Silicon, Semiconductor, LED, Photon, Photovoltaic Effect, Photocell, Solar Panel, Converter, Battery and Solar Power Plant

Posted by PITHOCRATES - July 4th, 2012

Technology 101

A Photocell basically works like a Light Emitting Diode (LED) in Reverse

Solar power is based on the same technology that that gave us the electronic world.  Silicon.  That special material in the periodic table that has four electrons in its valence (i.e., outer most) shell.  And four holes that can accept an electron.  Allowing it to form a perfect silicon crystal.  When these silicon atoms come together their four valence electrons form covalent bonds with the holes in neighboring silicon atoms.  These silicon atoms share their valence electrons so that each silicon atom now has a full valence shell of eight electrons (with four of their own electrons and four shared electrons).  Making that perfect crystal structure.  Which is pretty much useless in the world of semiconductors.  Because you need free electrons to conduct electricity.

When we add impurities (called ‘doping’) to silicon is where the magic starts.  If we add a little bit of an element with five electrons in its valence shell we introduce free electrons into the silicon crystal.  Giving it a negative charge.  If we instead add a little bit of an element with 3 electrons in its valence shell we introduce extra holes looking for an electron to fill it.  Giving it a positive charge.  When we bring the positive (P) and the negative (N) materials together they from a P-N junction.  The free electrons cross the junction to fill the nearby holes.  Creating a neutrally charged depletion zone between the P and the N material.  This is a diode.  If we apply a forward biased voltage (positive battery terminal to the P side and the negative battery terminal to the N side) across this junction current will flow.  Like charges repel each other.  The negative charge pushes the free electrons on the N side of the junction towards the junction.  And the positive charge pushes the holes on the P side of the junction towards the junction.  Where they meet.  With free electrons filling available holes causing current to flow.  A reverse bias does the reverse.  Pulls the holes and electrons away from the junction so they can’t combine and cause current to flow.

It takes energy to move an electron out of its ‘hole’.  And when an electron combines with a hole it emits energy.  Typically this energy is not in a visible wavelength so we see nothing.  However, with the proper use of materials we can shift this wave length into the visible spectrum.  So we can see light.  Or photons.  This is the principle behind the light emitting diode.  Or LED.  An electric current through a P-N junction causes electrons to leave their holes and then recombine with holes.  And when they recombine they give off a photon in the visible spectrum of light.  Which is what we see.  A photocell basically works the other way.  Instead of using voltage and current to create photons we use photons from the sun to create voltage and current.

A Solar Array that could Produce 12,000 Watts under Ideal Conditions may only Produce 2,400 Watts in Reality

When we use the sun to bump electrons free from their shells we call this the photovoltaic (PV) effect.  This produces a small direct current (DC) at a low voltage.  A PV cell (or solar cell) then is basically a battery when hit with sunlight.  Electric power is the product of voltage and current.  So a small DC current and a low voltage won’t power much.  So like batteries in a flashlight we have to connect solar cells together to increase the available power.  So we connect solar cells into modules and modules into arrays.  Or what we commonly call solar panels.  Small panels can power small loads.  Like emergency telephones along the highway that are rarely used.  To channel buoys that can charge a battery during the day to power a light at night.  And, of course, the electronics on our spacecraft.  Where PV cells are very useful as there are no utility lines that run into space.

These work well for small loads.  Especially DC loads.  But it gets a little complicated for AC loads.  The kind we have in our homes.  A typical 1,000 square foot home may have a 100 amp electric service at 240 volts.  Let’s assume that at any given time there could be as much as half of that service (50 amps) in use at any one time.  That’s 12,000 watts.  Assuming a solar panel array generates about 10 watts per square foot that means this house would need approximately 1,200 square feet of solar panels (such as a 60 foot by 20 foot array or a 40 foot by 30 foot array).  But it’s not quite that simple.

