Thomas Jefferson wanted to keep the New Federal Government and Money Apart
Thomas Jefferson did not trust government. And he didn’t trust moneyed men. Because when the two come together they cause nothing but trouble. That’s why he hated and distrusted Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton wanted a strong central government. A central bank. And an economic system favoring merchants and bankers. With big city moneyed men financing the government in return for special favors.
This is why the nation’s capital isn’t in New York City. It once was. But one of the first deals the Hamilton and Jefferson camps made was the relocation of the nation’s capital to a mosquito-infested swamp on the Potomac River. A long, long way from the moneyed men in New York City. To try to keep the new federal government and money apart. To restrict the influence of the moneyed men on the government. And to prevent the government from having easy access to big money.
Why did Jefferson want to do this? Well, they fought for their independence from Great Britain. Which was a constitutional monarchy. Where some in Parliament were no friends of British America. And got the king to agree with them rather than the pro-British America faction in Parliament. Ironically, the Americans got help in their War of Independence from France. Which had an absolute monarchy. Whose king ruled with no check on his power. Both governments were in the big cities. London. And Paris. Where the moneyed men were. In the big cities. Allowing these monarchies to do a whole lot of mischief all around the world. And a fair amount of mischief inside their own countries. Because the money and the government were in the same city.
Government + Money = Corruption
Great Britain and France were forever at war with each other. And with other countries. Requiring a lot of money. Which they got from the moneyed men. In return for special privileges that allowed them to get ever richer. Of course the mischief grew greater as they fought a world war or two. Requiring ever more money. Which they got from, of course, taxing the rest of the people. Even those who could little afford it. And once this starts, once the government starts accumulating debt, that taxation will only get greater.
This is what Jefferson was worried about. And why he so distrusted Hamilton. The Founding Fathers were all gentlemen of the Enlightenment. Disinterested public servants. Honorable men who would never take advantage of their position in government for personal gain. Because for these men honor was everything. Some even fought duels to protect their honor. As Hamilton did. And died. Washington, Adams, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, Jay and Franklin were men of exceptional integrity. Men who could be trusted. But here is where Hamilton and Jefferson differed. Hamilton believed only men like them would ever enter government. While Jefferson believed that government service would one day attract mostly scoundrels and knaves.
Of course, Jefferson was right. For as the nation grew so did the size of government. And the need for great big piles of money. Which the moneyed men provided. In exchange for special privileges. Patronage. Lucrative government contracts. Etc. Big piles of money flowed into Washington. And favors flowed out from Washington. With many a politician getting rich in the process of getting rich moneyed men richer. Politicians who used their position in government for personal gain. Corrupted politicians. As government + money = corruption. Which is why politicians always leave office richer than when they entered office.
Power + Corruption = Tyranny
This is how it started. As the size of government grew corruption grew. Just as Jefferson feared. All that money flowing into Washington corrupted ever more politicians. Who were not gentlemen of the Enlightenment. But the scoundrels and knaves Jefferson knew would come. Who used their position in government for personal gain. Whose corruption grew so great it exploded federal spending. So great that taxes from the moneyed men AND the middle class were unable to fund it. So the taxation grew more aggressive.
The government created by the Founding Fathers had no income taxes. They funded the few things the new national government did with tariffs for the most part. People lived from day to day without any fear of the taxman. The United States even did away with debtors’ prison. Prison where people were sent who could not pay their debts. A relic of the 19th century. Sort of. For there is one debt people can still go to prison for not paying. Past-due taxes. For the IRS can take everything you have and imprison you if you don’t pay your taxes. And those taxes have grown great as of late. As the tax code has grown convoluted. Requiring businesses to hire armies of accountants and lawyers to comply with. So the government can help the moneyed men who help the government. In return for special privileges, of course. Leaving the masses dreading April 15. As they dread opening any letter from the IRS.
If you want to know what it was like living under an absolute monarchy just think of the IRS. People fear the IRS. Just as people feared the arbitrary power of an absolute monarchy. A king could take your property and lock you away. Just like the IRS. And if you spoke out against the monarchy the king could make your life really unpleasant. Just like the IRS. During the 2012 election the IRS targeted conservative political groups to stifle their free speech. Delayed their tax-exempt status approval. And harassed them with costly tax audits. And now their tyranny has extended to people in the middle class. Who unbeknownst to them had a family member owe the federal government. Years earlier. Even a generation earlier. And the IRS is arbitrarily seizing the tax refunds from these debtors’ distant relatives to pay these debts. Even though they are in no way responsible for these debts. And the government has no documentation for this debt. Doesn’t matter. Because they have the power to do this. And these people are powerless to stop them. Just like people living under an absolute monarchy were powerless to stop their king from doing anything to them. And this is what Jefferson feared. For after corruption comes tyranny. For power + corruption = tyranny. (Just look at every tin-pot dictator that has oppressed his people). Which is why people fear the IRS. And the federal government the IRS is beholden to. Because they have become everything Jefferson feared they would.
Tags: absolute monarchy, Alexander Hamilton, British America, central government, corruption, debt, Enlightenment, favors, federal government, Founding Fathers, France, gentlemen, Great Britain, Hamilton, honor, IRS, Jefferson, king, knaves, middle class, monarchy, money, moneyed men, Parliament, personal gain, politician, power, privileges, scoundrels, special favors, special privileges, tax refund, taxation, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, tyranny, Washington
Because the Romans debased their Silver Coin they Required the People to Pay their Taxes in Gold or in Kind
High government spending caused the fall of the Roman Empire. When the Roman Empire no longer expanded through military conquest it could no longer use the spoils of war to pay for the cost of empire. Which presented some fiscal problems. As the empire was never bigger. Covering most of the civilized world. Which they needed to protect with a vast army. And governed through a vast bureaucracy. Both of which cost lots of money. Lots and lots of money.
So how did they replace the spoils of war? Taxes, of course. Starting small. And growing lager. To pay for the cost of the expanding state. Government bureaucrats. City improvements. Food for the poor. Food for the army. And, of course, the mighty Roman legions. Later, as citizens avoided serving in the Roman legions, the Romans turned to hired mercenaries to guard the frontier. And the problem with sprawling empires? They have very long borders to protect. And that ain’t cheap.
To help pay for all of this the Romans turned to some bad monetary policy. In addition to taxation. Because their tax revenue just wasn’t enough. So they started debasing their silver coins. Putting more and more lead into the coins. And less and less silver. But this caused another problem. Inflation. As the currency became worth less it took more of it to buy anything. So prices rose. Making the silver coin pretty much worthless for taxes. So the Romans required that people to pay their taxes in gold. Or in kind. If you grew wheat you gave a percentage of your harvest to the state. If you made shoes you gave a percentage of all the shoes you manufactured to the state.
