace made life a lot simpler.  For with a supply of fuel (natural gas, fuel oil, electricity, etc.) the fire never burned itself out.  And you never had to get up to start a new one.  Of course, that created another problem.  Shutting it off.

Boilers and furnaces are very efficient today.  They produce a lot of heat.  And if you let them run all day long it would become like a hot summer day inside your house.  Something we don’t want.  Which is why we use air conditioners on hot summer days.  So heating systems can’t run all day long.  But we can’t keep getting up all night to turn it off when we’re too hot.  And turning it back on when we’re too cold.  Which is why we developed the feedback loop control system.

We did not develop the feedback loop control system for our heating systems.  Our heating systems are just one of many things we control with a feedback loop control system.  Which is basically measuring the output of a system and comparing it to a desired output.  For example, if we want to sleep under a cozy warm blanket we may set the ‘set-point’ to 68 degrees (on the thermostat).  The heating system will run and measure the actual temperature (at the thermostat) and compare it to the desired set-point.  That’s the feedback loop.  If the actual temperature is below the desired set-point (68 degrees in our example) the heat stays on.  Once the actual temperature equals the set-point the heat shuts off.

The Autopilot System includes Independent Control Systems for Speed, Heading and Altitude

Speed control on a car is another example of a feedback loop control system.  But this control system is a little more complex than a thermostat turning a heating system on and off.  As it doesn’t shut the engine off once the car reaches the set-point speed.  If it did the speed would immediately begin to fall below the set-point.  Also, a car’s speed varies due to terrain.  Gravity speeds the car when it’s going downhill.  And slows it down when it’s going uphill.  The speed controller continuously measures the car’s actual speed and subtracts it from the set-point.  If the number is negative the controller moves the vehicle’s throttle one way.  If it’s positive it moves the throttle in the other way.  The greater the difference the greater the movement.  And it keeps making these speed ‘corrections’ until the difference between the actual speed and the set-point is reduced to zero.

Though more complex than a heating thermostat the speed control on a car is pretty simple.  It has one input (speed).  And one output (throttle adjustment).  Now an airplane has a far more complex control system.  Often called just ‘autopilot’.  When it is actually multiple systems.  There is an auto-speed system that measures air speed and adjusts engine throttles.  There is a heading control system that measures the aircraft’s heading and adjusts the ailerons to adjust course heading.  There is an altitude control system that measures altitude and adjusts the elevators to adjust altitude.  And systems that measure and correct pitch and yaw.  Pilots enter set-points for each of these in the autopilot console.  And these control systems constantly measure actual readings (speed, heading and altitude) and compares them to the set-points in the autopilot console and adjusts the appropriate flight controls as necessary. 

Unlike a car or an airplane a building doesn’t move from point A to point B.  Yet they often have more complex control systems than autopilot systems on airplanes.  With thousands of inputs and outputs.  For example, in the summer there’s chilled water temperature, heating hot water temperature (for the summer boiler), supply air pressure, return air pressure, outdoor air pressure, indoor air pressure, outdoor temperature, outdoor humidity, indoor temperature (at numerous locations), indoor humidity, etc.  Thousands of inputs.  And thousands of outputs.  And unlike an airplane these are all integrated into one control system.  To produce a comfortable temperature in the building.  Maintain indoor air quality.  Keep humidity levels below what is uncomfortable and possibly damaging to electronic systems.  And prevent mold from growing.  But not keep it too dry that people suffer static sparks, dry eyes, dry nasal cavities that can lead to nose bleeds, dry and cracked skin, etc.  To prevent a blast of air hitting people when they open a door.  To keep the cold winter air from entering the building through cracks and spaces around doors and windows.  And a whole lot more.  Far more than the thermostat in our homes that turns our heating system on and off.



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Aircraft De-Icing Systems

Posted by PITHOCRATES - October 23rd, 2013

Technology 101

A build-up of Ice on Airfoils causes a Reduction of Lift and a Loss of Stability

In the classic movie Airport (1970) after the guy pulled the trigger on his briefcase bomb the plane suffered a massive decompression.  When Dean Martin got back to the cockpit he told the flight engineer to give them all the heat they had.  Because it’s very cold flying above 10,000 feet without pressurization.  That’s why World War II flight crews wore a lot of heavy clothing and thick mittens in their bombers.  As well as oxygen masks as the air was too thin to breathe.  The B-17 even had open windows for the waste gunners.  Making it very cold inside the plane.  Because the air is very, very cold at altitude.