The sun doesn’t shine all of the time.  The capacity factor (the percentage of actual power produced divided by the total possible it could produce under the ideal conditions) is only about 15-20%.  Meaning that a 1,200 square foot solar array that could produce 12,000 watts under ideal conditions may only produce 2,400 watts (at a 20% capacity factor).  Dividing this by 120 volts gives you 20 amps.  Or approximately the size of a single circuit in your electrical panel.  Which won’t power a lot.  And it sure won’t turn on your air conditioner.  Which means you’re probably not going to be able to disconnect from the electric grid by adding solar panels to your house.  You may reduce the amount of electric power you buy from your utility but it will come at a pretty steep cost.

Solar Power Plants can be Costly to Build and Maintain even if the Fuel is Free 

Everything in your house that uses electricity either plugs into a standard 120V electrical outlet, a special purpose 240V outlet (such as an electric stove) or is hard-wired to a 240V circuit (such as your central air conditioner).  All of these circuits go back to your electrical panel.  Which is wired to a 240V AC electrical service.  A lot of electronic devices actually operate on DC power but even these still plug into an AC outlet.  Inside these devices there is a power supply that converts the AC power into DC power.  So you’ll need to convert all that DC power generated by solar panels into useable AC power with a converter.  Which is costly.  And reduces the efficiency of the solar panels.  Because when you convert energy you always end up with less than you started with.  The electronics in the converters will heat up and dissipate some of that generated electric power as heat.  If you want to use any of this power when the sun isn’t shining you’ll need a battery to store that energy.  Another costly device.  Another place to lose some of that generated electric power.  And something else to fail.

We typically build large scale solar power plants in the middle of nowhere so there is nothing to shade these solar panel arrays.  From sun up to sun down they are in the sunlight.  They even turn and track the sun as it rises overhead, travels across the sky and sets.  To maximize the amount of sunlight hitting these panels.  Of course the larger the installation the larger the maintenance.  And the panels have to be clean.  That means washing these arrays to keep them dirt and bird poop free.  Some of the biggest plants in service today have about 200 MW of installed solar arrays.  One of the largest is in India.  Charanka Solar Park.  When completed it will have 500 MW of PV arrays on approximately 7.7 square miles of land.  With a generous capacity factor of 30% that comes to 150 MW.  Or about 19 MW/square mile.  The coal-fired Robert W. Scherer Electric Generating Plant in Georgia, on the other hand, generates 3,520 MW on approximately 18.75 square miles.  At a capacity factor of about 90% for coal that comes to about 3,168 MW.  Or about 169 MW/square mile.  About 9 times more power generated per square mile of land used.

 So you can see the reason why we use so much coal to generate our electric power.  Because coal is a highly concentrated source of fuel.  The energy it releases creates a lot of reliable electricity.  Day or night.  Summer or winter.  A large coal-fired electric generating facility needs a lot of real estate but the plants themselves don’t.  Unlike a solar plant.  Where the only way to generate more power is to cover more land with PV solar panels.  To generate, convert and store as much electric power as possible.  All with electronic equipment full of semiconductors that don’t operate well in extreme temperatures (which is why our electronics have vents, heat sinks and cooling fans).  So the ideal conditions to produce electricity are not the ideal conditions for the semiconductors making it all work.  Causing performance and maintenance issues.  Which makes these plants very costly.  Even if the fuel is free. 

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Silicon, Semiconductor, Electrons, Holes, PN Junction, Diode, LED, Photon, 7-Segment LED and Full-Color Flat Panel LED Displays

Posted by PITHOCRATES - May 30th, 2012

Technology 101

Applying a Voltage across a PN junction to Create a Forward Bias Pushes Electrons and Holes towards the Junction

There’s gold in them thar Hills.  And silicon in the valley.  California has been a fountain of wealth.  Much of which they built from two materials located on the periodic table.  Atomic number 79.  Gold.  Or ‘Au’ as it appears on the periodic table.  And atomic number 14.  Silicon.  Or ‘Si’ as it appears on the periodic table.  Both of these metals proved to be valuable.  One by its scarcity.  One by what we could do with it.  For it was anything but scarce.  Silicon is the second most common element behind only oxygen.  But this commonly found material proved to be a greater font of wealth for California.  For it fueled the semiconductor industry.  For when we doped it with impurities we produced negatively (N-type) and positively (P-type) charged material.  Bringing the N and the P together gave us the PN junction.  Giving us the diode, transistor and integrated circuit.