A King ruled over the Landed Aristocracy who Lived the Good Life as long as they were Loyal to their King and paid their Taxes
As the tax burden grew small business declined. Small farmers and manufacturers said enough was enough. They were working more for the state than for themselves. So they quit their businesses and worked for someone else. Because it was easier. But this caused another problem for the Romans. No one was making the stuff the Roman Empire needed anymore. Food and manufactured goods were becoming scarce. Which made it difficult to maintain their armies on the frontier. And to provide the massive welfare state in the cities. So the Romans addressed this problem with new laws.
If you didn’t like working your farm or your business and giving all the proceeds to the state, tough. You no longer had a choice. And neither did your children. If you made shoes you were going to continue to make shoes. And when you no longer could make shoes your children would continue in the trade. Those working on farms became attached to the land. And could never leave. Regardless of who owned the farm. If you farmed you would forever farm. As would your children born on that land. Allowing the landowners to raise their crops. And pay their taxes.
So this led to a few rich landowners. And impoverished masses working the land. Sound familiar? This would evolve into European feudalism. Medieval manors. The landed aristocracy (the few). Peasantry (the many). And, of course, kings (the one). The basis of medieval governance. Lasting thousands of years. Where a king would rise to rule over the landed aristocracy. Who he allowed to live the good life as long as they were loyal to their king. And paid their taxes. The nobility received certain privileges for this arrangement. While the peasantry considered themselves lucky if they didn’t die from hunger. And everyone lived happily ever after. If you were lucky enough to be the one. Or the few.
Representation without Taxation allows Government to Spend as Irresponsibly as They Please
Up until the 1200s a lot of France belonged to England. Or, rather, the English nobility. The barons. But King John changed all of that. For he liked to do what kings are wont to do. Conquer. And he tried to conquer a lot. Only he wasn’t very good at it. He blew a lot of the nobility’s taxes on failed adventures. And lost a large chunk of France in the process. So the taxpayers, the ones bearing the brunt of the king’s follies, reigned in King John’s powers. The barons made John place his great seal on Magna Carta at Runnymede in 1215. Which didn’t do a whole lot at the time. But it ushered in the era of representative government. And taxation only with representation.
England would become a constitutional monarchy with Parliament to limit the power of the king. To sit in Parliament you had to have skin in the game. That is, you had to be a taxpayer. For this was taxation with representation. Where those paying the taxes had a say in how the government spent those taxes. And only those who paid the taxes. To keep governments from irresponsibly spending those taxes. A new system of governance that changed the world. One that once people experienced they demanded for themselves. As the American colonists demanded. When Great Britain wanted to tax the Americans even though they had no say in how the British government spent that money. Something very un-English. And something that would become very un-American (which led to American independence).
For awhile, at least. For soon governments found a way to return to their dictatorial ways. By getting around that annoying taxation only with representation. Which governments found insulting to their privileged status. For it galled them that they had to let these taxpayers limit their powers. But what choice did they have? Governments must take money from others to establish their nobility. As it was no longer their divine right to take what they wanted. Thanks to those barons in 1215. And Magna Carta. Which opened the sluice gates to a lot of limitations on absolute power. But two can play at that game they found.
Their answer? Representation without taxation. Allow people to vote who have no skin in the game. To help the government take what they want. And to spend it as they wish. By simply giving those who don’t pay taxes government benefits. Who will always vote for those who promise to give them more government benefits. And if you get enough people on these government benefits you can overcome any limitations the taxpayers try to enforce on you. Currently in the U.S about half of the population pays no income taxes. While the top 10% of all earners pay approximately 70% of all federal income taxes. So you have approximately 50% of the population who pay no taxes voting on tax policy for the 10% who pay most of the taxes. Allowing government to spend as irresponsibly as they please. Like in pre-Magna Carta days. Thanks to representation without taxation.
Tags: barons, Britain, England, English, feudalism, France, government benefits, government spending, Great Britain, king, King John, landed aristocracy, landowners, Magna Carta, no taxation without representation, nobility, Parliament, peasantry, privileges, representation without taxation, representative government, Roman Empire, silver coin, skin in the game, spoils of war, taxation, taxation only with representation, taxes, taxpayer
Week in Review
Raising a family is expensive. Once upon a time you could do it on one income. But now with huge welfare states requiring heavy taxation one income rarely cuts it anymore. It takes two. Childcare. And more cooperative employers. For without all of this young people just won’t be able to afford to raise a family (see Survey: 50% couples not have babies because ‘Money No Enough’ posted 10/6/2012 on TR Emeritus).
According to a recent survey conducted by voluntary welfare organisation ‘I Love Children’, about 1 in 2 couples (50%) said not having enough finances is the main reason for not having children…
‘I Love Children’ is a voluntary welfare organization set up in September 2005 with a purpose of keeping Singapore young — by advocating a higher priority to having children, and promoting a society where children are loved and mainstreamed. It hopes to inculcate the value and importance of parenthood and family among Singaporeans, as well as encourage a children-friendly environment in Singapore.
To keep Singapore young. All nations would like to keep their nations young. To have an expanding population growth rate. So they have more young workers entering the workforce than older workers leaving the workforce. Why? To avoid the financial crises they’re having in Europe. Japan. The U.S. And like they will probably soon have in China. Where all of these nations have an aging population. Where more people are leaving the workforce while fewer are entering it to replace them. So the tax base is shrinking. As is tax revenue. And this at a time when government spending on pensions and health care for the elderly is rising. Which means fewer and fewer people will have to support more elderly people in their retirement. As the tax base dwindles governments replace that lost revenue with more and more borrowing. Leading to those financial crises.
At the dialogue session, 26-year-old Ms Gillian Neo, said, “Currently, infant care in Singapore is still quite expensive. Even the more affordable ones, after government subsidies, is still $700 a month…”
During the the dialogue session, young parents also said that flexi-work arrangements are a major incentive as that will enable them to spend more time with their children…
However, there is still a lot of resistance in the mentality of some of the management of companies towards this mode of working.
“I was offered a full-time work from home arrangement with my previous employer… Six months into it, it really fell flat on the ground. One of the reasons was my immediate supervisor was really not supportive of the arrangement,” said Mandy Loh, a freelance writer…
She said, “In fact, there have been studies done by the employers federation, for instance, to show that for every dollar spent on flexi-work options, the return is S$1.68.”