There is another problem at altitude.  Because of these very frigid temperatures.  Water droplets in the air will freeze to any surface they come into contact with.  They can reduce engine power for both propeller and jet engines.  They can freeze on ports used for instrumentation and give inaccurate readings of vital aircraft data (such as engine pressure ratio, aircraft speed, etc.).  And they can freeze on airfoils (wings, rudder, tail fin, etc.).  Disturbing the airflow on these surfaces.  Causing a reduction of lift and a loss of stability.

Ice and airplanes are two things that don’t go together.  As ice forms on a wing it disturbs the airflow over the surface of the wing.  Increasing drag.  And reducing lift.  Causing the plane to lose speed.  And altitude.  If the ice continues to form on the wing eventually it will stall the wing.  And if the wing stalls (i.e., produces no lift) the plane will simply fall out of the sky.  In the early days of aviation pilots were highly skilled in flying their planes where there were no icing conditions.  Flying over, under or around masses of air containing water droplets in subfreezing temperatures.  Today we have anti-icing systems.

The most common Anti-Icing System on Commercial Jets is a Bleed Air System

One of the most common anti-icing systems on turboprop aircraft is the use of inflatable boots over the leading edge of the wing.  Basically a rubber surface that they can pump air into.  When there is no ice on the wing the boot lies flat on the leading edge without interrupting the airflow.  When ice forms on the leading edge of the wing the boot inflates and expands.  Cracking the ice that formed over it.  Which falls away from the wing.

Commercial jets have larger airfoils.  And require a larger anti-icing system.  The most common being a pneumatic manifold system that ducts hot air to areas subject to icing.  Which works thanks to a property of gas.  If you compress a gas you increase its temperature.  That’s how a diesel engine can work without sparkplugs.  The compressed air-fuel mixture gets so hot it ignites.  This property comes in handy on a jet plane as there is a readily available source of compressed air.  The jet engines.

As the air enters the jet it goes through a series of fast-spinning rotors.  As the air moves through the engine these rotors push this air into smaller and smaller spaces.  Compressing it.  Through a low-pressure compressor.  And then through a high-pressure compressor.  At which time the air temperature can be in excess of 500 degrees Fahrenheit.  It is in the high-pressure compressor that we ‘bleed’ off some of this hot and pressurized air.  We call this a bleed air system.  The air then enters a manifold which ducts it to at-risk icing areas.  From the engine cowling to the wings to the instrumentation ports.  Using the hot air to raise temperatures in these areas above the freezing temperature of water.  Thus preventing the formation of ice.

The Drawback of a Bleed Air System is Reduced Engine Efficiency

The bleed air system does more than just anti-icing.  It also pressurizes the cabin.  As well as keeps it warm.  Which is why we don’t have to dress like a crewmember on a World War II bomber when we fly.  It also powers the air conditioning system.  And the hydraulic system.  It provides the pressure for the water system.  And it even starts the jet engines.  With the source of pressurized bleed air coming from the auxiliary power unit mounted in the tail.  Or from an external ground unit.  Once the jets are running they disconnect from the auxiliary source and run on the bleed air from the engines.

There is one drawback of a bleed air system.  It bleeds air from the jet engine.  Thus reducing the efficiency of the engine.  And a less efficient engine burns more fuel.  Raising the cost of flying.  With high fuel costs and low margins airlines do everything within their power to reduce the consumption of fuel.  Which is why pilots don’t top off their fuel tanks.  They’d like to.  But extra fuel is extra weight which increases fuel consumption.  So they only take on enough fuel to get to their destination with enough reserve to go to an alternate airport.  Even though it seems risky few planes run out of fuel in flight.  Allowing the airlines to stay in business without having to raise ticket prices beyond what most people can afford.

To help airlines squeeze out more costs Boeing designed their 787 Dreamliner to be as light as possible by using more composite material and less metal.  Making it lighter.  They are also using a more efficient engine.  Engines without a bleed air system.  In fact, they eliminated the pneumatic system on the 787.  Converting the pneumatic components to electric.  Such as using electric heating elements for anti-icing.  Thus eliminating the weight of the bleed air manifold and duct system.  As well as increasing engine efficiency.  Because all engine energy goes to making thrust.  Which reduces fuel consumption.  The key to profitability and survival in the airline industry.