The miracle of semiconductors occurs at the atomic level.  Down to the electrons orbiting the atom’s nucleus.  The nucleus contains an equal number of positively charged protons and neutrally charged neutrons.  The number of protons gives us the atomic number.  Changing the number of neutrons gives us isotopes.  Radioactive material has more protons than neutrons.  Uranium-235 is an isotope.  The stuff that made the atomic bomb dropped on Hiroshima.  Electrons orbit the nucleus.  In discrete energy levels.  The orbits closest to the nucleus have the lowest energy levels.  The orbits father away from the nucleus have higher energy levels.  Most of these orbits are ‘full’ of electrons.  The outer electron shell when ‘full’ is inert.  An outer shell that isn’t ‘full’ or has extra electrons is active.  And can chemically react.  Forming molecules.  When chemicals come into contact with each other and form molecules it is these electrons in the outer orbits (or valence electrons) that move into and out of the orbits of the different chemicals.  That is, the different elements share these valence electrons.

This is what we do when we dope silicon with impurities.  We either remove electrons from the valence shell to create a net positive charge.  Or we add electrons to the valence shell to create a net negative charge.  Giving us P-type and N-type material.  At the PN junction the N-type material loses its excess electrons to the P-type material across the junction as the empty holes in the valence shell attract the excess electrons.  As electrons leave the valence shells in the N-type material they leave holes in the valence shell where they once were.  Or, in the world of electronics, as electrons flow one way holes flow the other.  When we apply a voltage across a PN junction to create a forward bias (negative voltage applied to N-type and positive voltage applied to P-type) we push electrons and holes towards the junction.  If the forward bias is great enough they will continue all the way through the junction and into the material on the far side.  Where electrons will combine with excess holes.  And holes will combine with excess electrons.  Creating an electric current.  If we apply a voltage to create a reverse bias we will pull electrons and holes away from the PN junction.  And there will be no electrical current. We call such a PN device a diode.  A very important and indispensible device in electronics.

Placing Seven LEDs into a Figure-Eight Pattern created the Seven-Segment LED

Now back to those discrete energy levels.  There is another useful property we get when electrons move between these energy levels.  Electrons absorb energy when they move to a higher energy level.  And emit energy when they move to a lower energy level.  We make use of this property in fluorescent lighting.  A charged plasma field in a fluorescent lamp excites a small amount of mercury in the lamp.  As electrons fall into lower orbits in the mercury atoms they release invisible short-wave ultraviolet radiation.  The phosphor coating on the inside of the lamp absorbs this radiation and fluoresces.  Creating visible light.  By using different materials, though, we could see the energy (a photon) emitted by an electron falling into a lower energy level.  We have been able to move the wavelength of this photon into the visible spectrum.  The first commercial application to convert these photons into visible light was a device that gave us a red light.  That device was that important and indispensible PN-junction.  The diode.  And the use of different materials other than silicon moved these photons into the visible spectrum.  Giving us the light-emitting diode.  Or LED.

The first LEDs were only red.  Then we developed other colors using different materials.  Shifting the wavelength of the photon through all colors of the visible spectrum.  Being low-power devices, though, the intensity of light emitted was limited.  So an LED required careful mechanical construction and optics.  To direct the light out of the material forming the PN junction.  With a reflector behind the junction.  And a lens above.  To aim and diffuse the light.  And to prevent it from reflecting back into the material where it may be dissipated as heat.  Early use of LEDs was for indicator lights.  The low power consumption meant little heat was generated as with an incandescent lamp.  Which worked well in the temperature sensitive computer world.  Placing 7 LEDs into a figure-eight pattern created the seven-segment LED display.  With a rectangular shaped piece of translucent plastic above each LED you could see a bar of light for each light emitting diode.  Creating a forward bias on certain bars in the seven-segment display created the numbers we saw on our first calculators and digital watches.

