Week in Review
Some say it’s pointless for the United States to cut back on its carbon emissions. For whatever we do it won’t change what China and India are doing. And what are they doing? They’re building coal-fired power plants like there is no tomorrow. So it is kind of pointless what we do. For when it comes to global warming it won’t make a difference what one nation on the globe is doing. As the massive amounts of carbon emissions produced by China and India will enter the atmosphere surrounding the globe. Which will affect the United States. Even if we shrink our carbon footprint to nothing.
In a similar manner it is kind of pointless for an airport to try and minimize its carbon footprint (see Oslo Airport achieves environmental certification by Joacim Vestvik-Lunde posted 3/28/2014 on Sustainable Aviation Newswire).
On Monday, 24 March 2014, Oslo Airport received a certificate showing that it is certified according to the internationally recognised ISO 14001 standard by DNV GL (Det Norske Veritas Germanischer Lloyd)…
Developed by ISO (the International Organization for Standardization), ISO 14001 is an international standard for environmental management based on two concepts: continuous improvement and regulatory compliance…
OSL has been focused on protecting the external environment ever since the airport was on the drawing boards. OSL is working systematically to reduce the environmental impact of its operations and also uses new technology and innovation to improve its performance. These measures include converting stored winter snow into cooling energy in the summer, the recovery of energy from wastewater and a pilot project to study the use of hydrogen as an energy source for vehicles at the airport. OSL has been certified since 2010 at the highest level of Airport Carbon Accreditation, a voluntary scheme to systematically reduce greenhouse gas emissions together with the players at the airport.
If there was any place that should get a pass on their carbon footprint it should be an airport. Because whatever they do will not offset the carbon emissions of the airplanes landing and taking off from that airport. And they emit a lot of carbon. So much that the Europeans wanted to extend their emissions trading scheme (ETS) to include airlines. Making them pay for the amount of carbon they emit when flying in EU airspace. Something the Chinese are very opposed to. As are other non-EU members. So much so that they delayed the inclusion of air travel into the ETS.
The biggest carbon emitters at any airport are the planes. Nothing even comes close. So why spend the money for a costly certification when it won’t make any difference? For the only way to make a real cut in carbon emissions at an airport is to get rid of the planes. Of course, if they did that then we wouldn’t need any ISO 14001 compliant airports, would we? But if we did this it wouldn’t stop China and India from building their coal-fired power plants. Proving how futile any efforts in combating manmade global warming are. It’s just money that could have been spent on feeding the hungry. Housing the homeless. Treating the sick. Or a myriad of other social spending that actually helps some people.
Tags: airplanes, airport, Carbon, carbon emissions, carbon footprint, China, coal-fired power plants, environment, ETS, India, ISO 14001, Oslo Airport, planes
Week in Review
Politicians everywhere want to build high-speed rail. Why? Because there are maybe only 2 high-speed rail lines in the world that operate at a profit. All other passenger rail requires government subsidies. Because the massive capital and operating costs for passenger rail are so great they cannot recover them via ticket prices. And high-speed rail is the costliest of all.
So passenger rail requires new taxation to support it. And politicians like new taxes. Also, building passenger rail requires an enormous infrastructure. Built and maintained by lots of people. Union people. Something else politicians love. Rewarding their union friends with lots of new union jobs. Which is why politicians love high-speed rail. They get a lot ‘thank you’ votes for all that government spending. No matter how costly or inefficient passenger rail is as a means of transportation. As we can see here (see I Spent 28 Hours on a Bus. I Loved It. by Eric Holthaus posted 2/4/2014 on Slate).
The infrastructure between point A and point B for cars and buses is already there. Paid for with fuel taxes. Planes need no infrastructure between point A and point B. But trains do. A very costly infrastructure.
Trains carry more people than buses. But not as many as planes. Which means the far greater cost of passenger rail is divided by fewer ticket purchasers. Whereas the less costly flying is divided by more ticket purchasers.
Planes can fly around 500 mph. Passenger rail can travel up to 100 mph on some sections of track. While high-speed rail travels at speeds of just under 200 mph on dedicated (and very expensive) track.
