Saint-Domingue Slave Rebellion, Great Migration and 1967 Detroit Race Riot

Posted by PITHOCRATES - July 23rd, 2013

History 101

The Brutal Slave Rebellion on Saint-Domingue created Haiti and opened the Door to the American West

Haiti was born from a slave rebellion.  Inspired by the French Revolution, which was inspired by the American Revolution, the slaves on Saint-Domingue could taste the liberty in the air.  The slaves outnumbered the whites on the island.  And when they rose in rebellion in 1791 their white overlords were powerless to stop them.  The slaves massacred the white planters.  Those lucky enough to survive fled the island.  The French tried to reestablish control.  Then they went to war again against the British.  Which complicated matters.  And led to a British invasion of Saint-Domingue.

Toussaint Louverture, a former slave, and educated, eventually led the now former slaves to victory.  And won the peace.  He invited the planters back.  Replaced slave-labor with paid-labor.  Reestablished trade with Great Britain.  And the new United States.  While the French did away with slavery in their colonial possessions.  For a while.  During the convulsions going on in France following the French Revolution there were many changes in government.  And the government in 1802 lent a sympathetic ear to the former white planters who wanted their plantations back.  And their slaves.  Napoléon Bonaparte, interested in reestablishing New France in North America, sent a military force to take back Saint-Domingue.  Who captured and sent Toussaint Louverture back to France.  But things did not go well for the French.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines continued the fight in Louverture’s place.  A determined enemy, and Yellow Fever, were too much for the French.  They pulled out their remaining soldiers.  Gave up on Saint-Domingue.  And on New France in North America.  Causing another exodus from the island.  And if you ever wonder why New Orleans is so French this is why.  A lot of those fleeing Haiti settled in New Orleans.  Doubling the city’s population.  Needing money to continue the war against Great Britain Napoléon offered to sell the Louisiana Territory, the thick center part of the United States between Texas and Canada, to Thomas Jefferson.  And did.  So the brutal slave rebellion on Saint-Domingue not only created Haiti.  It gave the Americans the Mississippi River and its tributaries.  The Mississippi Valley.  The Great Plains.  And opened the door to the West.

The Great Migration brought some 6 Million Blacks from the Rural South to Northern Factories

But that brutal slave rebellion did something else.  It made the southern planters nervous.  Over half of the 40,000 white colonists were killed during that slave rebellion.  A fact that weighed heavily on the minds of the highly outnumbered white planter class in the South.  Who lived in fear of a similar slave rebellion happening in the United States.  Which lead to a more oppressive control over their slaves.  So they could snuff out any rebellion at the first sign of trouble.  And there was a reversal of policy.  The Founding Fathers had shelved the issue of slavery for 20 years to get the South to join the new nation.  Believing that the institution of slavery would die out on its own.  And in the following two decades some slave owners were freeing a slave or two.  But that all stopped following the revolution in Saint-Domingue.  When the life of a slave went from bad to worse.  For the last thing the white planter class needed was a Toussaint Louverture in their midst.

By the time of the American Civil War the slave population had grown much larger.  Which added another element to the Civil War.  Especially for the South.  The North was fighting for a noble purpose.  To free the slaves.  And fulfilling the declaration that all men were created equal in the Declaration of Independence.  But what then?  What happens after the North wins the Civil War?  And they free the slaves?  Where are the slaves going to go?  Back to Africa?  Even the ones who have no idea what or where Africa was?  Having been born and raised in the United States?  No.  They weren’t.  They were going to remain in the South.  Nothing would change in the North.  But life in the South would be changed into something that just didn’t exist.  A biracial society.  Worse, this was going to be a biracial society where the majority was once brutally oppressed by the minority.  Thanks in large part to the slave rebellion on Saint-Domingue.

With this backdrop the odds for a peaceful reconstruction were slim.  The South did not adjust well to the new reality.  There were fears.  Anger.  And the old prejudices.  While in the North life went on as it always did.  Predominantly white.  And industrializing.  Creating more and more factory jobs.  That drew immigrants to the industrial north.  As it drew southern blacks.  Leading up to the Great Migration.  From 1910-1930.  Pausing during the Great Depression and World War II.  And picking up again from 1940-1970.  When some 6 million blacks left the rural south.  And headed to the jobs in the big cities in the Northeast.  The Midwest.  And the West.  Working and living in the big cities.  Like Detroit.