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Climate Scientists prove Weird Weather is Due to Manmade Global warming with Assumptions and Computer Models

Posted by PITHOCRATES - September 7th, 2013

Week in Review

Every night during the weather report I watch they show the high and low temperatures as well as the average and record for each.  And even though we are supposedly suffering the ravages of global warming those record high temperatures often reach back a long time well beyond the Nineties when talking about global warming became all the rage.  After the coming ice age became so yesterday’s apocalypse.  Some of these records go back close to a century.  So this being so hot is not a new phenomenon.  As it’s been really hot before.

In fact, it was once so hot for so long that it pushed back the glaciers from near the equator back to the poles.  Where they are now.  Now that’s some global warming.  And that was from 850 to 630 million years ago.  During the Cryogenian period.  Which was before Henry Ford mass-produced the automobile.  Before John D. Rockefeller made gasoline cheap and plentiful.  Before James Watt improved the steam engine and gave us the Industrial Revolution.  Before Abraham left Ur for Canaan (if you’re religiously inclined).  Before man began using stone tools.  Even before the human and chimpanzee lineages split (if you’re evolutionarily inclined).  Putting the greatest period of global warming (based on the melting of glaciers) long before any manmade global warming existed.  Yet the leading climate ‘scientists’ tell us manmade global warming is causing climate change like never seen before (see Study finds global warming raised likelihood of about half of last year’s weirdest weather by The Associated Press posted 9/5/2013 on CP24).

A study of a dozen of 2012’s wildest weather events found that man-made global warming increased the likelihood of about half of them, including Superstorm Sandy’s devastating surge and shrinking Arctic sea ice.

The other half — including a record wet British summer and the U.S. drought last year — simply reflected the random freakiness of weather, researchers with the U.S. National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and the British meteorological office concluded in a report issued Thursday.

The scientists conducted thousands of runs of different computer simulations that looked at various factors, such as moisture in the air, atmospheric flow, and sea temperature and level.

The approach represents an evolution in the field. Scientists used to say that individual weather events — a specific hurricane or flood, for example — cannot be attributed to climate change. But recently, researchers have used computer simulations to look at extreme events in a more nuanced way and measure the influence of climate change on their likelihood and magnitude…

All 12 events — chosen in part because of their location and the effect they had on society — would have happened anyway, but their magnitude and likelihood were boosted in some cases by global warming, the researchers said…

The different authors of the 21 chapters used differing techniques to look at climate change connections, and in some instances came to conflicting and confusing conclusions…

Thomas Karl, director of NOAA’s National Climatic Data Center, said the study provides “compelling evidence that human-caused change was a factor contributing to the extreme events.”

Have you ever seen the classic movie Office Space?  A movie that makes fun of the corporate workplace?  In it some hardworking computer programmers lose their jobs thanks to some efficiency consultants.  So they come up with a plan to slowly steal from the company.  By modifying the code used in the finance department.  Whenever they rounded off any financial transaction any amount that was less than a penny would drop into a bank account they set up.  The corporation would never see these fractions of a penny disappearing from the books.  And when these guys approached retirement these fractions of a penny will have added up by that time to help make their retirement more comfortable.  With the added bonus of knowing that they got back at the company that so cruelly got rid of them.  A brilliant plan.  But checking the bank account shortly after putting their plan into action instead of a penny or two in that account there was over $300,000.  A number so large that the company could not NOT notice it missing.  And indeed did notice it missing.  What happened?  The guy that wrote the program put a decimal point in the wrong place.  A mistake he said he always makes.

Funny.  But believable.  For who hasn’t made a decimal point error in their life?  Especially computer programmers.  Who create very complex computer models.  That crunch an enormous amount of data.  People have spent hours trying to debug an Excel spreadsheet that isn’t working correctly.  Imagine trying to debug a complex computer program that models climate.  Where there are no ‘right’ answers.  Just a bunch of ‘what-ifs’ programmed with ‘nuance’ to produce the results they want to see.  This is what passes for science in the global warming community.  Which is more wishful thinking than science.

I have a friend who deals with construction contractors.  And he always hated dealing with the controls contractors when their stuff didn’t work.  Delaying project completion.  Because he was at their mercy.  No one but they knew what was happening inside their programs.  And these people would blame anything and everything but their programming.  To avoid getting hit with costly liquidated damages.  So they had to spin their wheels eliminating all those other possibilities.  Until all of a sudden things started to work correctly.  No one could explain what had happened.  Why things just started to work.  But my friend thought the controls contractor just finally debugged their program to make it work correctly.  But he couldn’t prove it.  No one could.  For what happened inside that box that held their program might as well have been magic.   It was just indecipherable to anyone who didn’t write it.  I think about this when I hear about these climate models.