Madam Halimah also suggested that flexi-work arrangements could be used to attract people to work for SMEs [small and medium-sized enterprise], which are currently facing a labour crunch.
The problem is not lack of affordable childcare. The problem is that a high level of taxation (often to support an aging population) requires two incomes to raise a family. Children are not supposed to be a nuisance that we dump off at childcare while we go to work. They should be raised in a loving family with a full time stay-at-home parent. A role typically filled by the mother. The CEO of the house. While the husband works full time to pay the bills. Parenting is a team. It takes two to raise a family. A mother and a father. Not a childcare facility. And, no, this isn’t discriminatory to women because they can’t have a career and be a mother. It’s what’s best for the children.
The working mom also comes with some baggage. Especially if she is a key person on a project. Because a snow day may pull her out of the office when they call an emergency meeting. If a child falls ill she may be out of the office for a few critical days of the project. If a meeting runs long because of a crisis she will still have to leave at 4:00 PM to pick up her kids from daycare. If a project requires an emergency trip to another state she will not be able to go. School holidays and half-days will take her out of the office, too. These aren’t hypotheticals. Many of us have probably experienced this in the workplace. This is why employers are reluctant to hire single moms or single dads. And a little reluctant to hire a married mom with young kids. Because it is often the mother and not the father that will miss work for the kids. As the father’s career will be more established because of less time missed for the birth of their children. It’s not unfair. Men and women are just different. Women give birth. Men don’t.
Emphasizing a woman’s career over her children has put more women into the workforce. Which has allowed greater government spending. This is why governments want state-provided childcare. Because they want to get women back into the workforce as quickly as possible so they can resume paying taxes. Which governments can never seem to collect enough of with an aging population. Making it ever more difficult for young people to have the children governments want them to have. To bring new taxpayers into the workforce. So bringing women into the workforce probably hurts in the long run more than it helps. For it allows the government to spend more. But it also discourages young people from raising families. Leading to fewer children. An aging population. And a shrinking tax base. Which will probably be made up with more government borrowing. As more nations join those in Europe, Japan, the U.S. and probably China who are suffering from the pressure of aging populations. And the financial crises they cause.
Tags: affordable childcare, aging population, borrowing, childcare, children, elderly, expanding population growth rate, family, father, financial crises, government spending, mother, older workers, raising a family, retirement, Singapore, tax base, tax revenue, taxation, taxes, workforce, working mom, young workers
Funny thing about the Americans is that they just didn’t Like Paying Taxes
United we stood. For awhile. Until we defeated the British at Yorktown. And negotiated the Treaty of Paris where Great Britain recognized our independence from the British Crown. But people grew weary of the war. On both sides of the Atlantic. And those in the once united states (small ‘u’ and small ‘s’) were eager to retreat to their states. And forget about the Continental Congress. The Continental Army. And everything to do with the confederation. Threatening to undo everything they fought for. Because of their sectional interests.
Shays Rebellion nearly pushed the country into anarchy. It was the tipping point. They had to do something. Because if they weren’t united they would surely fall. They owed Europe a fortune that they had no hope of repaying. Funny thing about the Americans. They just didn’t like paying taxes. Making it difficult to repay their debts. The Europeans gave them little respect. France tried to sell them out during the peace talks to rebalance the balance of power in their favor. Spain wanted to keep them east of the Mississippi River. And off of the Mississippi. Even refused them passage through the Port of New Orleans. Britain didn’t evacuate their western forts. The Barbary pirates were capturing American shipping in the Mediterranean and selling their crews into slavery. And Catherine the Great of Russia wouldn’t even meet the American ambassador. So the Americans were the Rodney Dangerfield of nations. They got no respect.
In 1787 delegates gathered in Philadelphia. To revise the Articles of Confederation to address these problems. Some enthusiastically. Some begrudgingly. While one state refused to attend. Rhode Island. For they were quite happy with the way things were. As the smallest sate in the union they had the power to kill almost any legislation that didn’t benefit Rhode Island. For some legislation the vote had to be unanimous. And they enjoyed charging other states tariffs for their goods unloaded in Rhode Island ports. Things were so nice in Rhode Island that they didn’t need much taxation. Because they had other states funding their needs. Thanks to those tariffs. Of course, this did little to benefit the union. While imposing taxes on their neighbors in the union. Sort of like taxation without representation. Funny thing about Americans, though. They didn’t like paying taxes.
Montesquieu said a Republican Government must Separate Power into Three Branches
Thomas Jefferson was in Europe in 1787. John Adams, too. But just about every other “demi-god” (as Jefferson called those at that gathering) was in Philadelphia in 1787. America’s patriarch Benjamin Franklin. The indispensable George Washington. The financially savvy Alexander Hamilton. The studious James Madison. The Framers of the Constitution. Highly principled men. Well read men. Prosperous men. Who were familiar with world history. And read the great enlightenment philosophers. Like John Locke. Who especially influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence. With his inalienable rights. Consent of the governed. And property rights.
As they gathered in Philadelphia to revise the Articles it became clear that they needed something more. A new constitution. A stronger federal government. With the power to tax so they could raise money. For without money the union could not solve any of its problems. So they set upon writing a new constitution for a new government. A republican government of republican states. As they began to frame this constitution they drew on the work of a French philosopher. Charles de Montesquieu. Who championed republican government. The ideal government. A government of the people who ruled at the consent of the governed. With built-in safeguards to protect the people’s inalienable rights. The key requirement being the separation of powers.
Montesquieu said a republican government must separate power into three branches. The legislature, the executive and the judiciary. A nation of laws requires a legislature to write the laws. Because the laws must respect the inalienable rights of the people the people must elect the legislature from the general population. So the legislature’s interests are the people’s interest. However, if the legislature was also the executive they could easily write laws that represented their interests instead of the people. Elevating the legislature into a dictatorship. If the legislature was also the judiciary they could interpret law to favor their interests instead of the people. Elevating the legislature into a dictatorship. Likewise if the executive could write and interpret law the executive could elevate into a dictatorship. Ditto for the judiciary if they could write the law they were interpreting. So the separation of powers is the greatest protection the people have against a government’s oppression.
If a Power wasn’t Delegated to the New Federal Government it Remained with the States
During the Constitutional Convention they debated long and they debated hard. The Federalists were in favor of a stronger central government. The anti-Federalists were not. The Federalists included those who served in the Army and the Congress. The anti-Federalists were those who didn’t serve ‘nationally’ and favored states’ rights. In general. So one side wanted to increase the power of the central government while the other side wanted no central government. For their fear was that a new federal government would consolidate power and subordinate the states to its rule. As if the last war never happened. And the states would still bow to a distant central power. Only this time to one on this side of the Atlantic.
