The Inauguration Date was originally in March to allow for Long Travel Times
It was difficult to be a career politician at the federal/national level at the Founding. Thanks to the horse. The primary means of transportation over great distances. Either on horseback. Or pulled in a buggy. Neither of which provided for a comfortable ride. With that discomfort compounded by the fact you were leaving family and friends behind. People you wouldn’t see again for a very long time.
When John Adams served in the Continental Congress he rode for some two weeks through brutal winter weather on hard, frozen ground. Ground so hard and dangerous that they let the horses only walk. Whether it was traveling to Cambridge to meet with the newly appointed General Washington facing off with the British in Boston. Or riding on to the federal capital in Philadelphia. The ride was long, brutal and cold. As well as lonely. For Adams missed his wife and family when away serving his country. Which he did often. And longed to return home.
James Madison was a Virginian. And hated traveling up to the federal capital in Philadelphia. And then later in New York. For he hated being away from his wife. And he hated those long rides on hard, bumpy roads. As Madison suffered from some digestive disorders. Leaving him with chronic discomfort in his abdomen. And lower. For he probably suffered from hemorrhoids, too. Making those long, bumpy rides unbearable. This is why the inauguration date was originally in March instead of January like it is today. They had to allow for long travel times and bad weather for the new office holders to get to their offices. Unlike today where you can fly from anywhere in the United States to Washington D.C. in one day.
James Reynolds had his Wife seduce and sleep with Alexander Hamilton so he could Blackmail Him
George Washington was president when the nation’s capital was in New York City. Which was a long way from Mount Vernon. Washington’s Virginian home. Other Virginians were the first Secretary of State. Thomas Jefferson. The first Attorney General. Edmund Randolph. And the first Speaker of the House. James Madison. While the first Vice President, John Adams, and the first Secretary of War, Henry Knox, came from Massachusetts. The first Treasury Secretary, Alexander Hamilton, on the other hand, was a New Yorker. Living in New York City. Close to the capital.
Ironically, the man closest to his wife was the one to have an extramarital affair. Alexander Hamilton. Who was targeted by a couple of con people. Mr. and Mrs. Reynolds. That’s right, Mr. Reynolds used his wife, Maria, to seduce Alexander Hamilton. Including actually having sexual relations with him. Just so he, James Reynolds, could blackmail Hamilton for money. Threatening to tell Hamilton’s wife. And ruining his good reputation as a gentleman if he didn’t pay. He paid. For awhile. And with his own money. Reynolds was later arrested for counterfeiting. And told the opposition party of Hamilton’s affair. Thomas Jefferson. And his fellow Republicans (the forerunner to the Democrat party, not the Republican Party of today whose first president was Abraham Lincoln).
Thomas Jefferson loved his wife and hated being apart from her. The last place he wanted to be in 1775/1776 was at the Continental Congress in Philadelphia. A lonely year spent a very long way from his wife. Who was sickly. And died in 1782. Jefferson was at her bedside when she passed. And he was devastated. He had promised her he would never remarry. And he never did. He later accepted the post as United States Minister to France. A much greater distance from Virginia. Which is probably the first time he wanted to be far away from his beloved Monticello. To escape the desolation of life without his wife.
The Founding Fathers served Reluctantly and didn’t leave Office Richer than when they entered Office
Hamilton and Jefferson hated each other. They vehemently disagreed with each other’s vision for the United States. When Jefferson got wind of the Hamilton affair he pounced on it. Well, not so much him. But the Republican Party which he was the de facto head of. And a guy by the name of James Callender. A pamphleteer and journalist. And all around scandalmonger. He made the Hamilton affair public for the Jefferson Republicans. Who, being men of the Enlightenment, would not sink to such a low level. But Callender would. And did. Who Jefferson helped with some financial support. But Callender ended up in jail for sedition. And when he got out he wanted Jefferson to make him post master general of Virginia in return for services rendered. Jefferson refused. Then Callender turned on Jefferson. Revealing that it was him that was bankrolling his journalistic scandal mongering. And that he fathered children with his slave Sally Hemings.