No one can possibly know what is going on inside the boxes that contain these climate models.  It is for all intents and purposes magic to the layman.  And probably black magic at that.  Input a thousand variables and the model tells us manmade global warming is destroying the planet.  But between those inputs and that output are a lot of assumptions in the program.  And all of those assumptions and programming are proprietary information.  We’re not allowed to see it.  Or understand it.  No.  We’re just supposed to accept their conclusion.  And change the world we live in because of it.

Greater climate change happened before man ever impacted the environment.  And computer programs can tell you anything you program them to.  While taking a lot of debugging to get them to produce the ‘right’ answer.  As determined by the people looking for a specific result.  This is not science.  This is politics.  On a grand scale.



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Heat Transfer, Conduction, Convection, Radiation and Microwave Cooking

Posted by PITHOCRATES - September 4th, 2013

Technology 101

At the Atomic Level Vibrating Atoms create Heat

We make life comfortable and livable by transferring heat.  And by preventing the transfer of heat.  In fact, once we discovered how to make fire our understanding of heat transfer began and led to the modern life we know today.

At the atomic level heat is energy.  Vibrating atoms.  With electrons swirling around and jumping from one atom to another.  The more these atoms do this the hotter something is.  There is little atomic motion in ice.  And ice is very cold.  While there is a lot of motion in a pot of boiling water.  Which is why boiling water is very hot.

How do we get a pot of water to boil?  By transferring heat from a heat source.  A gas or electric burner.  This heat source is in contract with the pot.  The heat source agitates the atoms in the pot.  They begin to vibrate.  Causing the pot to heat up.  The water is in contact with the pot.  The agitated atoms in the pot agitate the atoms in the water.  Heating them up.  Giving us boiling water to cook with.  Or to make a winter’s day pleasant indoor.

Fin-Tube Heaters create a Rising Convection Current of Warm Air to Counter a Falling Cold Draft

If you touch a single-pane window in the winter in your house it feels very cold.  Cold outside air is in contact with the glass of the window.  Which slows the movement of the atoms.  Bringing the temperature down.  This cold temperature doesn’t conduct into the house.  The heat conducts out of the house.  Because there is no such thing as cold.  As cold is just the absence of heat.

The warm air inside the house comes in contact with the cold window.  Transferring heat from the air to the window.  The atoms in the air slow down.  The air cools down.  And falls.  This is the draft you feel at a closed window.  Cold air is heavier than warm air.  Which is why hot air rises.  And cold air falls.  As the cold air falls it pulls warmer air down in a draft.  Cooling it off.  Creating a convection current.

To keep buildings comfortable in the winter engineers design hot-water fin-tube heaters under each exterior window.  Gas burners heat up water piping inside a boiler.  The heat from the fire transfers heat to the boiler tubes.  Which transfers it to the water inside the tubes.  We then pump this heating hot water throughout the building.  As it enters a fin-tube heater under a window the hot water transfers heat to the heating hot water piping.  Attached to this piping are fins.  The heat transfers from the pipe to the fins.  Which heats the air in contact with these fins.  Hot air rises up and ‘washes’ the cold windows with warm air.  As it rises it pulls colder air up from the floor and through the heated fins.  Creating a convection current of warm air rising up to counter the falling cold draft.

Microwave Cooking won’t Sear Beef or Caramelize Onions like Conductive or Radiation Cooking

If you’ve ever waited for a ride outside an airport terminal on a cold winter’s day you’ve probably appreciated another type of heat transfer.  Radiation.  Outdoor curbside is open to the elements.  So you can’t heat the space.  Because there is no space.  Just a whole lot of outdoors.  But if you stand underneath a heater you feel toasty warm.  These are radiators.  A gas-fired or electric heating element that gets very, very hot.  So hot that energy radiates off of it.  Warming anything underneath it.  But if you step out from underneath you will feel cold.  It’s the same sitting around a campfire.  If you’re cold and wet you can sit by the fire and warm up in the fire’s radiation.  Move away from the fire, though, and you’re just cold and wet.

We use all these methods of heat transfer to cook our food.  Making life livable.  And enjoyable.  When we pan-fry we use conduction heating.  Transferring the heat from the burner to the pan to the food.  When we bake we use convection heating.  Transferring the heat from the burner to heat the air in the oven.  Which heats our food.  When we use the broiler we use radiation heating.  Using electric heating elements that glow red-hot, radiating energy into the food underneath them.  A convection oven adds a fan to an oven.  To blow heated air around our food.  Decreasing cooking time.