The 1967 Detroit Race Riot accelerated the White Flight from the City which decimated the Tax Base

Detroit dominated following the post-war period.  It was an economic powerhouse.  Thanks to a booming automotive industry.  And a war-torn Europe and Asia.  Whose industrial capacity suffered greatly from Allied bombing.  Leaving the motor city the auto capital of the world.  And making Detroit one of the richest cities in the nation.  With their population peaking in 1950.  As people came to the city for those manufacturing jobs.  But the housing did not keep up with the growth in population.  Blacks and immigrants often faced discrimination.  Getting the worst jobs.  And the worst housing.  Things that changed in the Sixties.  Thanks in large part to a shift of the auto industry out of Detroit.

Following World War II Packard, Hudson, and Studebaker went out of business.  And the Big Three went on a building spree.  In the suburbs.  And a lot of white Detroiters followed them.  Relieving the housing pressure a little.  Allowing a black middle class to grow.  But the suburbs kept growing.  As businesses moved their jobs to the suburbs that were a little more business friendly.  With sprawling spaces for new factories.  And a brand new interstate highway system to easily ship material and parts from one to another.  The same interstate highway system that converged four expressways in the city of Detroit.  Destroying a lot of neighborhoods.  Which were predominantly black.

Many of those displaced people moved to the 12th Street area.  An area that become twice as crowded as the city average.  Unemployment was rising.  As was crime.  Including prostitution.  Where white johns were coming to the neighborhood to solicit black prostitutes.  A big complaint of the black community.  So the police cracked down on prostitution.  And a black prostitute ended up dead.  The people blamed the cops.  The cops blamed a pimp.  Tensions were rising.  Then on July 23, 1967, the police raided a blind pig.  An unlicensed after-hours bar.  On the corner of 12th Street and Clairmount.  Where a party of some 80 people were celebrating the return of two soldiers just back home from the Vietnam War.  The cops arrested them all.  While they were waiting for the paddy wagon to take them away a crowd formed outside.  Someone threw a bottle at a cop.  And thus began the 1967 Detroit race riot.  Which only accelerated the white flight from Detroit.  Caused an exodus of jobs, too.  As businesses fled the city.  Which just decimated the tax base.  Accelerating the urban decay.  Soon the black middle class followed the whites.  In pursuit of those jobs.  And to escape the dying city.  Which it did in 2013.  Die.  Figuratively.  By filing the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Cane Sugar, Crystallized Sugar, Sugar Trade, West Indies, Wealth and War

Posted by PITHOCRATES - May 7th, 2013

History 101

As Muslim displaced Christians from the Lands of the Roman Empire Sugar moved West

There is a war on sugar.  It’s making us fat.  And it’s making us sick.  Because it tastes so damn good.  We crave it.  And always have.  Since the first days we chewed on sugarcane.  Sucking out the juice.  Which was where that sweet delight was.  It was so good that the people in New Guinea (just north of Australia) learned how to plant it and raise it themselves.  Instead of just looking for it in the wild.  Around the eighth millennium BC.  From there it spread.  North.  To Southeast Asia.  Southern China.  And into India.  Where they took sugar to the next level.  They didn’t just chew on sugarcane to suck out the juice in India.  They refined it into a crystallized substance.  Around 350 AD.  Concentrating that sweetness.  And making it portable.  Then the Arabs entered the picture.

The Arabs took the Indian sugar-making technique and made it into big business.  They established plantations to grow it in tropical climes.  Where the two things that made sugarcane grow best—heat and water—were plentiful.  They built the first sugar mills to refine the cane.  Basically presses to squeeze out the juice.  Which they then boiled the water out of.  Leaving behind sugar crystals.  And added it to their foods.  As Muslim Arabs displaced Christians from the lands of the Roman Empire sugar moved west.  The Arabs introduced sugarcane plantations as far west as southern Spain.  When Christian Crusaders returned from fighting Muslims in the Holy Land they brought back crystallized sugar to Europe.  And they quickly fell in love with those white crystals.  By the late 13th century even England had grown a sweet-tooth.  Who would go on to consume so much of the stuff that they would rot their teeth away.