George Washington was the commanding general of the Continental Army from 1775 until 1783. And he spent most of that time with his army in the field. Away from his beloved Mount Vernon. Just after he returned to civilian life came the Philadelphia Convention. And a new nation. The first president of that new nation? Much to his displeasure it was him. George Washington. Who was the only one people were willing to give the powers of the new federal government to. And after sacrificing so much he did not want to see it all be for nothing. So he served one term as president. Then another. In New York. A long way from Virginia. And pretty much hated every minute of it. Especially the bickering between his ‘children’. Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. He was never happier than when he left office in 1797. Sadly, he lived just shy of three years in retirement.
The Founding Fathers hated being in office. They hated being away from home. And the long travel time to and from home. Which meant when they were serving in office they did not see their family and friends. Unlike today. Where modern transportation allows career politicians to enjoy the graft in Washington. While breaking it up with numerous vacations back home. Without having to endure two weeks of bouncy rides with hemorrhoids. Or riding horseback in blowing snow. Being a career politician today is like being part of an aristocracy. Where you travel first class. And live first class. Unlike the Spartan loneliness at the Founding. And the animus. Washington’s, Jefferson’s, Madison’s and Hamilton’s lives all got worse from serving. Washington was cheated out of a long retirement he more than earned. Jefferson suffered bitter loneliness after losing his wife and probably did turn to the comfort of a slave. (Sally Hemings had accompanied him to Paris to care for his daughter. And later was a house servant. Though he didn’t legally free her and her children from slavery they did live their lives out as free people after he died. Which was probably a compromise by Jefferson to reconcile his feelings for her while protecting his historical legacy). Something that blemishes his reputation to this day. John Adams and Thomas Jefferson went from practically best friends to bitter enemies before they left Washington (though they rekindled their friendship later in retirement). James Madison was the father of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights. Believed in a strong federal government and wrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton to help ratify the Constitution. Then he switch sides. And sided with Thomas Jefferson and fought for limited government. Then he was president during the War of 1812 and believed in a strong federal government again after struggling through that war with a weak government. Madison spent his later years rewriting letters and correspondence. Making large revisions to his historical legacy. While Alexander Hamilton’s stand on principle ultimately led to his death in a duel with Aaron Burr.
Washington, Jefferson and Madison all returned home after serving as president poorer than when they left for Washington. That just doesn’t happen today. Today once you get elected to a federal office in Washington you return home a millionaire. Because being a professional politician today pays very well. Which is why there is less standing on principle in Washington and more doing what it takes to remain in power. Such as lying to the American people. “If you like your health insurance and your doctor you can keep your health insurance and doctor.” The Founding Fathers served reluctantly. And their lives were worse for serving. But the country was far better off because they did. And that’s something else that just doesn’t happen today.
Tags: Adams, Alexander Hamilton, Callender, career politician, Continental Congress, federal government, Founding, Founding Fathers, George Washington, Hamilton, inauguration date, James Callender, James Madison, James Reynolds, Jefferson, John Adams, Madison, Mount Vernon, Mr. Reynolds, Mrs. Reynolds, New York, Philadelphia, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Washington
The People ratified the Constitution only because George Washington would be the First President
George Washington did not want to be president. After winning the American Revolutionary War his place in history was set. If the first government following the Constitutional Convention failed he didn’t want history to remember him for that. Also, Washington was an old man. Most Washington men were already dead at his age. Something he was very conscious of. And he wanted to live out his remaining days, however few he had, at Mount Vernon. With Martha. But America’s Cincinnatus would, reluctantly, answer the call of duty again.
The new Constitution was not very popular. The old patriots of 1776 hated it. With a passion. While Washington, Alexander Hamilton and others who served in the Continental Army were generally for it. Because they saw how the weak Continental Congress had almost lost the war. Starving the Continental Army of the supplies they needed. Unable even to provide it with shoes and clothing during the long cold winters at Valley Forge and Morristown. And then there was the inflation. Worthless Continental paper dollars that forced the Army to take what they needed to survive. Giving the people they took from IOUs for the Continental Congress to honor later.