There’s one other cooking method.  One that is very common in many restaurants.  And in most homes.  But real chefs rarely use this method.  Microwaving.  With a microwave oven.  They’re great, convenient and fast but fine cooking isn’t about speed.  It’s about layering flavors and seasoning.  Which takes time.  Which you don’t get a lot of when a microwave begins vibrating the atoms in the water molecules in your food.   Which is how microwaves cook.  Cooking by vibrating atoms in your food brings temperatures up to serving temperatures.  Unlike conduction heating such as in pan-frying where we bring much higher temperatures into contact with our food.  Allowing us to sear beef and caramelize onions.  Something you can’t do in a microwave oven.  Which is why real chefs don’t use them.



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Cowboy Coffee, Percolator and Electric Drip Coffee Maker

Posted by PITHOCRATES - June 26th, 2013

Technology 101

Done Right Cowboy Coffee is one of the Finest Cups of Coffee you will ever Have

The British love their tea.  They love it so much they call lunch ‘tea’ in Britain.  Their world stops when it’s time for tea.  As they place a kettle of boiled water, cups on saucers, milk, sugar and lemon on a tray and bring it in to a warm gathering of friends and colleagues.  Then prim and proper British gentlemen and ladies prepare their tea.  Sit with good posture.  And sip their tea with pinky extended.

The British brought their treasured tea to the New World.  And British Americans continued the tradition.  Until the Boston Tea Party and the Revolutionary War.  And the War of 1812.  Interrupting the British-controlled tea trade.  It was these events and a general dislike of all things British during those turbulent times that changed American tea drinkers into coffee drinkers.  Something we didn’t have to do with such dainty British manners.  As Americans were not quite as prim and proper.  Or refined.  Americans were more rough and tumble.  As epitomized by the American cowboy.  (Caution: The following clip from Mel Brooks’ Blazing Saddles has crude and sophomoric humor featuring cowboys breaking wind.)

Not quite the refined British tea.  Note the beverage they were drinking.  Hanging on the tripod over the campfire is a large coffee pot.  Where these cowboys make ‘cowboy coffee’.  Course coffee grounds go into the coffee pot.  Fill with water.  Place over campfire.  Heat water to just below a boil.  Carefully pour out coffee without stirring up coffee grounds from the bottom of the pot.  Enjoy.  Done right and it will be one of the finest cups of coffee you will ever have.  And something that really hits the spot on the trail after a long hard day.  Though not as refined as British tea it is just as comforting.

A Common Complaint about Coffee Percolators was that they made Bitter Coffee

Cowboy coffee can be delicious.  Or it can be horrible.  For temperature and brew time are critical in making coffee.  As well as the proportion of coffee grounds to water.  The proper temperature to brew coffee is between 195 and 205 degrees Fahrenheit.  This will release the oils from the coffee beans.  But if the temperature reaches boiling the coffee will be bitter.  So for good cowboy coffee you needed to put in just the right amount of ground coffee beans with just the right amount of water.  And keep the water just below the boiling point.  And once the coffee brewed you needed to drink it.  For sitting on the heat too long will just evaporate the water away leaving a strong, bitter, muddy water.

Around the time of the American Civil War we started using coffee percolators.  Where instead of placing ground coffee beans in a pot of water we dripped water through a basket that contained the ground coffee beans above the water.  In the center of this basket was a tube that went from the bottom of the percolator to the top.  We placed this percolator onto the stove.  This heated the water.  As the temperature rose the water expanded.  The water in the narrow tube expanded so much in that small tube that it pushed all the way up and out at the top of the tube.  And dripped onto the top of the coffee grounds.  Dripped through them.  And out the bottom into the heated water below.

This cycle continued over and over until the water in the pot started getting darker.  The top of the pot, above the tube, was a glass knob.  Which we could see through.  And observe the color of the water percolating up from the bottom of the pot.  When it turned to the appropriate ‘coffee color’ we removed the percolator form the stove.  And served the brewed coffee.  Using a stove, though, made it easy to boil the water.  Which would make the coffee bitter.  A common complaint about percolators.  As well as some coffee grounds that passed through the basket into the pot.  And poured into our cup.  But some preferred the full robust flavor percolating gave.  Even if it was bitter from overheating the water.