You add these points together and it’s little wonder that traveling by train costs about 20% more than flying. While taking 5.8 times as long. Or a little less for high-speed rail. Making the plane the undisputed champion of long-distance travel. And it works without massive government subsidies. Which is the best kind of travel there is. The kind where the people traveling pay for their travels. And not everyone else. As is the case with passenger rail.
Tags: flying, government subsidies, high-speed rail, infrastructure, passenger rail, planes, subsidies, taxes, trains, union jobs
Week in Review
The most dangerous parts of flight are the landing and taking off parts. Why? Because planes are big and heavy. And they travel fast. And whenever anything big and heavy travels fast near the ground bad things can happen. Because that’s a lot of kinetic energy that can do a lot of damage when it comes to a sudden and unexpected stop. But up in the air away from the ground planes easily earn their title as the safest way to travel. For up in the lonely expanses of the sky they can travel in excess of 500 miles per hour without a care in the world. Because the odds of them striking anything are virtually zero. This is where big and heavy things that travel fast belong. Not on the ground. Like high-speed rail. For even low-speed rail can be dangerous (see New York train derailment: Safety officials recover ‘black box’ by Tina Susman posted 12/1/2013 on the Los Angeles Times).
Investigators have recovered the “event recorder” from a Metro-North train that derailed in New York City early Sunday, a major step toward determining what caused the crash that killed four people and left scores injured…
Earl F. Weener of the National Transportation Safety Board said at a news briefing that the agency expected to have investigators on the scene in the Spuyten Duyvil area of the Bronx for a week to 10 days.
“Our mission is to understand not just what happened but why it happened, with the intent of preventing it from happening again,” Weener said. He said investigators had not yet talked to the train’s operator. Some local media have said the operator has claimed that he tried to slow down at the sharp curve where the derailment occurred but that the brakes failed.
The speed limit at the curve is 30 mph, compared to about 70 mph on straight sections of track.
Gov. Andrew Cuomo said the area is “dangerous by design,” because of the curve, but he said the bend in the track alone could not be blamed for the crash.
“That curve has been here for many, many years,” he told reporters at the scene, as darkness fell over the wreckage. “Trains take the curve every day … so it’s not the fact that there’s a curve here. We’ve always had this configuring. We didn’t have accidents. So there has to be another factor.”
High-speed rail is costly. Because it needs dedicated track. Overhead electric wires. No grade crossings. Fencing around the track. Or installed on an elevated viaduct. To prevent any cars, people or animals from wandering onto the track. They need banked track for high-speed curves. And, of course, they can’t have any sharp curves. Because curves cause a train to slow down. If they don’t they can derail. Which may be the reason why this commuter train derailed. It may have entered a curved section of track at a speed too great for its design. Which shows the danger of fast trains on sharp turns.
There haven’t been many high-speed rail accidents. But there have been a few. All resulting in loss of life. Because big and heavy things that travel fast along the ground have a lot of kinetic energy. And if something goes wrong at these high speeds (collision with another train or derailment) by the time that kinetic energy dissipates it will cause a lot of damage to the train, to its surroundings and to the people inside.
The high speed of today’s high-speed trains is about 200 mph. Not even half of what modern jetliners can travel at. Yet they cost far more. Most if not all passenger rail needs government subsidies. Air travel doesn’t. Making high-speed rail a very poor economic model. But they are capital and labor intensive. Which is why governments build them. So they can spend lots of money. And create a lot of union jobs. Which tends to help them win elections.
Tags: curve, derailment, high speeds, high-speed rail, kinetic energy, planes, sharp curves, track
Ships once used Tugs to Maneuver around in Small Spaces but Today they use Tunnel Thrusters
As technology progressed the more things we needed to make other things. Small factories grew into large manufacturing plants. Which consumed vast quantities of material to produce vast quantities of goods. Requiring ever larger means of transportation. And we have built some behemoths of transportation.