With the British defeated the Americans lost the common enemy that held the states together. And they were soon back to looking after their own interests. Charging tariffs to other states. Even sending militias to fight over disputed land. The nation was falling apart before it even became a nation. The Philadelphia Convention addressed these problems. And over a long, hot, humid and horsefly invested convention they wrote a new Constitution. Few loved it. But understood that it was probably the best they would ever get. Ratifying it was another brutal battle. And all throughout this process people reluctantly got on board. Basically because of one thing. The first president would be someone that all the people could trust with such great powers. The man who gave up power when he could have been king. George Washington. So Cincinnatus laid down his plow once more. And went to serve his nation. Again.
The most Important Precedent Washington set was not Exceeding the Limits of the Constitution
This is how it used to be. When our politicians were men of the enlightenment. Disinterested men who went out of their way NOT to profit from the offices they held. Men who would rather have been back home. But reluctantly served. Because the nation needed the best leaders during that formidable time. That’s why Washington served a second term. Not because he wanted to. But if he didn’t Thomas Jefferson and Alexander Hamilton would have paralyzed the government with their constant fighting and seething hatred of each other. So Washington stayed on. Father to these children that couldn’t get along. And father to a nation.
Washington was never happier than when he left office. This man who could have been king. Sacrificing all of his wants and desires. And putting the nation first. This old man that was cheating death. Living beyond his years. Who was used to giving orders in the army and having subordinates dutifully following them. He hated the political process. The deal making. The special interests. Those things modern politicians live for. Because it is the pathway to wealth and power. Which is why people serve today. Who do not understand the meaning of selfless disinterest. For they’re in it for number one. And when they leave office they want to have more wealth than they know what to do with it.
Whereas Washington kept true to the Constitution. And didn’t make arguments about it being a living document. Or questioned the intent of the Founding Fathers. For he was one of them. He was there in Philadelphia in 1787. He sat in the chair with that sun on it. The one Benjamin Franklin studied for so long while sitting in that stuffy hall. Wondering if the sun was rising. Or setting. After they signed the Constitution Franklin was certain the sun was rising for the new nation. A nation of laws. Where no man was above the law. And the supreme law of the land was there in the Constitution. Washington was the first president. Setting the precedent for all that would follow. And the most important precedent was not exceeding the limits of the Constitution. For he knew a strong central government was necessary for the nation to have any hopes of surviving. But he feared that once anyone exceeded the limits of the Constitution the whole experiment in self-government would come crashing down.
Life is so Good in an Aristocracy that Politicians will do Anything it takes to Win Reelection
What Thomas Jefferson feared most was consolidation. Fears of a strong central government turning independent states into federal districts of the new government. With growing powers to administer these lands from afar. Turning the people living on these lands once again into subjects of a distant ruling power. Who are there to serve. To be obedient. And revere this distant power. Giving the duly elected president king-like powers. Who would further consolidate his power. This was Jefferson’s fear. A fear Alexander Hamilton did not share. Because he assumed all men in the government would be disinterested men of the enlightenment. Like the Founding Fathers were. But Jefferson knew you could not trust men to refrain from using power given to them. So it was best not to give them that power in the first place.
Today you can see all of Jefferson’s fears come to pass. A federal government larger and more powerful than even Alexander Hamilton could have imagined. And a new fourth branch of government. The IRS. Powerful. And fearsome. Which appears to be helping the current administration to suppress the political opposition. By harassing anyone espousing Jeffersonian principles. Limited government. States’ rights. Constitutional limits. Etc. Which are also Tea Party principles. That set of principles that launched a great grassroots movement that helped the Republicans win back the House of Representatives in 2010. Something the Democrats were very conscious of. And have since pilloried the Tea Party with every invective under the sun. To delegitimize the Tea Party. To prevent another 2010 from happening again.