A Quality Electric Drip Coffee Maker can pour 195-205 Degree Water over Coffee Grounds in under 8 Minutes

Thanks to Nikola Tesla and his AC power Americans soon had electricity in their homes.  And a whole sort of electric appliances to use with that electricity.  Including an electric coffee percolator.  Which reduced the chances of boiling the water by controlling the temperature of the water.  There was a temperature sensor that shut off the heating element if the water temperate approached boiling.  When the temperature fell below the optimum temperature range (195-205 degrees Fahrenheit) the temperature sensor turned the heating element back on.  Making it easier to make a good cup of coffee in the home.  Until the Seventies came around.  And the electric drip coffee maker.

The electric drip coffee maker is a staple of most American kitchens today.  It is now the way we make coffee at home.  By heating water to an appropriate temperature and dripping that heated water through a coffee filter full of ground coffee beans.  Once brewed the coffee drips into a carafe.  Which sits on a warming plate.  Unlike the percolator which sent brewed coffee back through the basket holding the coffee grounds over and over again.  The electric drip coffee maker has a reservoir of cold water.  At the bottom of this reservoir is a tube with a check-valve.  Which allows water to flow only one way through the valve.  Past this check-valve is a horseshoe-shaped metal tube.  Attached to this metal tube is a heating element.  Past this metal tube is a hose that runs up to the top of the coffee maker.  And out through a spray-head onto the coffee grounds.

As the heating element heats the water in the metal tube it expands.  Because it can’t go back into the reservoir thanks to that check-valve the water rises up the tube and out through the spray-head.  As the water moves up the tube the siphon it creates pulls water from the reservoir through the check-valve into the metal tube.  When it heats and expands it rises up the tube to the drip-head.  And this cycle repeats again and again until the water reservoir is empty.  A temperature sensor turns the heating element on and off to maintain the proper water temperature.  Like the electric coffee percolator.  But the addition of a coffee filter prevents any grounds from ending up in our cup.  Also, a well-designed drip coffee maker can pour this properly heated water over the coffee grounds in under 8 minutes.  Another key to making an excellent cup of coffee.  Other advances include a timer.  Allowing us to set up the drip coffee maker the night before so we can have a freshly brewed cup of coffee first thing in the morning.  So we can grab a cup on the way out the door.  American style.  In a hurry.  Unlike the British.  Who stop the world when it’s time for tea.



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Residential Water Heater

Posted by PITHOCRATES - April 10th, 2013

Technology 101

When you Heat Water in a Sealed System that Prevents it from Expanding it produces Great Pressure

Most of us start our days with a hot shower.  If we’ve had a rough day we may relax in a hot bath with a glass of wine after work.  We don’t think twice about enjoying these things.  Because we take them for granted.  All we have to do is open a hot water tap.  And soothing hot water flows out of a faucet.  It wasn’t always like this.  Once upon a time we had to heat water over an outdoor fire and carry it to a tub.  Fully clothed.  Wearing shoes or boots.  Perhaps with someone helping us.  Today a lady can simply turn on the hot water after work.  Pour in some bath oils.  Undress.  Pour a glass of wine.  And settle into a soothing hot bath.  And let the stress of the day melt away.

This convenience is brought to us by our water heater.  That round tank in our basement.  Or in our utility room.  Which works similarly to heating water over an open fire.  And carrying it inside to a tub.  The difference is that we keep a tank full of heated water in our home to use at any time.  And instead of carrying it to where we want to use it we deliver it in a pipe.  That terminates at a faucet.  In our kitchen.  At our laundry tub.  And in our bathrooms.  Giving us hot water to wash our hands.  To use in our dishwasher.  To shave with.  And, of course, to shower or bathe in.

If you look at your water heater in your home you will notice something conspicuous by its absence.  A water pump.  Yet that hot water tank can supply water to an upstairs bathroom.  How?  Because of something that happens when you heat water.  It expands.  And when it tries to expand in a sealed system but can’t pressure builds up.  Like in a car’s cooling system.  If you squeeze the radiator hose when the engine is cool you will be able to compress the hose with your fingers.  Something we do before removing the radiator cap.  If the engine is hot and you squeeze the radiator hose you are not going to be able to compress it.  Because of the high pressure inside the cooling system.  Created from the water trying to boil inside a sealed system but can’t.  If you remove the radiator cap when it’s under pressure the water will explode out of the radiator in a scalding geyser.  Sending you to the hospital with severe third-degree burns.  So never, ever remove a radiator cap when there is pressure in the cooling system.