Water transport has been the preferred method for heavy transport. Which is why most early cities were on rivers. As time passed our cities got bigger. Our industry got bigger. And our ships got bigger. Huge bulk freighters bring iron ore, coal, limestone, etc., from northern ports across the Great Lakes to docks on small rivers and harbors further south. On the open lakes these ships can put the pedal to the metal. Roaring across these lakes at breakneck speeds of 15 mph. If you’ve ever seen a Great Lakes freighter at full throttle you probably noticed something. They push a lot of water out of their way. Something they can’t do in those small rivers and harbors. As their wake would push the river over its banks. So they slow down to a non-wake speed of something slower than a person walking.
Lakes are huge bodies of deep water. But these Great Lakes freighters, or lakers, often enter narrow and shallow rivers. Some rivers even too shallow. So they dredge a channel in them. So these lakers don’t bottom out. Some lakers have to travel upriver to offload. Then turn around. Which isn’t easy in a shallow river when your ship is 700-1,000 feet long. They once used tugs to push these ships around. But today they use tunnel thrusters. An impeller inside a tunnel through the ship at the bow and stern perpendicular to the beam and below the water line. Which can turn a ship without the forward motion a rudder requires. Allowing it to move as if a tug is pushing it. Only without a tug.
Interesting thing about Trains is that they don’t have a Steering Wheel
With the introduction of the railroad cities moved away from rivers and coastlines. But the railroads only became a part of the heavy transport system. Cities grew up along the railroads. Where farmers in a region brought their harvests to grain elevators. Trains took their harvests from these elevators to ports on rivers and coastlines. Where they could offload to ships or barges. And it would take a large ship or a barge. Because one long train can carry a lot of harvest.
Interesting thing about trains is that they don’t have a steering wheel. For there is only two directions they can go. Forward. And backward. If you’ve traveled passenger rail to the end of the line you may have experienced a train turning around. The train will reduce speed to a crawl as they switch over to a perpendicular-running track. For trains do not travel well on curves. Because the wheels are connected to a solid axel. So in a turn the outer wheel needs to travel faster to keep up with the inner wheel. But can’t. Causing the wheels to slip instead. Causing wear and tear on the train wheels. And track. Which is why curved track does not last as long as straight track. The train travels a while on this perpendicular track at a crawl until the rear end passes another switch. It then stops. And goes backward. Switching back to the track it was originally on. Only now backing up instead of traveling forward. The train then backs into the passenger terminal. Ready to leave from this end of the line going forward. To the other end of the line.
Freight trains are a lot longer than passenger trains. Some can be a mile long. Or longer. And rarely turn around like a freight train. Rail cars are added to each other creating a consist in a rail yard. A switcher (small locomotive) moves back and forth picking up cars and attaching them to the consist. In the reverse order which they will be disconnected and left in rail yards along the way. Once they build the consist they bring in the go-power. Typically a lashup of 2-3 locomotives (or more if they’re the older DC models). The lead locomotive will typically face forward. Putting the engineer at the very front of the train. In the old days they had roundhouses to switch the direction of these locomotives. Today they turn them around when they need to like the passenger train turning around. Which is much easier as they only have to turn around one locomotive in the lashup.
Planes may Fly close to 500 mph in the Air but on the Ground they move about as Fast as Someone can Walk
Airplanes are big. In flight they’re as graceful as a bird in flight. But it’s a different story on the ground. Planes are big and heavy. They have a huge wingspan. And the pilots sit so far forward that they can’t see how close their wingtips are to other things. Such as other airplanes. When they leave a gate they usually have a tug push them back and get them facing forward. At which time they start their engines. As it would be dangerous to start them while at the gate where there are a lot of people and equipment servicing the plane. They don’t want to suck anything—a person or a piece of equipment—into the jet engines. And they don’t want to blow anything away moving behind the engines as the jet blast from a jet can blow a bus away. And has. In flight they use their ailerons to turn. The flaps on the tips of each wing that roll a plane left or right. Causing the plane to turn. The rudder is used for trimming a plane. Or, in the case of an engine failure, to correct for asymmetric thrust that wants to twist the airplane like a weathercock. On the ground they use a little steering wheel (i.e., a tiller) outboard of the pilot (to the left of the left seat and to the right of the right seat) to turn the nose gear wheel.