President Obama is the most liberal president to ever occupy the White House. And he won reelection. Which isn’t easy for a liberal to do on a national stage. Because only about 21% of the people call themselves liberal. While 35% call themselves moderate. And 40% call themselves conservative (see Conservatives Remain the Largest Ideological Group in U.S. posted 1/12/2012 on Gallup). So liberals are in the minority. Yet they hold majority power. Which begs the question. How do they win elections when the majority opposes their ideology? Well, you don’t do it by acting like George Washington. You know, with integrity. But, instead, with rascality. You don’t exactly tell the truth. You make a lot of promises. Even if you have no intention of keeping them. And you use the awesome power of your office to attack your political enemies. For it’s a different mindset today. Whereas the Founding Fathers were trying to destroy an aristocracy today’s politicians are trying to build and maintain one. And life is so good in an aristocracy that once you get in you never want to leave. Which is why politicians will do anything it takes to win reelection. Anything. And if they were honest you’d hear them say so. “Damn the truth, promises and the Constitution. I’m trying to get reelected.” But they’re not honest. So you will never hear them say this. You’ll just have to see it in their deeds. And how unlike the Founding Fathers they are.
Tags: Alexander Hamilton, American Revolutionary War, aristocracy, Cincinnatus, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, Continental Army, Continental Congress, Enlightenment, Founding Fathers, George Washington, Hamilton, Jefferson, Philadelphia, politicians, Revolutionary War, Tea Party, Thomas Jefferson, Washington
Week in Review
Girls grow up so fast these days, don’t they? Why when I was in high school I remember girls being girls. Hanging out with their friends. Getting involved with after-school activities. I even remember some of the cool girls in the marching band playing inside the school on Friday. And at the pep rallies. Today these girls are managing their birth control. Even having an abortion or two. Because the liberal Left has empowered them. So they can be free and do whatever they want to. So these girls aren’t playing in marching band anymore at pep rallies. But giving in to the constant begging of the cool boys they want to like them. So instead of those innocent after-school activities they’re having consequence-free sex. Well, what they thought was consequence-free sex.
Which brings us to the ugly side of all that empowering girls. Some of them are getting venereal diseases they will live with for the rest of their life. Some are getting pregnant. Some are having babies. And some are having abortions. And all of this is happening even before they graduate from high school.
It’s getting harder to get an abortion these days. As more people are turning away from the heady days of the Seventies. Where women went on the pill. And Roe v. Wade made abortion legal. Anything went in those days. But after seeing the explosion in abortion rates people are having a change of heart on the issue. Especially those in the health care field. Making it hard to find abortion providers in some areas. And because fewer and fewer people are providing these services stories like this appear in the news (see Why Pro-Lifers And Pro-Choicers Both Blame The Other Side For Kermit Gosnell’s ‘House Of Horrors’ Abortion Clinic by Grace Wyler posted 4/12/2013 on Business Insider).
The gruesome murder trial of Philadelphia abortion doctor Kermit Gosnell has inflamed political passions on both sides of the abortion debate, both for its horrific content and for the potential policy implications that the trial could have on abortion rights and women’s health.
If you are just tuning in to the Gosnell story, here is the ugly synopsis, from the 2011 grand jury report (emphasis added):
This case is about a doctor who killed babies and endangered women. What we mean is that he regularly and illegally delivered live, viable, babies in the third trimester of pregnancy – and then murdered these newborns by severing their spinal cords with scissors. The medical practice by which he carried out this business was a filthy fraud in which he overdosed his patients with dangerous drugs, spread venereal disease among them with infected instruments, perforated their wombs and bowels – and, on at least two occasions, caused their deaths. Over the years, many people came to know that something was going on here. But no one put a stop to it.
Let us say right up front that we realize this case will be used by those on both sides of the abortion debate. We ourselves cover a spectrum of personal beliefs about the morality of abortion. For us as a criminal grand jury, however, the case is not about that controversy; it is about disregard of the law and disdain for the lives and health of mothers and infants. We find common ground in exposing what happened here, and in recommending measures to prevent anything like this from ever happening again
So what are the two sides of the abortion debate saying? Here’s the pro-life point of view:
To that end, pro-life groups like SBA List have used the Gosnell trial to bolster support for new state laws that impose further restrictions on abortion clinics, including so-called Targeted Regulation of Abortion Provider (TRAP) laws that require abortion clinics to meet the same standards as ambulatory surgical centers and often require abortion providers to have hospital admitting privileges.
“One solution is to increase the standards that these clinics and facilities are held to,” Quigley said. “The types of legislation that we’re focusing on are precisely these types of common-sense measures that ensure health and safety standards for abortion clinics.”