So the balance they struck was a two-house (i.e., bicameral) legislature. A House of Representatives. And a Senate. The people in each state elected a number of representatives proportional to their state’s population. So a large state had a large representation in the House. So that house represented the will of the people. To prevent the tyranny of the minority. So a small privileged class couldn’t rule as they pleased. Whereas the Senate prevented the tyranny of the majority. By giving each state two senators. So small states had the same say as big states. Together they represented both the majority and the minority. Further, states’ legislatures chose their senators (changed later by Constitutional amendment). Providing the states a check on federal legislation.
To round things out there was an executive they called the president. And a judiciary. Providing the separation of powers per Montesquieu. They further limited the central government’s powers by enumerating their powers. The new federal government could only do what the Constitution said it could do. Treat with foreign powers. Coin a national currency. Declare war. Etc. If a power wasn’t delegated to the new federal government it remained with the states. To give the new federal government some power. Including the power to tax. While leaving most powers with the states. Striking a compromise between the Federalists and the anti-Federalists.
Tags: 1787, anti-Federalists, Articles of Confederation, central government, Charles de Montesquieu, consent of the governed, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, dictatorship, enumerated powers, executive, federal government, Federalists, Framers, House of Representatives, inalienable rights, Jefferson, John Locke, judiciary, legislature, Locke, Montesquieu, Philadelphia, republican government, Rhode Island, rights, Senate, separation of powers, states' rights, tariffs, taxation, taxes
Money is a Temporary Storage of Wealth used to Reduce the Search Costs in the Barter System
What came first? Money? Or the things we buy with money? Here’s a hint. Once upon a time there was no money. Yet we still had things. We bought things without money, you ask? Yes. We did. And we bought things the only way we could before there was money. We traded. We bartered. We traded things. Things we built. Things we grew. Things we dug out of the ground. Things.
These things had value. Value we created with our labors. Either by digging something valuable out of the ground. Growing something of value. Or making something useful that people valued. And something people were willing to trade something they produced that had value. These people created value. They created wealth. They were wealth creators. And when they come together to trade the valuable products of their labors they were trading wealth. After their bartered trade all parties in that trade walked away believing they came out ahead in that trade. For each walked away with something they valued more.
But the barter system proved to be inefficient. As the economy became more complex there were so many things to trade for. And people valued some things more than they valued others. Which sometimes made it difficult to find someone to trade with. Search costs increased. People spent more time looking for people to trade with than they did producing wealth. Which is why people created money. A temporary storage of wealth. Using money greatly reduced search costs. Instead of finding someone to trade with that also wanted what you had to trade all you had to do was find what you wanted. Then trade your money for it. Then the seller could take that money and trade it for something he wanted. Regardless if the person was interested in anything he produced.
Ultimately People don’t want Money, they want the Things they can Trade Money For
No one likes paying taxes. They’re one of those necessary evils to live in a civilization. Because they are the only way to pay for public goods. Early public goods may have consisted of a granary to store food. And an army. To protect your civilization from the hostile environment around it. Government could tax the grain producers by taking a portion of their crops for the public granary. And to feed the army. They could tax the shoemakers and take some shoes for the army to wear. And so on. The government would tax the producers by taking a small percentage of what they produced to provide the public goods.
Money changed this a little. Instead of shipping a portion of grain from all the grain producers to the public granary the grain producers paid their taxes in money. For it was easier to collect money from all the grain producers than it was collecting grain. Then the government would use that tax money to purchase grain to fill the public granary. Even having the local grain producers compete with each other to fill that large public purchase of grain at the lowest price. Just like buyers and sellers used money to make their trades easier so did government use money to make public spending easier. But one thing didn’t change. Money was only a temporary storage of wealth. The buyers and sellers created wealth. And the government took a portion of the wealth they created.
This is a crucial point in understanding government spending. Money isn’t what’s important. It’s those things of value the wealth producers create that is important. Because ultimately people don’t want money. They want the things they can trade that money for. Those wonderful things creative wealth producers bring to market. Things government does NOT produce. Even though they can print money they cannot produce these things of value. Other people do. Other people who incur costs. Who pay for supplies. And provide pay and benefits to their employees. Which is why they don’t like paying taxes. Because it leaves them less to spend on their business. Or on themselves. And they don’t like the government printing money. Because money is a temporary storage of wealth. And when you arbitrarily increase the amount of money in circulation for the same amount of wealth in the economy you cause inflation. More dollars chasing the same amount of goods. So the dollar is worth less than it was before the inflation. And because the dollar is worth less it takes more of them to buy what they once did. Meaning prices increase. Which is why people don’t like inflation.
A Country never went Bankrupt by Spending too Little
So even though the government has the power to print money responsible governments don’t. Because inflation causes a lot of economic damage. So governments rely on taxes to fund their public goods. But excessive taxation also causes economic damage. By pulling wealth out of the private sector. Leaving business owners with less. And increasing the cost of business. Making it difficult to hire more people. Which lowers economic activity. For the more people who work and earn a paycheck the more people are in the market place buying things. So it’s important for governments not to tax too much. Which means they shouldn’t spend too much.
Of course that’s easier said than done. Because people tend to vote for politicians that give them free stuff. Which is why politicians love to spend. And to tax. Tax and spend. And during good economic times when government coffers are flush with cash they tend to spend more. And tax more. Because they can. But they all run into the same problem. Government raises revenue on economic activity. By applying tax rates on income, sales, value added, property, etc. The government collects a small percentage on these items based on the tax rate. When income, sales, value, etc., are large that tax rate generates a lot of revenue. When income, sales, value, etc., are low that tax rate generates a lower amount of revenue. And when governments spend too much during the good times they raise their spending obligations. Based on that robust economic activity. But when the economic activity becomes less robust there is a problem. Tax revenues fall. Because those tax rates are taking a percentage of a smaller income, sales, value, etc. So tax revenue falls while those spending obligations remain the same. Leading to a budget shortfall. Which leaves them with two choices. Cut spending. Or borrow money.