Then the Europeans entered the sugar business in the 15th century.  At first it was just the wealthy that enjoyed sugar.  Then it spread to the common people.  As demand grew they established new plantations to meet that demand.  In southern Spain.  The Atlantic island of Madeira.  The Canary Islands.  The Cape Verde islands off the west coast of Africa.  All had good growing climates for sugarcane.  And each plantation had its own processing plant.  For a ship’s hold full of crystallized sugar was far more valuable than a ship’s hold full of harvested sugarcane.  Making these plantations labor intensive endeavors.  And working the fields was backbreaking work.  To step up production required a larger labor force than was available.  And to meet that demand they turned to using African slaves.

Sugar was a Turning Point from an Agrarian World of Slaves and Indentured Servants to the Modern Industrial World

By the 16th century the Europeans were taking sugarcane across the Atlantic.  And African slaves.  The Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, French and British brought sugarcane and slaves to Brazil, Cuba, Jamaica, Barbados, the Virgin Islands, Guadaloupe, Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti) and elsewhere in the Americas.  With the Caribbean Islands becoming the sugar capital of the world.  France’s Saint-Domingue being the single largest producer in the world.  Until their slave uprising.  It was France’s wealthiest possession in the Western Hemisphere.  And its loss changed French ambition in the New World.  For Napoleon had his eyes on rebuilding the French Empire in North America that was so rudely interrupted by France’s loss in the Seven Years’ War.  But with the loss of Saint-Domingue and all that sugar wealth Napoleon lost all interest in the New World.  And sold the Louisiana Territory to the United States.  To prepare for war with Britain.  Again.

The British and the French both had lucrative sugar plantations in the West Indies.  When the American Revolutionary War turned into a world war the British and French squared off once again.  Especially in the West Indies.  Where they wanted to protect their possessions producing that valuable sugar.  And take the other’s possessions.  So they could expand their holdings.  And their wealth from the sugar trade.  As well as put down any slave uprisings.  Such as would later happen in Saint-Domingue.  Some say the reason the British lost the American Revolutionary War was because they diverted too much of their military resources to the Caribbean.  But the French were diverting a lot of their military resources to the Caribbean, too.  Which is one reason why the war lasted 8 years.  As the French were more interested in taking the British possessions in the West Indies than American independence.  Their first efforts fighting alongside the Americans (Rhode Island in 1778.  Savannah, Georgia, in 1779) did not help the cause.  It was only when the French fleet could be spared from the action in the West Indies that they joined General Washington in trapping General Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781.  With Cornwallis’ surrender effectively ending the war.  Even though they wouldn’t sign the final peace treaty until 1783.

By the end of the international slave trade Europeans sent approximately 10 million Africans to the New World.  Mostly to Brazil and the Caribbean.  To work in the sugar plantations.  Where slave ships left Africa.  They unloaded slaves in the New World.  Loaded the sugar these slaves grew.  Shipped the sugar back to the Old World.  Unloaded the sugar and loaded on finished goods.  Then sailed back to the African slave stations.  Where they traded their finished goods for more slaves.  There was big money in The Trade Triangle (trade from Africa to the New World to the Old World and back to Africa).  But sugar also helped to kick off the Industrial Revolution.  For the iron industry grew to make the machinery of the sugar mills.  As each plantation processed their sugarcane into crystallized sugar that was a lot of cast iron gears, sprockets, levers, axles, boilers, etc.  Basically a turning point from an agrarian world of slaves and indentured servants.  To the modern industrial world and wage-earners.