To emphasize this point, pro-life advocates point to the fact that Gosnell’s clinic was not inspected by the Pennsylvania Department of Health after 1993, when the agency decided to stop inspecting abortion clinics at all.
According to the report from the grand jury, this decision was made for “political reasons” because the state didn’t want to be “putting a barrier up to women” who wanted abortions. The board considered restarting inspections in 1999, but officials were concerned that abortion clinics wouldn’t meet inspection standards, resulting in fewer abortion facilities.
So, in other words, they want to make an abortion clinic as clean and professional as my veterinary doctor’s office. Where my vet works hard to keep his standards up. Because there are a lot of vets out there doing the same thing and he doesn’t want to lose my business. As there is no stigma in being a vet. And no political controversy. Which tells you a lot about abortion.
Now the pro-choice point of view:
Still, pro-choice advocates say that the Philadelphia “House of Horrors” is also the tragic by-product of a hostile political climate that has driven legitimate abortion providers out of business and forced women to seek out low-cost butchers like Gosnell.
“We all thought we had said goodbye to the days of back-alley abortions,” said Jessica Arons, director of the Women’s Health and Rights program at the Center for American Progress. “The majority of abortions provided in this country are legal and safe. But there are people like Gosnell who take advantage of the polarized atmosphere and exploit women. So hopefully people will take away the right lessons from this case.”
According to Arons, TRAP laws are the result of a decades-long push by pro-life lobbyists to limit access to abortions at the state level. She explained that these laws put cumbersome architectural and bureaucratic restrictions on abortion clinics, forcing providers to comply with medical standards designed for far more complicated surgical facilities.
In the end, clinics are often unable to meet the requirements and are forced to shut down — which, of course, is the goal of these laws from the outset.
Laws requiring doctors to have hospital privileges are also a “catch-22,” Arons said, because hospitals are often reluctant to grant privileges to qualified abortion providers for fear of political backlash.
Hostile political environment? Back alley abortions? They couldn’t have left Gosnell more alone. The only thing restricting access to abortion was the trouble in finding more abortion providers to work in an unregulated industry. Which means it must be more of a matter of conscious than politics.
Of course the bigger picture here is what the liberal Left is doing to girls by empowering them with free birth control and access to abortion. It is because of this girls feel that it must be okay to use sex to get a boy to like them. And because boys can have more sex with more girls they continue this behavior after high school. Which is a large reason for women turning to online dating services to find someone to marry. Because most men these days are just looking for a good time. Like they were back in high school. Which leads to multiple sex partners. Greater transmission of venereal diseases. And abortions.
In hindsight these women probably wished they did play in that marching band in high school. And enjoyed being a girl. Having some wholesome fun in those after-school activities. Instead of empowering themselves. By objectifying themselves. And creating a whole lot of stress in their lives they don’t need. Caused by the Left. Who exploited these women. And girls. To make them fear Republicans. And vote Democrat. So they could have all the consequence-free sex they so desired. As if that was the only thing important in their lives.
Tags: abortion, abortion clinic, abortion debate, abortion providers, back-alley abortions, birth control, consequence-free sex, empowering girls, Gosnell, House of Horror, Kermit Gosnell, Philadelphia, pro-choice, pro-life, venereal disease
The Father of the Constitution nudged the Father of the Country out of Retirement
The Confederation Congress did not work as well as some had hoped. Despite having won their independence from Great Britain there was still no feeling of national unity. Sectional interests prevailed over national interests. Greatly affecting the ability of the national government to function. Negating the benefits of union. And offering little respect for the young nation on the world stage. The new nation simply was not taken seriously at home. Or abroad. Prompting a meeting of states delegates in Annapolis in 1786. Twelve delegates from five states showed up. The states just didn’t care enough. The convention adjourned after only three days. But not before Alexander Hamilton put a plan together for another convention in Philadelphia for the following year.