Pilots can’t see a lot out of the cockpit window while on the ground. Which is why they rely on ground crews to give them direction. And to walk alongside the wings during the pushback. To make sure the wings don’t hit anything. And that no one hits the plane. Once the tug disconnects and the plane is under its own power the flight crew takes directions from ground controllers. Whose job is to safely move planes around the airport while they’re on the ground. Planes may fly close to 500 mph in the air but on the ground they move about as fast as someone can walk. For planes are very heavy. If they get moving too fast they’re not going to be able to stop on a dime. Which would be a problem if they’re in a line of planes moving along a taxiway to the runway.
When we use big things to move people or freight they work great where they are operating in their element. A ship speeding across an open lake. A train barreling along straight track. Or a plane jetting across the open skies. But when we rein these big things in they are out of their element. Ships in narrow, shallow rivers. Trains on sharply curved track. And planes on the ground. Where more accidents happen than when they are in their element. Ships that run into bridges. Trains that derail. And planes that hit things with their wings. Because it’s not easy moving big things in small places.
Tags: airplanes, airport, barge, freight train, freighters, Great Lakes, harbors, heavy transport, lakers, locomotive, passenger train, planes, ports, railroad, rivers, ships, track, train, tug, tunnel thrusters, wing
Trains require an Enormous Amount of Infrastructure between Terminal Points whereas a Plane does Not
Trains and jets are big and expensive. And take huge sums of money to move freight and passengers. Each has their strength. And each has their weakness. Planes are great for transporting people. While trains are best for moving heavy freight. They both can and do transport both. But pay a premium when they are not operating at their strength.
The big difference between these two modes of transportation is infrastructure. Trains require an enormous amount of infrastructure between terminal points. Whereas a plane doesn’t need anything between terminal points. Because they fly in the air. But because they fly in the air they need a lot of fuel to produce enough lift to break free from the earth’s gravity. Trains, on the other hand, don’t have to battle gravity as much. As they move across the ground on steel rails. Which offer little resistance to steel wheels. Allowing them to pull incredible weights cross country. But to do that they need to build and maintain very expensive train tracks between point A and point B.
To illustrate the difference in costs each incurs moving both people and freight we’ll look at a hotshot freight train and a Boeing 747-8. A hotshot freight gets the best motive power and hustles on the main lines across the country. The Boeing 747-8 is the latest in the 747 family and includes both passenger and freighter versions. The distance between Los Angeles (LA) and New York City (NYC) is approximately 2,800 miles. So let’s look at the costs of each mode of transportation moving both people and freight between these two cities.
Railroads are so Efficient at moving Freight because One Locomotive can pull up to 5,000 Tons of Freight
There are many variables when it comes to the cost of building and maintaining railroad track. So we’re going to guesstimate a lot of numbers. And do a lot of number crunching. An approximate number for the cost per mile of new track is $1.3 million. That includes land, material and labor. So the cost of the track between LA and NYC is $3.6 billion. Assuming a 7-year depreciation schedule that comes to $1.4 million per day. If it takes 3 days for a hotshot freight to travel from LA to NYC that’s $4.3 million for those three days. Of course, main lines see a lot of traffic. So let’s assume there are 8 trains a day for a total of 24 trains during that 3-day period. This brings the depreciation expense for that trip from LA to NYC down to $178,082.
So that’s the capital cost of those train tracks between point A and point B. Now the operating costs. An approximate number for annual maintenance costs per mile of track is $300,000. So the annual cost to maintain the track between LA and NYC is $840 million. Crunching the numbers the rest of the way brings the maintenance cost for that 3-day trip to approximately $278,671. Assuming a fuel consumption of 4 gallons per mile, a fuel cost of $3/gallon and a lashup of 3 locomotives the fuel cost for that 3-day trip is approximately $100,800. Adding the capital cost, the maintenance expense and the fuel costs brings the total to $566,553. With each locomotive being able to pull approximately 5,000 tons of freight for a total of 15,000 tons brings the cost per ton of freight shipped to $37.77.