There is a Correlation between America’s Obesity Problem and the Switch from Cane Sugar to Corn Sugar

By the 19th century technology was making better sugar at lower costs.  The British designed a low-pressure boiler.  As water boils at a lower temperature when at lower pressure they were able to refine sugar with less energy.  Cutting production costs.  And waste.  As higher temperatures caramelized some of the sugar.  Though caramelized sugar can be delicious on crème brûlée you don’t want it when you’re producing crystallized sugar to sell.  Then the Americans improved this process by creating the multiple-effect evaporator.  A multi-stage device where the pressure is lower in each successive stage.  They use steam to boil water in the first stage.  This vapor then provides the energy to boil water in the next stage.  Which is at a lower pressure.  And, therefore, has a lower boiling point.  That vapor then boils water in the next stage which is at a lower pressure.  And so on.  Where one energy input creates a lot of useful work cost-efficiently.

With the advance in refining equipment refinery plants grew more complex.  And expensive.  So instead of building one on every plantation they built fewer but larger ones.  And shipped raw product to them.  Modern ships and economies of scale made this the new business model.  Companies grew and opened other refineries.  And expanded vertically.  Growing sugarcane as well as refining it.  One of the best at this was the American Sugar Refining Company.  That at one point controlled 98% of the sugar processing capacity in the United States.  Which earned it a spot on the original Dow Dozen.  The first 12 industrial stocks the Dow used in calculating their Dow Jones Industrial Average in 1896.  And remained a component of the Dow Jones Industrial Average until 1930.

Eventually the Americans couldn’t compete with foreign sugar producers any more.  They enlisted the help of Congress to impose tariffs on cane sugar imports.  Forcing Americans to pay more for their sugar.  Then they started making sugar out of government subsidized corn.  High-fructose corn syrup.  Which pretty much sweetens anything manufactured in the United States today.  That some say causes more health problems than cane sugar.  Including obesity.  Those in the high-fructose corn syrup business vehemently deny this.  But there is a correlation between America’s obesity problem and the switch from cane sugar to corn sugar.  Because of the different way the body metabolized corn sugar it did not satiate our appetite.  Leading us to over consume.  Such as with sugary drinks.  Which have gotten so large in size that New York City Mayor Bloomberg tried to make these large sizes illegal.  Because America’s over consumption of sugar was making us obese.  While Britain’s over consumption of cane sugar only rotted their teeth away.  It didn’t make them obese.  Which makes the case that corn sugar is less healthy than cane sugar.  Despite what the corn sugar lobby says.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

LESSONS LEARNED #11: “Before you condemn capitalism, imagine a world without professional sports, movies, cell phones and tampons.” -Old Pithy

Posted by PITHOCRATES - April 29th, 2010

AT THE END of the American Revolution the world said, “Okay.  Now what?”  We were a joke.  We were broke.  We were weak.  And now that the common enemy was no more, we weren’t very united any more.  Most assumed we would end up back with Great Britain.  And because of that many thought there was no sense rushing in to make treaties that will just have to be unmade.

It was complicated dealing with us.  In a confederacy of strong states, it was not easy making trade or treaties.  Multiple currencies, tariffs, laws, etc.  To enter the world of the European powers, America needed to put on her big boy pants and speak with one voice.  Some Founding Fathers saw this.  That’s why they met in Philadelphia and drafted the Constitution.  And with ratification, we had one voice.

ALEXANDER HAMILTON WAS a capitalist.  Thomas Jefferson was not.  Hamilton understood money and finance.  Jefferson did not.  Hamilton liked manufacturing and commerce.  Jefferson did not.  He thought everyone should be a simple farmer.  Everyone, that is, but him.

When elected president, people hailed Jefferson as the people’s president.  Simple, unassuming, the epitome of egalitarian republicanism.  Only thing was, there wasn’t anything simple, unassuming or egalitarian about him.  He attacked the nobility, the corruption of big cities and the evils of commerce and the ‘money’ men.  Yet he indulged in the good life like no other American.  He always lived beyond his means.  He lavished himself in the finest luxuries of the time.  And he absolutely loved Paris though it was everything he said he hated.

Hamilton put America’s financial house in order.  He helped give the new nation legitimacy.  He opened European credit to us.  Problem was that, in Jefferson’s eyes, America was becoming too much like Great Britain.  And worse, it was becoming less Virginian.  So they squared off and fought each other.  Tooth and nail.  They gave birth to America’s first political parties (Federalists and Republicans).  They viciously attacked each other in the press.  Yes, politics were nasty right from the beginning.