An LED could produce a similar radiation like in the fluorescent lamp.  Using that radiation to fluoresce a phosphor coating inside a lamp to produce white light.  Similar to the fluorescence lamp.  Only while using less power.  Mixing the emitted light from red, green and blue (RGB) LEDs also produced white light.  Further improvements allowed us to emit whiter and brighter lights.  Allowing brighter lamps that consumed less power than the compact fluorescent lamps which were energy saving alternatives to the incandescent lamps.  With the lower power consumption of LEDs creating less heat we expanded the lifespan of lighting sources made from LEDs.  Using them to increase the service life in lamps inconvenient to change.  Like in traffic signal lights over busy intersections.  To the taillights in tractor trailers.  Where anytime spent not hauling freight was lost revenue.

We made Full-Color Flat Panel Displays from LEDs by combining Red, Green and Blue LEDs into Full-Color Pixel Clusters

The market didn’t demand these developments in semiconductors or LEDs.  For the most part the market didn’t even know this technology existed.  But the entrepreneurs gathering in Silicon Valley did.  They had some great ideas of what they could do with this new technology.  All they needed was the capital to bring these ideas to market.  It was risky.  The technology was good.  But could they use it to make useful things at affordable prices?  And would the people be so enamored with the things they built that they would buy them?  There were just too many unknowns for conservative bankers to take a risk.  But thanks to venture capitalists those entrepreneurs got the capital they needed.  Brought their ideas to market.  Created Silicon Valley.  And the modern world we now take for granted.

They continue to advance this technology.  Creating full-color flat panel displays.  By combining red, green and blue LEDs into full-color pixel clusters.  Which, unlike an LCD flat panel display, does not need a backlight as they produce their own light.  So these panels are thinner and use less power than LCD displays.  Making them ideal for the displays in our cellular devices for they allow more battery life between charges.  They also have wide viewing angles.  People looking at these displays from near perpendicular viewing angles see nearly the same quality of picture as those viewing directly in front.  Making them ideal for use in stadiums.  The video replays you see on that mammoth flat panel display in the new Dallas Cowboy stadium is an LED flat panel display.

All of this from joining two differently-charged semiconductor materials together.  Creating that all important and indispensible PN junction.  The foundation for every electronic device.  And of Silicon Valley itself.

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The Wind Turbine Industry about to go the Way of Solar Panel Manufacturers like Solyndra

Posted by PITHOCRATES - April 7th, 2012

Week in Review

Solyndra failed because of the Chinese.  Solyndra was working on a tubular technology to avoid using a silicon-based flat panel design.  At the time of product launch silicon was a costly commodity giving Solyndra a cost advantage.  And that cost advantage lasted until the Chinese brought so much silicon to market that the price for silicon imploded.  As did the price of flat-panel solar panels.  Which the Chinese also flooded the market with.  Good for people wanting to install solar panels.  Bad for people wanting to manufacture solar panels.  And now it’s happening with wind turbines (see Wind power market to lose puff this year by Liu Yiyu posted 4/5/2012 on China Daily USA).

China’s wind market bubble will deflate as the industry enters the worst year in its history, said the Spanish wind turbine maker Gamesa.

“The first half of 2012 is the worst time in the last four years, triggering a faster industry consolidation,” said Jorge Calvet, chairman of the company…

China’s wind industry has excessive capacity, going from 10 to 12 manufacturers in 2005 to more than 85 in 2011, according to Calvet.

Jobs of the future?  I think not.  Installing them, perhaps.  But this technology won’t do a thing for our manufacturing base.  What President Obama was going to revitalize with the technology of the future.  Green technology.  Smart technology.  Instead of those high-paying jobs of the past in the oil industry.  Which, incidentally, is something the Chinese can’t take away from us.  Only our president can.  By pursuing his jobs of the future.  Those manufacturing jobs the Chinese are taking away from us left and right.