Well, people rarely vote for people that take stuff away from them. So the politicians borrow money. And they keep borrowing money. Because their spending obligations were based on the rosiest of projections of economic activity. Which rarely happens in real life. So they borrow. And they borrow more. Soon they have to borrow to pay the interest on what they’ve borrowed previously. Soon the debt grows so great that the credit rating agencies lower their credit rating. Making future borrowing more expensive as they have to pay a higher interest rate. Some may turn to higher tax rates. But that also lowers economic activity. Which reduces overall tax revenue. Some may turn to printing money. Which also lowers economic activity. And overall tax revenues. By causing inflation. And raising prices. Which eventually leads a country down the road to bankruptcy. And on their knees begging for a bailout. Which is the ultimate destination for all nations with excessive government spending. To throw themselves on the mercy of those countries who have lived within their means. Which rarely ends well. Because they expect the bankrupt country to start living within their means. Meaning austerity. Which the people accustomed to generous government spending are not too keen on in the least. And often reply to austerity demands with a little rioting in the streets.
There is one simple way to avoid all of these troubles, though. All a nation has to do is NOT spend so much. If they do then they will never have a financial crisis. For a country never went bankrupt by spending too little.
Tags: austerity, barter, barter system, borrow, created value, created wealth, credit rating, debt, dollar, economic activity, excessive taxation, government spending, income, inflation, interest, labors, money, paying taxes, politicians, print money, producers, property, public goods, sales, search costs, spending, tax rates, tax revenue, taxation, taxes, temporary storage of wealth, trade, value, value added, wealth, wealth creators, wealth producers
Week in Review
As businesses wait with fear and trepidation for Obamacare to go into full effect we should consider what this will mean for the country at large. More government benefits. More government spending. And higher taxation to pay for it. Then we should look around the world for an example of large government spending and generous benefits. To see if we can get an idea of how well something like a national health care system will work. Let’s just pick a country at random. Like this one (see Greek crisis hits hard at the pharmacy by Michael Birnbaum posted 6/13/2012 on The Washington Post).
From road-builders to priests to military suppliers, most walks of life have been affected by the government’s desperate bid to stanch the drain of euros from its coffers. Now health care is on the line, with pharmacists who are owed millions of euros by the government insurance system demanding in recent weeks that their clients pay the full sticker price for medicine. With unemployment at 22 percent and loans almost nonexistent, many people are doing without their drugs…
Under ordinary circumstances, the state health insurance system paid her pharmacist directly. Now pharmacists, fed up by delayed payments that they worry may never come, have told their customers that they need to pay cash and try their own luck at getting reimbursement from their health insurance.
Nothing is free in life. Not even free health care. Because government doesn’t make life-saving drugs. Pharmaceutical companies who specialize in making life-saving drugs make life-saving drugs. But even for them they are not free. For they have to pay employees to make these drugs. And they have to buy the chemicals to make these drugs. And their chemical suppliers have their own employees to pay. All of these costs are passed down the purchasing pipeline. Right to the pharmacists. Who must buy these drugs before they can sell them. And when the government stops paying their bills someone has to pay them. Or these pharmacists will just go out of business. Because they’re not independently wealthy. They run a pharmacy for living. And simply can’t afford to buy drugs and give them away for free.
But pharmacists say they have little choice. Their suppliers, wary of extending credit in euros only to be repaid in weaker drachmas if the country gets booted out of the currency union, are demanding cash before they make shipments. And, though the pharmacies are receiving some reimbursements from the government, they are owed $188 million by the main government health insurance program, said Konstantinos Lourantos, president of the Pharmaceutical Association of Athens.
Doing anything on credit in Greece is risky business. Because it’s not that certain if anyone will be able to pay their bills. What makes this worse in Greece is who is paying most of the bills.
In Greece, where much of the private sector was sustained on public-sector spending, many business owners have found themselves to be unwitting creditors of the government, as payments have languished for months while their own credit has dried up, forcing them to scale back their businesses. That has made Greece’s recession, now in its fifth year, even harder to escape.
Everything has a cost. Nothing is truly free. Even when government provides it. And the more the government provides the higher the taxes it takes to fund this government spending. Relying on government spending, though, is risky. Because tax revenue goes up and down with the economy. During a recession there are fewer people working to pay income and payroll taxes. And fewer people buying things to pay sales and value-added taxes. Business revenues are down so businesses pay fewer income taxes. During a deep recession tax revenue can fall far below the level needed to meet all government spending obligations. Like reimbursing pharmacies. And what do governments do during budget short-falls? They borrow. And Greece has.
Greece has borrowed so much that they are now a very poor credit risk. They just owe so much money that a lot of lenders have grown doubtful that they will ever get their money back. Which drives up borrowing costs. Increasing the amount of interest they pay on their outstanding debt. And as the recession lingers on tax revenues keep falling. While the interest on the debt keeps rising. Leaving less and less of those borrowed funds available to pay their massive government spending obligations. And this is where Greece is. They can’t pay their obligations without borrowing. But they have borrowed so much that when they take on massive amounts of new debt much of it just goes to paying the interest on the old debt. Which means they have to borrow ever more. Increasing their interest payments on the debt ever more. And leaving less and less for that massive government spending.
This is where debt crises come from. Governments spending too much. In fact it is safe to say that no government ever had a debt crisis from spending too little. We can learn a lot from the Greeks. In fact, we already have. Most of Western Civilization goes back to Athens. But we can also learn what NOT to do from the Greeks. And a good place to start would be to repeal Obamacare. For it’s this kind of spending that got Greece into trouble in the first place.
Tags: debt, Euro, government benefits, government spending, government spending obligations, Greece, Greeks, interest, life saving drugs, medicine, National health care, Obamacare, pharmacist, pharmacy, recession, tax revenue, taxation
The Articles of Confederation made the United States of America a Confederacy of Sovereign States that had Little Power to Raise Revenue
By the time the Continental Army left Valley Forge they could hold their own against the British Army. The British couldn’t push them around any longer. They became so good that they fought the war to a standstill. They came close to some major wins on the field of battle. But close didn’t diminish the staying power of the British Army. And they stayed. On the battlefield. And in their cities. Dragging the conflict out for a total of 8 years. And no matter what era of warfare you use to measure war-years 8 years of war is very costly. Someone has to pay for it. And, ultimately, it’s the people. Either through taxation. Or the loss of wealth through inflation. Or simply the loss of wealth through the losing of your stuff. And going without. Because the army fighting for your liberty had no choice but to take what was yours.