Now let’s look at moving people by train. People are a lot lighter than heavy freight. So we can drop one locomotive in the lashup. And burn about a gallon less per mile. Bringing the fuel cost down from $100,800 to $50,400. And the total cost to $516,153. Assuming these locomotives pull 14 Amtrak Superliners (plus a dining car and a baggage car) that’s a total of 1,344 passengers (each Superliner has a 96 passenger maximum capacity). Dividing the cost by the number of passengers gives us a cost of $384.04 per passenger.
Passenger Rail requires Massive Government Subsidies because of the Costs of Building and Maintaining Track
A Boeing 747-8 freighter can carry a maximum 147.9 tons of freight. While consuming approximately 13.7 gallons of jet fuel per mile. At 2,800 miles that trip from LA to NYC will consume about 38,403 gallons of jet fuel. At $3/gallon that comes to a $115,210 total fuel cost. Or $778.97 per ton. Approximately 1,962% more than moving a ton of freight from LA to NYC by train. Excluding the capital costs of locomotives, rolling stock, airplanes, terminal infrastructure/fees, etc. Despite that massive cost of building and maintaining rail between point A and point B the massive tonnage a train can move compared to what a plane can carry makes the train the bargain when moving freight. But it’s a different story when it comes to moving people.
The Boeing 747-8 carries approximately 467 people on a typical flight. And burns approximately 6.84 gallons per mile. Because people are a lot lighter than freight. Crunching the numbers gives a cost per passenger of $123.11. Approximately 212% less than what it costs a train to move a person. Despite fuel costs being almost the same. The difference is, of course, the additional $465,753 in costs for the track running between LA and NYC. Which comes to $346.54 per passenger. Or about 90% of the cost/passenger. Which is why there are no private passenger railroads these days. For if passenger rail isn’t heavily subsidized by the taxpayer the price of a ticket would be so great that no one would buy them. Except the very rich train enthusiast. Who is willing to pay 3 times the cost of flying and take about 12 times the time of flying.
There are private freight railroads. Private passenger airlines. And private air cargo companies. Because they all can attract customers without government subsidies. Passenger rail, on the other hand, can’t. Because of the massive costs to build and maintain railroad tracks. With high-speed rail being the most expensive track to build and maintain. Making it the most cost inefficient way to move people. Requiring massive government subsidies. Either for the track infrastructure. Or the electric power that powers high-speed rail.
Tags: Boeing 747-8, freight, freight train, fuel, fuel cost, government subsidies, heavy freight, high-speed rail, hotshot freight, infrastructure, jet, locomotive, maintenance costs, passenger rail, passengers, planes, railroad, railroad track, track, train tracks, trains
Week in Review
Typically prices rise during good economic times. And fall during bad. Because demand rises during good economic times and falls during bad times. And prices typically follow demand. As businesses can raise prices when the demand for their goods or services rises. But rising prices don’t always indicate good economic times (see Southwest joins as airlines raise fares on most U.S. routes by Nancy Trejos posted 7/24/2012 on USA Today).
A three-month break from airfare increases has ended, with Southwest Airlines raising fares by $4 to $10 round trip on most routes inside the U.S…
Kevin Schorr of Campbell-Hill Aviation Group, a Virginia consulting firm, says airlines haven’t been able to raise fares in recent months because of the economic uncertainty surrounding the presidential election and Europe.
He says airlines are cutting the number of flights they’re making available. “By doing that, they’re able to raise fares if there’s less supply,” he says…
Paul Flaningan, a spokesman for Southwest, says the airline raised fares on non-sale tickets and excluded routes shorter than 500 miles.
Southwest, on the other hand, is raising prices because of falling demand. Fewer people are flying because of the bad economy. Leaving some planes to fly with empty seats. Of course, a plane flying with empty seats makes it harder for that plane to cover its flying costs. So they pulled some planes out of service. Because a plane sitting on the tarmac is not burning jet fuel. And planes sitting on the tarmac helps them fill the seats on the planes remaining in service. Allowing those planes to fly profitably.
Then there are overhead costs. With fewer ticket sales there’s less money coming in to pay their overhead costs. This is an example of economies of scales in reverse. With fewer unit sales (i.e., ticket sales) they have to recover their overhead costs on fewer tickets sold by increasing the price of each ticket.