The states were happy with the way things were. They did not want to give up any of their powers to a new central authority. But the problem was that the states were fighting against each other. Trying to protect their own economic interests and their own trade. Some could extend this behavior out into the future. And they did not like what they saw. States with similar interests would form regional alliances. And these alliances would ally themselves with some of the European powers who were also on the North American continent. The northern states (having industry and commerce) would join together and ally with the industrial and commerce powerhouse Great Britain. The agrarian southern states would join together and ally with Great Britain’s eternal enemy. France. And the western territories dependent on the Mississippi River to get their agricultural goods to marker would ally with the European power in control of the Mississippi River. Spain. Who were both eternal enemies of Great Britain. And the centuries of warfare on the European continent would just extend to North America. Some saw this as the American future if they didn’t unite and put the nation’s interests ahead of sectional interests.
The Constitutional Convention in Philadelphia in 1787 almost didn’t happen. For there was as much interest in it as there was in the Annapolis Convention in 1786. James Madison, the father of the Constitution, made the meeting in Philadelphia a reality. By his persuasive efforts with his neighbor. George Washington. Father of our Country. Then in retirement at Mount Vernon with no interest to reenter public life after resigning his commission following the Revolutionary War. He could have been king then but declined the numerous offers to make him so. Happy that they won their independence he just wanted to live out his years on his farm. Like Lucius Quinctius Cincinnatus. Who left his plough to become dictator of the Roman Republic. To defend the Roman Republic. He defeated the enemy. Resigned his dictatorship. And returned to his plough. Earning a cherished place in our history books. Something Washington had just done. Only taking some 8 years instead of 16 days like Cincinnatus. His place in history had come with a far greater price. And he did not want to risk losing what he had earned after paying so dearly for it. But Madison knew that it would take Washington’s presence to get the other states to send their delegates. So Madison was persistent. The Father of the Constitution nudged the Father of the Country out of retirement. And made the retired general do the last thing he wanted to do. Return to public life. As he was already an old man who outlived the average lifespan of Washington men.
Madison didn’t believe a Bill of Rights would Stop a Majority from Imposing their Will on the Minority
It took four long, miserable months to produce the new constitution. It was a hot and insufferable summer. And they kept the windows of Independence Hall closed to block out the city noise. And prevent anyone from hearing the debates. So the delegates could speak freely. And after those four long months the delegates signed the new document. Not all of them. Some hated it and refused to sign it or support it. And would actively fight against it during the ratification process. As they did not like to see so much power going to a new federal government. Especially as there was no bill of rights included to help protect the people from this new government. The document they produced was based on the Virginia Plan. Which was drafted by James Madison. Which is why we call him the Father of the Constitution. So Virginia was instrumental in producing the new constitution. And the delegates finally agreed to it because of another Virginian. George Washington. Making Virginian ratification of the new constitution conditional for other states to ratify it. So all eyes were on Virginia. For without Virginia all their efforts in Philadelphia would be for naught. Because if Virginia did not join the union under the new Constitution that meant George Washington would be ineligible to be president.
Of course getting Virginia to ratify was another story. Because George Washington and James Madison were not the only Virginians in politics. There was also George Mason. Who wrote the Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776). Which Thomas Jefferson may have borrowed from when writing the Declaration of Independence. And Mason also wrote the Virginia State Constitution (1776). Mason opposed granting the new federal government so much power and refused to sign the Constitution in Philadelphia. And then there was Patrick Henry. Perhaps the greatest Patriot orator. And of “Give me Liberty, or give me Death!” fame. Which he shouted out during the Stamp Act (1765) debates. He was also Virginia’s first governor under the new state constitution. Mason and Henry were Patriots of the 1776 school. The kind that hated distant central powers. Whether they were in London. Or in New York. Mason wanted a bill of rights. Henry, too. As well as amendments transferring a lot of power from the federal government back to the states. Or, better yet, no federal constitution at all. Which Henry would work towards by leading a fierce ratification opposition.