Perhaps it would be better to pursue those jobs of the past.  There is a demand for fossil fuels.  We have fossil fuels buried within our American borders.  Which means only Americans can bring these fossil fuels to market.  And build and maintain the infrastructure that bring these fossil fuels to market.  All of those good, high-paying, benefit-laden jobs of the past.  In other words, the jobs people want.  The kind that don’t disappear when the Chinese ramp up protection.  The kind that will improve the employment picture.  Bring the cost of gasoline down.  And make America more energy independent.  All good things for the American people.  And things we should do for the American people.  Especially when it’s your job to look out for the American people.

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Boolean Algebra, Logic Gates, Flip-Flop, Bit, Byte, Transistor, Integrated Circuit, Microprocessor and Computer Programming

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 1st, 2012

Technology 101

A Binary System is one where a Bit of Information can only have One of Two States 

Parents can be very logical when it comes to their children.  Children always want dessert.  But they don’t always clean their rooms or do their homework.  So some parents make dessert conditional.  For the children to have their dessert they must clean their rooms AND do their homework.  Both things are required to get dessert.  Or you could say this in another way.  If the children either don’t clean their rooms OR don’t do their homework they will forfeit their dessert.  Stated in this way they only need to do one of two things (not clean their room OR not do their homework) to forfeit their dessert. 

This was an introduction to logic.  George Boole created a mathematical way to express this logic. We call it Boolean algebra.  But relax.  There will be no algebraic equations here.

In the above example things had only one of two states.  Room cleaned.  Room not cleaned.   Homework done.  Homework not done.  This is a binary system.  Where a bit of information can only have one of two states.  We gave these states names.  We could have used anything.  But in our digital age we chose to represent these two states with either a ‘1’ or a ‘0’.  One piece of information is either a ‘1’.  And if it’s not a ‘1’ then it has to be a ‘0’.  In the above example a clean room and complete homework would both be 1s.  And a dirty room and incomplete homework would be 0s.  Where ‘1’ means a condition is ‘true’.  And a ‘0’ means the condition is ‘false’.

Miniaturization allowed us to place more Transistors onto an Integrated Circuit

Logic gates are electrical/electronic devices that process these bits of information to make a decision.  The above was an example of two logic gates.  Can you guess what we call them?  One was an AND gate.  The other was an OR gate.  Because one needed both conditions (the first AND the second) to be true to trigger a true output.  Children get dessert.  The other needed only one condition (the first OR the second) to be true to trigger a true output.  Children forfeit dessert. 

We made early gates with electromechanical relays and vacuum tubes.  Claude Shannon used Boolean algebra to optimize telephone routing switches made of relays.  But these were big and required big spaces, needed lots of wiring, consumed a lot of power and generated a lot of heat.  Especially as we combined more and more of these logic gates together to be able to make more complex decisions.  Think of what happens when you press a button to call an elevator (an input).  Doors close (an action).  When doors are closed (an input) car moves (an action).  Car slows down when near floor.  Car stops on floor.  When car stops doors open.  Etc.  If you were ever in an elevator control room you could hear a symphony of clicks and clacks from the relays as they processed new inputs and issued action commands to safely move people up and down a building.  Some Boolean number crunching, though, could often eliminate a lot of redundant gates while still making the same decisions based on the same input conditions. 

The physical size constraints of putting more and more relays or vacuum tubes together limited these decision-making machines, though.  But new technology solved that problem.  By exchanging relays and vacuum tubes for transistors.  Made from small amounts of semiconductor material.  Such as silicon.  As in Silicon Valley.  These transistors are very small and consume far less power.  Which allowed us to build larger and more complex logic arrays.  Built with latching flip-flops.  Such as the J-K flip-flop.  Logic gates wired together to store a single bit of information.  A ‘1’ or a ‘0’.  Eight of these devices in a row can hold 8 bits of information.  Or a byte.  When a clock was added to these flip-flops they would check the inputs and change their outputs (if necessary) with each pulse of the clock.  Miniaturization allowed us to place more and more of these transistors onto an integrated circuit.  A computer chip.  Which could hold a lot of bytes of information. 