This made the Revolutionary War unlike other wars. For this war was about liberty. Property rights. The tyranny of a distant power. And unjust taxation. In other words this war was against all the things that made fighting a war possible. You can’t really draft men to fight in a country that stands for liberty. You just can’t confiscate the things you need to wage war from your people in a country built upon the principle of property rights. You can’t declare martial law and suspend the rule of law on people you deem not to be patriotic enough in supporting the cause when you’re fighting the tyranny of a distant power that does. (Even the Americans gave British soldiers a fair trial for the Boston Massacre). And taxes? The people that dumped tea into Boston Harbor over the principle of no taxation for revenue purposes without representation in Parliament was not going to be able to tax their people on a federal level. Which proved a big obstacle in paying for the war to win their liberty.
The Articles of Confederation made the United States of America a confederacy of sovereign states. And those sovereign states held the real power. Virginia. Massachusetts. Pennsylvania. New York. And the other 9 sovereign states. Not the United States of America. That confederation that was waging war against the mightiest power in the world. Which made raising funds difficult. For without the power to levy taxes all they could do was ask. Just like George Washington did all of the time. Especially during that horrible winter at Valley Forge when his army was naked and starving. He asked the Continental Congress for provisions. And the Continental Congress asked the several states for their apportioned funds raised by their state legislatures. Per the Articles of Confederation. If they didn’t pay these funds timely or in full (or at all) they could ask again. And that’s all they could do. Which is why George Washington’s army suffered through that horrible winter. Because the funds weren’t there to buy Washington the provisions his army needed.
Thanks to Inflation the Continental Army often had No Choice but to Take what they Needed from the People they were Fighting For
The Americans never had enough money. Which makes it amazing that they held off losing for 8 years. Eight very costly years. And won. Especially considering how bad the economy was during the war. Unable to tax or get sufficient loans from Europe they had little choice but to print money. Which caused a whole lot of trouble. For the more money they printed and put into circulation the more the value of their currency fell. And soon a Continental was “not worth a Continental.” And when the currency lost its value it took more of it to buy things. Which led to price inflation. The price of material and parts grew so high that it increased the cost of American manufactured muskets over the cost of imported French muskets. Which they had to bring in through a British blockade. Giving what should have been a cost advantage to the Americans. Had it not been for the inflation.
To try and keep prices under control they implemented wage and price controls. Which didn’t work. The continued devaluation of the currency forced sellers to raise their prices to cover their rising costs. Forcing them to sell below their costs would just put them out of business. Voluntarily. Or involuntarily. Creating shortages in the market place. Some offered lower prices for specie (gold and silver coins). You can’t print hard money (specie). So it held its value. Unlike the paper money. So a little of specie went a long way compared to paper money. Of course, this didn’t help their wage and price controls. It just made the paper more worthless. And raised prices further.
There was yet another ugly side to this sordid business. High prices and shortages created opportunity to profit handsomely. There was speculation and market manipulation (hoarding, cornering the market, etc.) to take advantage of those highly priced items that were in scare supply. Further raising prices for the people. And compounding the problems of provisioning the army. Which infuriated the low-paid soldiers. Who the Continental Congress paid in that worthless paper money. Angry mobs arose to address this profiteering. As well as new laws and enforcement. But they helped little. The army often had no choice but to take what they needed from the people they were fighting for. Either outright. Or in exchange for IOUs. Promises that the Continental Congress of the United States of America would make good on. Just as soon as the several states paid their apportioned funds raised by their state legislatures.
If you Violate the Ideals you’re Fighting for while Fighting for those Ideals it can Complicate the Peace
Fighting for an ideal makes war complicated. If you’re just a tyrannical dictator looking to rape and pillage it makes things easier. You don’t have to worry about liberty. Property rights. Debt. Or taxes. In the short term. Or the long term. Which made the American Revolutionary War a very difficult war to fight. Because at the heart of the United States of America were those ideals. To win this war to grant liberty to the people required taking their liberty away. A little. To win this war to guarantee property rights you had to violate property rights. A little. To win this war against tyranny you had to use excessive force against your people. A little. To win this war to establish taxation only with representation caused the destruction or personal wealth. A lot. Through impressment (taking things from the people). Borrowing from foreign countries. Or through inflation.
When the French joined the Americans in 1778 inflation was already out of control. They printed twice as many Continentals in 1778 as they did in the last three years combined. And there was serious discussion about doing the unthinkable. Repudiation. To simply escape the inflation by escaping the currency. To retire the bills from circulation. At a fraction of their value. And that’s what they did in 1780. Issuing new currency based on specie for the old currency at a 40 to one ratio. The states were to tax their people to raise the funds for the new currency. So the people took a huge short-term loss. For a stable long-term future. Based on specie. That they couldn’t inflate. This hard money would come from in large part the Spanish and the French. The Spanish in Cuba buying American flour with specie. And French aid. As well as their army and navy spending their hard money in the American economy.
Wars are costly. And they are rarely nice. Trying to make them nice can make them last longer. Which will make them more costly. Of course, if you violate the ideals you’re fighting for while fighting for those ideals it can complicate the peace. Luckily, for the Americans, they won their peace. Their allies, the French, were not so lucky in their revolution. The French Revolution. Fought less than a decade after the American Revolution came to a close. And unlike the Americans the French peace that followed was a bloody one. That would eventually replace the king they executed with an emperor. Napoleon Bonaparte. Who the Americans helped bring to power in part due to the crushing debt King Louis XVI incurred supporting the Americans in their revolution.
Tags: America, American, army, Articles of Confederation, Boston, British Army, confederacy of sovereign states, Continental, Continental Army, Continental Congress, costs, currency, distant power, French, George Washington, hard money, impressment, inflation, law, liberty, money, paper money, Peace, prices, print money, property rights, raise revenue, repudiation, revenue, revolution, Revolutionary War, soldiers, sovereign states, Spanish, specie, taxation, taxes, tyranny, United States of America, unjust taxation, Valley Forge, wage and price controls, War, Washington, wealth, winter, worthless paper money
The Declaration of Independence declared that Government should be By the People, Of the People and For the People
Tearing down the old order is one thing. Building a new one is something completely different. For there’s been a lot of tearing down throughout history. And rarely does peace and prosperity spontaneously follow. Which is something that no doubt weighed heavily on the minds of those who voted on July 2, 1776, to declare formerly their independence from Great Britain. What, exactly, were they to do next? The most powerful navy and army in the world no longer protected them. Instead, they were now the enemy of the most powerful navy and army in the world. Which meant they couldn’t protect themselves. Their international trade on the high seas. Or even protect their own people from each other. For if the British constitutional protections no longer applied to them, what did? Anything? Or would anarchy rule?