So the airlines are not raising their ticket prices because they are greedy. They are raising them because the economy is so bad that fewer people are flying. Forcing them to raise ticket prices on the remaining few who are still flying. Just another indicator of how long and deep the Great Recession has been. And continues to be.
Tags: airfare increases, bad economy, demand, empty seats, Great Recession, planes, prices, recession, Southwest, Southwest Airlines, ticket sales
When the Engineer advances the Throttle to ‘Run 1’ there is a Surge of Current into the Traction Motors
Once when my father suffered a power outage at his home I helped him hook up his backup generator. This was the first time he used it. He had sized it to be large enough to run the air conditioner as Mom had health issues and didn’t breathe well in hot and humid weather. This outage was in the middle of a hot, sweltering summer. So they were eager to get the air conditioner running again. Only one problem. Although the generator was large enough to run the air conditioner, it was not large enough to start it. The starting in-rush of current was too much for the generator. The current surged and the voltage dropped as the generator was pushed beyond its operating limit. Suffice it to say Mom suffered during that power outage.
Getting a diesel-electric locomotive moving is very similar. The massive diesel engine turns a generator. When the engineer advances the throttle to ‘Run 1’ (the first notch) there is a surge of current into the traction motors. And a drop in voltage. As the current moves through the rotor windings in the traction motors it creates an electrical field that fights with the stator electrical field. Creating a tremendous amount of torque. Which slowly begins to turn the wheels. As the wheels begin to rotate less torque is required and the current decreases and voltage increases. Then the engineer advances the throttle to ‘Run 2’ and the current to the traction motors increases again. And the voltage falls again. Until the train picks up more speed. Then the current falls and the voltage rises. And so on until the engineer advances the throttle all the way to ‘Run 8’ and the train is running at speed.
The actual speed is controlled by the RPMs of the diesel engine and fuel flow to the cylinders. Which is what the engineer is doing by advancing the throttle. In a passenger train there are additional power needs for the passenger cars. Heating, cooling, lights, etc. The locomotive typically provides this Head-End Power (HEP). The General Electric Genesis Series I locomotive (the aerodynamic locomotive engines on the majority of Amtrak’s trains), for example, has a maximum of 800 kilowatts of HEP available. But there is a tradeoff in traction power that moves the train towards its destination. With a full HEP load a 4,250 horsepower rated engine can only produce 2,525 horsepower of traction power. Or a decrease of about 41% in traction horsepower due to the heating, cooling, lighting, etc., requirements of the passenger cars. But because passenger cars are so light they can still pull many of them with one engine. Unlike their freight counterparts. Where it can take a lashup of three engines or more to move a heavy freight train to its destination. Without any HEP sapping traction horsepower.
There is so much Energy available in Refined Petroleum that we can carry Small Amounts that take us Great Distances
The largest cost of flying a passenger jet is jet fuel. That’s why they make planes out of aluminum. To make them light. Airbus and Boeing are using ever more composite materials in their latest planes to reduce the weight further still. New engine designs improve fuel economy. Advances in engine design allow bigger and more powerful engines. So 2 engines can do the work it took 4 engines to do a decade or more ago. Fewer engines mean less weight. And less fuel. Making the plane lighter and more fuel efficient. They measure all cargo and count people to determine the total weight of plane, cargo, passengers and fuel. So the pilot can calculate the minimum amount of fuel to carry. For the less fuel they carry the lighter the plane and the more fuel efficient it is. During times of high fuel costs airlines charge extra for every extra pound you bring aboard. To either dissuade you from bringing a lot of extra dead weight aboard. Or to help pay the fuel cost for the extra weight when they can’t dissuade you.
It’s similar with cars. To meet strict CAFE standards manufacturers have been aggressively trying to reduce the weight of their vehicles. Using front-wheel drive on cars saved the excess weight of a drive shaft. Unibody construction removed the heavy frame. Aerodynamic designs reduced wind resistance. Use of composite materials instead of metal reduced weight. Shrinking the size of cars made them lighter. Controlling the engine by a computer increased engine efficiencies and improved fuel economy. Everywhere manufacturers can they have reduced the weight of cars and improved the efficiencies of the engine. While still providing the creature comforts we enjoy in a car. In particular heating and air conditioning. All the while driving great distances on a weekend getaway to an amusement park. Or a drive across the country on a summer vacation. Or on a winter ski trip.