To Program Computers we used Assembly Language and High-Level Programming Languages like FORTRAN

The marriage of latching flip-flops and a clock gave birth to the microprocessor.  A sequential digital logic device.  Where the microprocessor checks inputs in sequence and based on the instructions stored in the computer’s memory (those registers built from flip-flops encoded with bytes of binary instructions) executes output actions.  Like the elevator.  The microprocessor notes the inputs.  It then looks in its memory to see what those inputs mean.  And then executes the instructions for that set of inputs.  The bigger the registers and the faster the clock speed the faster this sequence.

Putting information into these registers can be tedious.  Especially if you’re programming in machine language.  Entering a ‘1’ or a ‘0’ for each bit in a byte.  To help humans program these machines we developed assembly language.  Where we wrote lines of program using words we could better understand.  Then used an assembler to covert that programming into the machine language the machine could understand.  Because the machine only looks at bytes of data full of 1s and 0s and compares it to a stored program for instructions to generate an output.  To improve on this we developed high-level programming languages.  Such as FORTRAN.  FORTRAN, short for formula translation, made more sense to humans and was therefore more powerful for people.  A compiler would then translate the human gibberish into the machine language the computer could understand.

Computing has come a long way from those electromechanical relays and vacuum tubes.  Where once you had to be an engineer or a computer scientist to program and operate a computer.  Through the high-tech revolution of the Eighties and Silicon Valley.  Where chip making changed our world and created an economic boom the likes few have ever seen.  To today where anyone can use a laptop computer or a smartphone to surf the Internet.  And they don’t have to understand any of the technology that makes it work.  Which is why people curse when their device doesn’t do what they want it to do.  It doesn’t help.  But it’s all they can do.  Curse.  Unlike an engineer or computer scientist.  Who don’t curse.  Much.

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Private Investors passed on Solyndra, so why didn’t the Smart People in Government pass, too?

Posted by PITHOCRATES - September 14th, 2011

The High Cost of Solar Power makes Reliable Fossil Fuel-Produced Electricity even more Attractive

Solar panels. One of the darlings of green energy. And a favorite of the Obama administration. Especially Solyndra. Where Vice President Biden made a personal appearance to showcase the government’s half billion dollar investment into the economy of the future. A future, albeit, that will not include Solyndra. Why? Sales of solar panels are down. Way down (see Opposing view: ‘Perfect storm’ sank Solyndra by Daniel Poneman, Deputy Secretary of Energy, posted 9/14/2011 on USA Today).

Unfortunately, expanding production has coincided with short-term softening demand, a product of the banking crisis in Europe and its wider economic effects. The combination has had a dramatic effect on the price of solar cells, which has plummeted 42% in the past nine months. This has taken a serious toll on solar manufacturers everywhere, including the U.S.

Actually, what made Solyndra’s solar panels unsellable was something else. They didn’t use silicon. Like everyone else. They used another material. And a different technology. This cost more. But the installation was cheaper. So the total package was competitive. Until the price of silicon fell, that is. Which priced them right out of the market.

Solyndra needed silicon to remain expensive to remain competitive. Much like E85. That really only sold well when gas peaked over $4/gallon. And people didn’t realize that they had to buy more of it to go as far as gasoline would take them. Which meant a lot of people bought E85 only once. But government still subsidizes it. To make it cheap enough to get people to buy it. Even though they don’t want it.

Which is why solar panels aren’t selling. Governments everywhere are implementing austerity measures to reduce record debts. Which means they can’t subsidize these solar panels anymore. Which makes their high prices even higher. Making that sweet reliable fossil fuel-produced electricity all the more attractive. So bye bye Solyndra.