The Americans declared independence because they were not getting equal treatment under British law. Much of which they liked. The execution of it is what they had a problem with. That and the built-in privileges for some. And, of course, the established state religion. Which made many of them come to the colonies to escape in the first place. So there was a lot in British law they could use. And some that could do with a little tweaking. Which is something they could do now that they were starting from scratch.
They had just renounced the royal authority in their states. Which left these states without a formal framework of law. And the opportunity to make new law. Based on the principles in the Declaration of Independence. That government should be by the people, of the people and for the people. So when the Continental Congress adjourned after committing their high treason (declaring their independence) the delegates went home. Back to their states. To begin the building process of the new order.
The Vehicle for Peaceful Change of Government was and is the Constitutional Convention
Virginia was first. George Mason drafted their new constitution. And included a Bill of Rights. George Mason was a leading mind of the day. And produced a document that served as a template for other states. As well as other countries. It did away with privilege. And the state established Anglican religion. Among other reforms. In Massachusetts the process was a little different.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. He voted for independence. And supported the violent revolution that followed. For he believed when a government harms the people that these people have a right and a duty to abolish that government. But that didn’t mean a violent revolution whenever the people disagreed with government policy. Because that would lead to anarchy. And this was an issue that weighed heavily on the brilliant mind of John Adams. Who created the procedure of overthrowing a government without suffering through a period of anarchy. The vehicle for this peaceful change of government was the constitutional convention. Which provided the framework for the states to develop their constitutions.
The Massachusetts House appointed a committee to draft their constitution. When they finished their draft they submitted it to a constitutional convention made up of elected state delegates. Who approved it and sent it to the towns for approval. They rejected it. For it lacked a bill of rights. Among other required features. So they started the process again. They called another constitution convention. This one included John Adams. Who had just returned from France. He took an active part of the deliberations. And the drafting of the second constitution. They then submitted this constitution to the towns for approval. The towns approved it. And the state of Massachusetts had a new government. New Hampshire followed this process. As did the other states. But it just wasn’t in the American states. Nations throughout the world have adopted this process ever since.
The Founding Fathers gave their People Great Power and hoped their Religious Institutions would help them act with Great responsibility
Most colonies disestablished the Anglican Church. Including the taxes that supported it. And the oaths of Anglican faith required for public office. But that didn’t mean the states wouldn’t establish their own religions. Or force the support of it through taxation. Which is what Massachusetts did. Either for the preferred Congregational Church. Or any other Christian religion. As long as everyone attended church. For as the Massachusetts Bill of Rights states, “the happiness of a people and the good order and preservation of civil government essentially depend upon piety, religion, and morality…”
Of course the Quakers and Baptists in Massachusetts objected to paying taxes for what they saw as a violation of conscience. In Virginia the Anglican Church of England was still supported by the state. Supported by taxation. And the state penalized dissenters. Particularly the Baptists (something James Madison remembered well when later working for the passage of the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution). In direct violation of their own Virginian Bill of Rights. The Virginian Assembly would subsequently pass an act exempting all dissenters from taxation and abuse. Thomas Jefferson would take this a step farther with his Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom in 1786. A piece of legislation that he was particularly proud of. Even included it on his gravestone.
With great power comes great responsibility. The Founding Fathers gave their people great power. Representative government. And a means to overthrow that government. The constitutional convention. That they hoped their religious institutions would protect. And help their people act with great responsibility.
Tags: Adams, American, anarchy, Anglican, Anglican Church, Baptists, Bill of Rights, British law, Church of England, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, George Mason, Great Britain, independence, Jefferson, John Adams, Massachusetts, privileges, Religion, taxation, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom
Week in Review
The United States followed the United Kingdom into the Industrial Revolution. And emerged the greatest superpower on the planet. We did well following her lead. Emulating her capitalistic ways. But we can stop now. For we don’t need to follow her to where she is now. Although we’re pretty darn close to that place already (see Osborne: UK has run out of money by Rowena Mason posted 2/26/2012 on The Telegraph).
“The British Government has run out of money because all the money was spent in the good years,” the Chancellor said. “The money and the investment and the jobs need to come from the private sector…”
The Chancellor’s tough words were echoed by Liberal Democrat Jeremy Browne, the foreign minister, who warned that Britain faced “accelerated decline” without measures to tackle its debt and increase competitiveness…
Mr Browne writes that reform of pensions, welfare and defence is essential to stop the departments “collapsing under the weight of their own debt”. “Just because the spending was sometimes on worthy causes does not in itself mean it was affordable,” he says…
Amid warnings that Britain urgently needed to adopt a more pro-business outlook, senior Conservatives have urged the Government to get rid of the 50 pence top rate of tax.
Figures from the Treasury last week suggested the policy was not raising the expected amount of revenue and was threatening to drive leading business people and entrepreneurs away from Britain. Dr Liam Fox, the former Conservative Defence Secretary, yesterday argued for the top tax rate to be scrapped, but added that cutting taxes on employment was even more important.
“I would have thought the priority was getting the costs of employers down and therefore I would rather have seen any reductions in taxation on employers’ taxation rather than personal taxation,” he told the BBC’s Sunday Politics show.
Oh Britannia, what has become of you? And why in the world are we still following you?
Money, investment and jobs must come from the private sector? Why that’s a novel idea. One Britain had a century or more ago. And one the United States had, too. Before the welfare state made these two great nations less great.
Everyone knows that too much debt is a bad thing. It’s no secret. Bad things happen to people who can’t pay their bills. And as it turns out, worse things can happen when a government can’t pay its bills. Just ask the Greek government. Who are dealing with riots in their streets.
The private sector created jobs long before governments ever did. We need to remember this. And we solve economic problems in the private sector. Where there is a high price for failure. Thanks to capitalism. And profits. Alien concepts to governments. Which is why the greatest debt crises are always in the government. Not in the private sector. Something else we would do well to remember.
Tags: Britain, British Government, debt, investment, jobs, money, pensions, private sector, taxation, UK, United Kingdom, welfare
Americans don’t like Paying Taxes
Americans don’t like paying taxes. A dispute over taxation without representation led to American independence from British rule. For Britain had been fighting for many years in many wars. And ran up an enormous war debt. Which they had to repay. Because some of that debt was incurred protecting the American colonists from the French and Indians during the Seven Years War, some had a bright idea. “Here’s a thought,” they said, “Let’s have the Americans pay their fair share. I mean, fair is fair, right? Besides, it’ll be a lot easier getting money from the Americans than it will be getting it from Parliament, eh wot?”