This is something trains, planes and automobiles share. The ability to take you great distances in comfort. And what makes this all possible? One thing. Refined petroleum. There is so much energy available in refined petroleum that we can carry small amounts of it in our trains, planes and automobiles that will take us great distances. Planes can fly halfway across the planet on one fill-up. Trains can travel across numerous states on one fill-up. A car can drive up to 6 hours or more doing 70 MPH on the interstate on one fill-up. And keep you warm while doing it in the winter. And cool in the summer. For the engine cooling system transfers the wasted heat of the internal combustion engine to a heating core inside the passenger compartment to heat the car. And another belt slung around an engine pulley drives an air conditioner compressor under the hood to cool the passenger compartment. Thanks to that abundant energy in refined petroleum creating all the power under the hood we need.
The Opportunity Cost of the Plug-in Hybrid is giving up what the Car Originally gave us – Freedom
And then there’s the plug-in hybrid car. That shares some things in common with the train, plane and (gasoline-powered) automobile. Only it doesn’t do anything as well. Primarily because of the limited range of the battery. Electric traction motors draw a lot of current. But a battery’s storage capacity is limited. Some batteries offer only about 20-30 miles of driving distance on a charge. Which is great if you use a car for very, very short commutes. But as few do manufacturers add a backup gasoline engine so the car can go almost as far as a gasoline-powered car. It probably could go as far if it wasn’t for that heavy battery and generator it was dragging around with it.
This is but one of many tradeoffs required in a plug-in hybrid car. Most of these cars are tiny to make them as light as possible. For the lighter the car is the less current it takes to get it moving. But adding a backup gasoline engine and generator only makes the car heavier. Thus reducing its electric range. Making it more like a conventional car for a trip longer than 20-30 miles. Only one that gets a poorer fuel economy. Because of the extra weight of the battery and generator. Manufacturers have even addressed this problem by reducing the range of the car. If people don’t drive more than 10 miles on a typical trip they don’t need such a large battery. Which is ideal if you use your car to go no further than you normally walk. A smaller battery means less weight due to the lesser storage capacity required to travel that lesser range. Another tradeoff is the heating and cooling of the car. Without a gasoline engine on all of the time these cars have to use electric heat. And an electric motor to drive the air conditioner compressor. (Some heating and cooling systems will operate when the car is plugged in to conserve battery charge for the initial climate adjustment). So in the heat of summer and the cold of winter you can scratch off another 20% of your electric range (bringing that 20 miles down to 16 miles). Not as bad as on a passenger locomotive. But with its large tanks of diesel fuel that train can still take you across the country.
The opportunity cost of the plug-in hybrid is giving up what the car originally gave us. Freedom. To get out on the open road just to see where it would take us. For if you drive a long commute or like to take long trips your hybrid is just going to be using the backup gasoline engine for most of that driving. While dragging around a lot of excess weight. To make up for some lost fuel economy some manufacturers use a gasoline engine with high compression. Unfortunately, high compression engines require the more expensive premium (higher octane) gasoline. Which costs more at the pump. There eventually comes the point we should ask ourselves why bother? Wouldn’t life and driving be so much simpler with a gasoline-powered car? Get fuel economy with a range of over 300 miles? Guess it all depends on what’s more important. Being sensible. Or showing others that you’re saving the planet.
Tags: air conditioning, automobiles, backup gasoline engine, battery, charge, composite materials, current, diesel, diesel engine, diesel-electric, diesel-electric locomotive, electric, electric range, energy, engine, engineer, fuel, fuel economy, fuel efficient, gasoline, generator, Head-End Power, heating, HEP, hybrid, jet, limited range, locomotive, opportunity cost, passenger, passenger locomotive, petroleum, planes, plug-in, plug-in hybrid car, reduce the weight, refined petroleum, torque, traction motors, train, trains, voltage, wheels