This month, Solyndra , a California-based company, filed for bankruptcy. Solyndra had been named one of the world’s 50 most innovative companies and reported sales growth of 40% to $140 million last year. In 2006, the company applied for a federal loan guarantee. It underwent years of rigorous internal and external review before being approved — before the perfect storm of deteriorating market conditions.

This year is 2011. So they reported sales of $140 million in 2010. And if you do some math, this means they reported sales of $100 million in 2009. Sounds impressive. But numbers are relative. We have to put them into some kind of context for a true understanding.

Government Investment into Solar Energy is Politics over Substance or just Plain Cronyism

So let’s find a little context (see White House ignored red flags in loan to failed solar company by Martin Wolk posted 9/14/2011 on MSNBC).

The FBI raided the Silicon Valley headquarters of the company, Solyndra, last week, investigating whether the government was misled when it loaned the company $535 million in taxpayer funds…

Solyndra received the loan guarantees in 2009 as part of President Barack Obama’s promise to create millions of so-called “green” jobs. But last month, Solyndra declared bankruptcy, laying off all 1,100 workers.

Hmm, let’s see. That was $535 million to produce $100 million in sales. Now that’s putting things into context. In other words, $100 million in sales is not impressive. In fact, it is downright abysmal. Only about 19% of the federal loan produced sales in 2009. For the last two full years of their existence, about 45% of the federal loan produced sales.

Worse, by the time you subtract the cost of sales from these sales and calculate the return on this government investment, there is none. Even before the bankruptcy. This was a horrible investment. This is a lot like all of those dot-com startups. Companies that were flooded with investment capital. As people were anxious to find the next Microsoft. Pouring money into companies that never produced anything to sell. And when the investment capital dried up, the dot-com bubble burst.

At least with the dot-com economic destruction, private investors lost. The green energy bubble, on the other hand, it’s the taxpayer losing. Because we’re subsidizing so much of this green energy. Why? Because private investors see it for what it is. A bad investment. There isn’t a market for this stuff. So they’re not throwing good money at bad investments. Unlike Uncle Sam.

House Republican investigators have unearthed emails — reviewed by NBC — which reveal repeated warnings by government staffers about the loan. Days before final approval there was a warning that one model showed the project would run out of cash in September 2011, which it did.

Another memo from the White House Office of Management and Budget, also cited by The Washington Post, questioned the model the government was using, but said “[g]iven the time pressure we are under to sign-off on Solyndra, we don’t have time to change the model.”

Why the rush? The White House appeared to be pushing to meet political deadlines so Vice President Joe Biden could announce final approval when he spoke at the groundbreaking for the new plant.

A key question is whether Solyndra’s political connections were a factor. A big Obama donor associated with the venture, identified by the Post as Tulsa billionaire George Kaiser, repeatedly visited the White House. He has denied using his influence to win approval of the loan.

This explains a lot. Staffers warned against the loan. Some even did math. Probably recognizing that there were no sales. And with no revenue coming in it was a simple matter of dividing investment capital by their monthly costs. Which proved very accurate. The staffers were smart. The policy was just bad. But, alas, staffers don’t make policy.

This is politics over substance. Or just plain cronyism. Which means one of two things. Government is incompetent. Or corrupt. Take your pick. Whichever one makes you feel better.

If Private Investors won’t Invest it has to be a Bad Investment

Solyndra is just one example of bad government policy. The whole ‘green energy is our future’ is a pipe dream. An excuse for the government to spend money. And to pay back campaign donors.

If this was our future, private investors would be pumping investment capital into green energy like there was no tomorrow. Like they did with all of those dot-coms. Those didn’t need any government investment, did they? And you know why? Because the private sector is full of greedy bastards looking to get richer. That’s why. And they will bury someone with investment capital if that someone has a good idea.

Anything the government ‘invests’ in, then, is a bad idea. Why? Because private investors say so.

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