A Hot Water Tank does Two Things: it Heats Water and it Stores Hot Water

Hot water tanks come in two basic styles.  Gas-fired.  And electric.  There are others (oil-burner, solar power, etc.) but they are not as common.  The gas-fired and electric have their own benefits and disadvantages.  Burning gas requires air to aid with combustion.  And we have to vent the products of combustion outside of the house.  An electric water heater doesn’t need either of these.  And can therefore be packed away into a small utility closet in the middle of a house or apartment.  The advantage of the gas water heater is that it can heat water more quickly than an electric water heater.  So gas water heaters tend to be smaller than electric water heaters.  Electric water heaters have bigger tanks because it takes longer to heat the water.  So it heats and stores a larger volume of water to keep someone from using all of the hot water when taking a shower.  Whereas a gas-fired heater will be able to heat new water in time before someone else takes a shower.

A hot water tank does two things.  It heats water.  And it stores hot water.  An electric heater has one or two heating elements inside the tank to heat the water.  Something similar to the heating elements in an electric stove or toaster oven.  A gas-fired heater has a burner below the bottom of the tank.  The fire heats the bottom of the tank while the exhaust gas vents up through a pipe running through the middle of the water tank.  This hot exhaust gas heats the water in the center of the tank.  When the temperature of the water falls a heating element turns on.  Or a gas valve opens and a pilot light or an igniter ignites this gas.  After the temperature rises to the setting on the thermostat the heating device shuts down.

We make these tanks in layers.  The inner most layer is a glass lining.  Under this glass lining is a metal tank.  The glass lining is to prevent the metal tank from rusting.  (Also inside the tank is something we call a sacrificial anode rod.  Its purpose is to rust so the tank doesn’t.)  Around the metal tank is an insulating layer.  The final layer is an exterior decorative shell.  What you see when you look at your water heater.  Think of the tank as a coffee thermos that you pack with your lunch.  It keeps the coffee hot for an extended period of time.  Just like the insulating layer does on the water tank.

The Pressure inside a Hot Water Tank will push Water out of the Tank up to an Upstairs Bathroom

When we heat water it expands.  If it can’t expand it builds up pressure.  If it builds up too much pressure the tank can explode.  The escaping boiling water/steam turning the tank into a missile.  To prevent this from happening there is a temperature and pressure-relief valve installed at the top of the tank.  Running from this valve will be a pipe down the side of the tank to about 6 inches above the floor.  If the temperature rises too high building up an unsafe pressure the temperature and pressure-relief valve opens to allow this expanding water out of the tank.  Which brings us to how a hot water tank can pump water throughout a house without a water pump.

At the top of the tank you will see two pipes.  One bringing cold water into the tank.  And one taking hot water out of the tank.  To an open faucet somewhere in the house.  The cold water pipe enters the tank and extends to the bottom of the tank.  Bringing the cold water to the bottom of the tank.  As it heats it rises.  Bringing the hottest water to the top of the tank.  The hot water pipe extends down into the tank only a short way.  The bottom of this pipe is near the top of the tank.  In the hottest water.

A hot water tank is a sealed system with heated hot water under pressure.  Like a car’s cooling system.  Though not at quite at the same temperature or pressure.  But if you turn on the hot water to run a soothing bath after a trying day in an upstairs bathroom the pressure inside the hot water tank will push that water out of the tank and all the way up to that faucet.  And when this water leaves the hot water tank the city water pressure pushes more cold water into the tank.  Bringing the temperature of the water down.  Turning on the heating device.  Heating the new cold water inside the tank.  Causing more hot water to rise near the hot water pipe at the top of the tank.  Having hot water ready the next time someone opens a faucet.  Simplicity at its finest.  Using the physics of water and thermal dynamics to put hot water at our fingertips whenever we want it.  Without ever having to heat it over an outside fire and trudging it inside.



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New Paper shows Inverse Relationship between Global Warming and Coal-Fired Power Plants

Posted by PITHOCRATES - April 6th, 2013

Week in Review

In the Seventies they were scaring kids about a coming ice age.  And about air pollution so bad that we would one day have to wear gas masks when going outside.  The planet is a lot cleaner now.  And there is no talk about Americans one day having to wear a gas mask when going outside.  And that coming ice age?  Well, they were just wrong about that.  For what they thought was global cooling was actually global warming.  An easy mistake to make.  Because they’re both about temperature.  One just moves in one direction.  While the other moves in the other.  And unless you do something like record temperatures periodically how are you going to know which direction those temperatures are moving?

Then again, perhaps there was cooling then.  Before that cooling turned into warming.  For it now appears the reverse is happening.  A move from warming back to cooling.  Thanks to the Chinese and the Indians (see Climate forcing growth rates: doubling down on our Faustian bargain posted on IOP Science).