Perhaps the greatest flaw of the new constitution as many saw was the lack of a bill of rights. This was a contentious issue during the convention. It was the reason why Mason refused to sign it. As there was nothing to check the powers of the new government and protect the people’s liberties. So why did they not include a bill of rights? Because it was not necessary. According to Madison. Who fought against it. Because the new federal government was a government of limited powers. It wasn’t like the state governments. The new federal government only did those things the states didn’t do. Or shouldn’t do. Like treat with other nations. Provide a common defense. Regulate interstate trade. Things that expanded beyond a state’s borders. And what powers it had were enumerated. Limited. It did not repeal individual rights protected by state constitutions. And had no authority over those rights. Whatever rights a person enjoyed in their state were untouchable by the new federal government. Therefore, a bill of rights was not necessary. Which actually protected rights greater than listing them. For whatever rights they forgot to list the federal government would assume were fair to abuse. Finally, Madison didn’t believe a bill of rights would stop a majority from imposing their will on the minority. A tyranny of the majority. Something he saw firsthand as a young man returning from college. Where the state of Virginia harassed and imprisoned Baptist ministers for holding Baptist services in Anglican Virginia. Something he didn’t forget. Nor did the Baptists.
If James Madison were Alive Today he would Likely Endorse the Republican Candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan
Patrick tried hard to prevent the ratification of the constitution in Virginia. But failed. When it came time for the Virginian legislature to elect their federal senators Henry campaigned hard against Madison and saw him defeated. When it came to the federal House elections Henry drew the new Congressional districts that made Madison campaign in a district full of people that mostly disagreed with him. Which it took a change of his position on adding a bill of rights to the Constitution to overcome. His position gradually changed from opposed to being lukewarm to being a strong supporter. In part due to some correspondence with Thomas Jefferson then serving in France. And the Baptists’ concerns over rights of conscience. Something Madison had longed believed in. Believing religious liberty was essential to a free people. As the Constitution stood there were no safeguards specifically against the oppression like that the Anglicans imposed on the Baptists earlier. What the Baptists wanted was a bill of rights.
Madison promised, if elected, to introduce an amendment to the Constitution addressing their concerns. In fact, a bill of rights would be the first Constitutional amendment. And he would introduce it and fight for it until it was ratified. Based on this promise the Baptists threw their support behind Madison. Got him elected to the House of Representatives. And Madison delivered on his promise. Championing a bill of rights through Congress. The Father of the Constitution also became the Father of the Bill of Rights. And then it was a knockdown drag-out fight in the Virginian legislature to get the new Bill of Rights ratified. Where the opposition to ratification was led by none other than Patrick Henry. But he would lose that fight, too. And the nation would have a federal government with limited, enumerated powers. With individual liberties protected by a bill of rights. Providing a federal government powerful enough to do the things it needed to do like treat with other nations, provide a common defense, regulate interstate trade, etc. Those things that expanded beyond a state’s borders. And in the following decade we would be prosperous because of it.
None of this could have happened without Virginia’s ratification of the Constitution. Which opened the door for George Washington to be our first president. And helped New York ratify the Constitution. With the ratification in Virginia. And the letter writing campaign in support of ratification. Which appeared in newspapers. Articles written by James Madison and Alexander Hamilton (mostly) and John Jay. Now published as the Federalists Papers. Thanks to the tireless efforts of Madison and Hamilton the nation had a new form of government. But Madison and Hamilton would soon part ways once Hamilton was Secretary of the Treasury. And took great liberties with the necessary and proper clause of the Constitution. Expanding the power and scope of the federal government far beyond what Madison had ever envisioned. Which moved Madison into closer company with George Mason and Patrick Henry. Desperately trying to hold onto states’ rights and oppose the expansion of the federal government. Like he would oppose the great overreach of the federal government today. The transfer of power from the states to the federal government. And the expansion of suffrage to include those who don’t own property or pay taxes. Leading to mob rule at times. Populism. And a tyranny of the majority.
Madison suffered ill health most of his life. Stomach disorders and dysentery. Brought on by the pressures of public service. If he were alive today he probably wouldn’t remain alive long. Seeing what has happened to his Constitution would probably kill him. If he had the chance to vote today he would vote for the party that championed limited government. The party that would stop the growth of the federal government. And reduce its size. The party that governed for all people and not the will of the populist mob. The party that did NOT govern through class warfare but through sound principles. If James Madison were alive today he would likely endorse the Republican candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan.