The Seven Years War, though, was a world war. Fought in many countries and on many seas. Costing lots of money. Which Parliament was financing with lots of taxes. But the British taxpayer had tax fatigue. And felt they had no more taxes to give. Or wanted to give. As they had a say in Parliament raising taxes further was a nonstarter. But the Americans had no representation in Parliament. So what could they do? Turns out they could do a lot. Now the Americans weren’t unreasonable. They just didn’t appreciate the, “Oh, by the way, here’s your share of the war debt. We’ll tax you accordingly.” Which the British did. Without so much a by-your-leave. Rubbed the Americans the wrong way. If the British had shown them the numbers and gave them a chance to agree on what their ‘fair share’ was they probably would have paid. And stayed loyal to the Crown. But the British didn’t. So the Americans didn’t.
Now fighting wars is expensive. Especially long ones. And the Revolutionary War was a long one. Eight years until they penned their names to the Treaty of Paris (1783) officially ending it. In these eight years the Americans ran up a great war debt. And needed to repay it. Just like the British. The very thing that started the Revolutionary War. Now it was the Americans’ turn to raise taxes. They tried taxing whiskey. Which led to another tax rebellion. The Whiskey Rebellion. For Americans still didn’t like paying taxes. This time, though, it was a tad different. Because those they were taxing had representation. And the new ‘nation’ (a confederation of ‘equal’ states) had the legal authority to impose this tax. And to put down the rebellion. Which General Washington did. To the howls of liberty-loving patriots everywhere. The tax quietly went away. But it didn’t solve the nation’s problems. They were broke. Needed money. And they had to get a handle on the massive sums they owed for the world of nations to take them seriously.
Hamilton thought both Jefferson and Burr were Scoundrels but at least Jefferson was a Principled Scoundrel
The new ‘nation’ (that confederation of ‘equal’ states) was the problem. Just as the world of nations didn’t take the Americans seriously these ‘equal’ states didn’t take the new national government seriously. There was no taxing authority. So the federal government could only ask for contributions from the states. Which often came in late. And when they did they were often less than they requested. Some states even refused to pay anything. Worse, the states were making their own treaties with other nations as well as the Indian Tribes. Or reneging on the treaties the federal government made with other nations and the Indian Tribes. The confederation wasn’t working. They needed something new. And once George Washington was onboard they called a meeting in Philadelphia (1787) to rework the Articles of Confederation.
Of course they didn’t rework the Articles of Confederation. They replaced them with a new U.S. Constitution. And a new nation. The Preamble to the U.S. Constitution began with “We the people.” The sovereignty of the new nation wasn’t with the states. It wasn’t with the new federal government. It was with the people. It was a nation of the people, by the people and for the people. To borrow some words from Abraham Lincoln. Which meant that although the thing they created had more power than the confederation of states it replaced, its power was limited. Very limited. The Framers designed it to do only those things the states could not do well individually. National defense. Coin uniform money. Establish post offices and post roads. Make national treaties with other nations and Indian Tribes. Declare war. Create a standard of weights and measures. But little more. In fact, the Constitution listed more things the new government couldn’t do than listed what it could do. To quell everyone’s fear that they just replaced one far away central power (the British Crown) with another far away central power (the central government of the United States). Especially when it came to taxes. Raising taxes required approval by two houses of Congress and by the President. Making it difficult to raise taxes. The way Americans liked it. For Americans didn’t like paying taxes. And still don’t.
Getting the new Constitution ratified wasn’t a walk in the park. The size and power of the new central government appalled those Patriots who worked so hard during the Revolution. James Madison, the Father of the Constitution, joined forces with Alexander Hamilton and wrote a series of articles arguing for ratification. The Federalist Papers. And were successful. Then when Alexander Hamilton was putting the Constitution into action as Secretary of the Treasury in the Washington administration, Madison didn’t like what he saw. For Hamilton wanted to use the power of government to make the United States an economic superpower like Britain. His opponents, though, saw a man who wanted to be king. So Madison joined the opposition. Led by Thomas Jefferson. And the politics got ugly. Before it was done the Jefferson camp would write about an affair Hamilton had. And the same muckraker who exposed this affair would later write about a Jefferson affair with a slave. Sally Hemming. The people in the different camps hated each other. Especially Hamilton and Jefferson. They hated each other with a passion. But they were principled men. For when the election of 1800 came down to either Thomas Jefferson or Aaron Burr, Hamilton backed his archenemy. Thomas Jefferson. Both Jefferson and Burr were scoundrels as far as Hamilton was concerned. But at least Jefferson was a principled scoundrel. Burr took great offense to some things Hamilton said about him around this time. And challenged him to a duel. In which Hamilton suffered a mortal wound. Pity. For Hamilton was a true Patriot. And perhaps the greatest treasury secretary the United States ever had.
It’s not the Spirit of Alexander Hamilton, Thomas Jefferson or James Madison that lives on in Politics but Aaron Burr
Funny how things change. The new nation almost didn’t survive because of the opposition towards a strong central government. And towards federal taxes. Now federal spending includes just about everything under the sun. Most of which the Framers excluded from the Constitution. And the taxes! They have reached a level none of the Founding Fathers thought would ever be possible. Even Hamilton. He was ‘big government’ for his day but he would be disgusted to see what became of his beloved Treasury Department. And the money they pull out of the private sector economy. Not to make America an economic superpower. But to buy votes. And for personnel gain. The true underbelly of democracy. Where people come to public service not to serve. But to enrich themselves at the expense of the taxpayer. Like that scoundrel that killed him. Aaron Burr.
Even worse they use fiscal policy to further their spending ways. The federal debt grows. And now whenever a recession rolls around they use Keynesian fiscal policy to ‘lessen’ the affects of the recession. Which is just a clever way to keep on spending after they’ve run out of money. Because this spending is now stimulus. And if the government stops spending it will make the recession worse. Clever. And it’s just coincidental that friends of the administration benefit most by this Keynesian stimulus spending.
It would appear it’s not the spirit of Alexander Hamilton that lives on in Washington. Or Thomas Jefferson. Or James Madison. It’s the spirit of Aaron Burr. Scoundrel extraordinaire. And role model for the political elite.
Tags: Aaron Burr, Alexander Hamilton, Americans, Americans don't like paying taxes, Articles of Confederation, Britain, British, British Crown, Burr, central government, debt, federal government, federal spending, federal taxes, fiscal policy, Framers, George Washington, Hamilton, James Madison, Jefferson, Keynesian, Madison, Parliament, Patriots, raise taxes, recession, revolution, Revolutionary War, Seven Years War, stimulus, tax, taxation, taxation without representation, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, U.S. Constitution, war debt, Washington
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