Remarkably, and we will argue importantly, the airborne fraction has declined since 2000 (figure 3) during a period without any large volcanic eruptions… The airborne fraction is affected by factors other than the efficiency of carbon sinks, most notably by changes in the rate of fossil fuel emissions (Gloor et al 2010). However, it is the dependence of the airborne fraction on fossil fuel emission rate that makes the post-2000 downturn of the airborne fraction particularly striking. The change of emission rate in 2000 from 1.5% yr-1 to 3.1% yr-1 (figure 1), other things being equal, would have caused a sharp increase of the airborne fraction (the simple reason being that a rapid source increase provides less time for carbon to be moved downward out of the ocean’s upper layers).

A decrease in land use emissions during the past decade (Harris et al 2012) could contribute to the decreasing airborne fraction in figure 3, although Malhi (2010) presents evidence that tropical forest deforestation and regrowth are approximately in balance, within uncertainties. Land use change can be only a partial explanation for the decrease of the airborne fraction; something more than land use change seems to be occurring.

We suggest that the huge post-2000 increase of uptake by the carbon sinks implied by figure 3 is related to the simultaneous sharp increase in coal use (figure 1). Increased coal use occurred primarily in China and India… Associated gaseous and particulate emissions increased rapidly after 2000 in China and India (Lu et al 2011, Tian et al 2010). Some decrease of the sulfur component of emissions occurred in China after 2006 as wide application of flue-gas desulfurization began to be initiated (Lu et al 2010), but this was largely offset by continuing emission increases from India (Lu et al 2011).

We suggest that the surge of fossil fuel use, mainly coal, since 2000 is a basic cause of the large increase of carbon uptake by the combined terrestrial and ocean carbon sinks… Sulfate aerosols from coal burning also might increase carbon uptake by increasing the proportion of diffuse insolation, as noted above for Pinatubo aerosols, even though the total solar radiation reaching the surface is reduced…

Reduction of the net human-made climate forcing by aerosols has been described as a ‘Faustian bargain’ (Hansen and Lacis 1990, Hansen 2009), because the aerosols constitute deleterious particulate air pollution. Reduction of the net climate forcing by half will continue only if we allow air pollution to build up to greater and greater amounts.

Let’s review.  The airborne fraction carbon dioxide has fallen since 2000.  And, as a result, global temperatures did not rise as projected.  Even though there were no large volcanic eruptions.  Which cause global cooling.  Tropical forest deforestation and re-growth are balancing each other out.  So that’s not a factor in this decline of airborne carbon dioxide.  Which leaves the sole remaining answer for the decline in airborne carbon dioxide levels as China’s and India’s explosion in new coal-fired power plants.  Yes, the wonderful air pollution from burning coal apparently cools the planet.  Like a volcanic eruption does.

Are you seeing the bigger picture here?  For a hundred years or so the Industrial Revolution belched so much ash, soot, smoke, carbon dioxide and sulfur dioxide into the air that it left black clouds over cities.  And a layer of soot and ash on everything.  This is why we electrified trains in our cities.  To keep coal-fired locomotives and their great black plumes of smoke out of the cities.  Was there a global warming problem then?  No.  That didn’t come into vogue until Al Gore started talking about it in the Nineties.  When the planet was doomed if we didn’t act immediately to reduce greenhouse gas emissions.  Despite only a few years earlier the climate scientists were warning us of the coming ice age.  Probably because of all that global cooling from our coal-fired power plants, steam engines and locomotives.

As oil, gas and electricity replaced coal-fired boilers everywhere (we even used coal in our home furnaces) all that pollution from coal went away.  And then came the Nineties.  And catastrophic global warming.  Just as China and India began to incorporate some capitalism into their economies.  Which they fed with electricity provided by more and more coal-fired power plants.  And as they belched all that wonderful pollution into the air the airborne fraction of carbon dioxide as well as global temperatures fell.  So I ask again, do you see the bigger picture here?

Yes, global warming is man-made.  At least this is what one can conclude from this paper.  And it is the climate scientists who made it.  By telling us to reduce all of the cooling emissions from our coal-fired power plants.  But, thankfully, the Indians and the Chinese still care enough about Mother Earth to pump those cooling emissions into the air.  And gave us a reprieve from the global warming apocalypse.  But if the climate scientists get their way they’ll bring on that apocalypse.  By pressuring China and India to stop putting those cooling emissions into the air.  And for the sake of the planet we can only hope that they don’t succumb to that pressure.



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