Then something happened that caused Jefferson to embrace much of what Hamilton did.  He fell ass-backwards into the Louisiana Purchase.

THERE WERE DREAMS of a French empire in North America.  But the slave uprising in Saint-Domingue (present day Haiti) put the kibosh on that.  With Saint-Domingue lost, there was no point in France keeping New Orleans or the Louisiana territory beyond.  And Napoleon needed money.  He was at war.  And that war was about to expand to include Great Britain.  So he offered it all to the Americans for about 15 million dollars.  Though a steal, 15 million was still a lot of money.  And then Jefferson embraced what that capitalistic bastard (we can call him that for Hamilton was the fruit of unmarried loins) created. 

(This sale was also strategic.  By expanding America’s western border, it kept that land from falling to the British.  America would grow and, in time, a stronger America would challenge Great Britain for all that sea-going commerce in the Atlantic.  If it couldn’t go to the French, better it go to the Americans.  And, in the process, it would really piss off the British.  Like I said, strategic.)

The deal included gold, bonds and some debt assumption.  Jefferson was adamantly opposed to Hamilton’s assumption of states’ debt back in Washington’s administration for it only aggrandized the central government.  And Jefferson absolutely hated banking (probably because he was forever in debt).  And though he was brilliant, he was not so brilliant when you put dollar signs in front of things.  Jefferson made the purchase, but the bond deal put together was pure Hamiltonian. 

France wanted cash.  We didn’t have it.  But we now had established credit in Europe.  We could issue bonds.  Because of our credit worthiness, the Dutch were willing to buy those bonds from France at a discount and give France the cash Napoleon wanted.  And, voilà, Hamilton’s capitalism allowed Jefferson to double the size of the United States while reducing the threat in North America from the competing European powers (Great Britain, France and Spain).  It also enabled Napoleon to cause further mischief in Europe (an unfortunate side affect).  Sorry about that, Europe.  It was an unintended consequence.

THE FREE FLOW of ideas and capital can define capitalism.  Some people have great ideas.  Others have lots of money and are willing to take a risk.  Separately, these two don’t do much to make life better.  But bring them together, though, and let the good times roll.

Venture capitalists are rich.  And they’re looking to get richer.  It’s what they’re good at.  They look for talent.  New start-up companies with a good idea.  An idea that may change the world.  They may not have that creative spark to create something new, but they can recognize that spark when they see it.  And when they see it, they want to finance it.  If they pick a winner, we may get that something that changes the world.  And they may make a dump truck full of money.  Everyone wins.

Venture capitalists bring in money.  And talent.  The entrepreneur spends his or her time creating.  The venture capitalist helps build the business.  Kind of like a mentor.  They can be demanding, though.  And impatient.  They expect a big profit on their investment.  And they don’t want to wait around forever to get it.  When things work, they can work well.  Very well.  The entrepreneurs create something new and remarkable that everyone must have.  They then take their company public.  Their initial public offering brings in gazillions.  And those initial investors (the entrepreneurs and the venture capitalists) get incredibly rich.

IN 1976, THREE guys had an idea.  They made an electronic device in a garage that they thought people would want to buy.  It was crude and ‘some’ assembly was required.  And by ‘some’ I mean a lot.  Initial financing was limited.  A car and a scientific calculator just didn’t sell for a lot.  Two of them (one had since left the company) approached a couple of venture capitalists who introduced them to a man by the name of Armas Clifford (Mike) Markkula Jr.  He, too, was a venture capitalist.  And an engineer to boot.

Markkula joined the company.  He was one of the driving forces behind a new product introduced in 1984.  Their Super Bowl ad was, is, a classic.  That product was the Macintosh computer.  Those two men introduced to Markkula were Steve Jobs and Stephen Wozniak.  That company is, of course, Apple.  Today, Apple’s iPhone dominates the market.  And they’re still innovating.  Thanks to a venture capitalist willing to take a risk.

CAPITALISM CAN DO remarkable things.  It can build a nation.  Or change a world.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,