Tags: 1787, 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, Alexander Hamilton, Baptists, Bill of Rights, Cincinnatus, Constitutional Convention, enumerated powers, father of the Constitution, Father of the Country, federal government, George Mason, George Washington, Hamilton, Henry, James Madison, limited government, limited powers, Madison, Mason, Mob rule, national interests, Patrick Henry, Philadelphia, ratification, sectional interests, state governments, Thomas Jefferson, tyranny of the majority, union, Virginia, Washington
Franklin understood Wealth was not Money but the Talent and Ability of the Entrepreneurs and Artisans
Benjamin Franklin was born into the middle class. A proud member of what he called the middling people. Entrepreneurs. And the very definition of what it meant to be American. Hard-working people. Who built success based on diligence, frugality and honesty. People who strived to live a virtuous life. Even if they sometimes faltered. Franklin believed doing good works led to salvation. He believed in God and was tolerant of all religions. Especially if they were charitable and helped others, making the world a better place. So when he could he gave back to his community. And to his country. He would die a famous rich man. But he always thought of himself as that middle class printer. Who worked hard. And tried to be virtuous. Sometimes he failed. But he did a lot of good along the way.
When he arrived in Philadelphia he had only one Dutch dollar. He secured employment with a printer where he worked with industry and frugality. From his first days as an apprentice. To when he was a small business owner. Later, on a return trip from London, he came up with four resolutions to live a better life. 1.) It is necessary for me to be extremely frugal for some time, till I have paid what I owe. 2.) To endeavor to speak the truth in every instance; to give nobody expectations that are not likely to be answered, but aim at sincerity in every word and action—the most amiable excellence in a rational being. 3.) To apply myself industriously to whatever business I take in hand, and not divert my mind from my business by any foolish project of suddenly growing rich; for industry and patience are the surest means of plenty. 4.) I resolve to speak ill of no man whatever.
When Franklin opened his own business with a partner he put in long hours. He worked late into the evening (even working overnight when the work required it). And started work before most others started their workday. Being a businessman he understood money. And the cost of borrowing. He favored the expansion of the money supply to lower interest rates to lower the cost of borrowing for business. However, he also understood wealth was not money. But the talent and ability of the entrepreneurs and artisans. Those middling people who worked with industry and frugality who offered goods and services for sale. Purchased largely by other middling people. The basic barter system improved by money.
Franklin believed in Limited Government and worried about too much Social Engineering
When Franklin became a newspaper publisher (i.e., writer/printer/marketer of a newspaper) he refused to become partisan. In part because he didn’t want to limit his income. But also for another reason. He believed in free expression. And said, “Printers are educated in the belief that when men differ in opinion, both sides ought equally to have the advantage of being heard by the public; and that when Truth and Error have fair play, the former is always an overmatch for the latter.” Words framed and hung in many a newsroom since. But he wouldn’t print everything. He refrained from printing things that were scurrilous. Immoral. Or might hurt someone personally.
Franklin believed in rugged individualism. He worked hard to acquire wealth. And after he did he helped his community. He helped organize volunteer fire companies. Suggested a progressive tax on property to pay for a full-time police force. Improved the post office. Organized the Pennsylvania Militia during King George’s War against the French and their Indian allies in America. (The local militia company elected Franklin to command it but he declined, saying he was unqualified and, instead, served as a common soldier.) He retired from his printing and media empire at 42. Set for life financially. Then he became a scientist. An inventor. Then statesman. With always an eye to detail. And favored being practical over being rigidly dogmatic.
Franklin believed in limited government. And had a problem with authority. But he also believed in order. And a place for government. He believed in public-private partnerships and created the matching grant (matching a sum raised privately with an equal sum from the government). He believed in charity. Offering a helping hand. And he was a civil activist. Always tried to improve his community. However, he worried about too much social engineering. And unintended consequences. Even worried that by helping the poor too much government could make them dependent. And lazy. For he built his wealth after arriving in Philadelphia with one Dutch dollar in his pocket. It was hard work that made his success. Not charity or dependence.
If Benjamin Franklin were here Today he would likely Endorse the Republicans in the 2012 Election
Franklin would go on to be one of the strongest supporters of Independence from Britain. He helped edit the Declaration of Independence. Sat in the Constitutional Convention. And signed both documents. As well as the Franco-American treaties bringing the French into the American Revolution. And the Treaty of Paris officially ending the American Revolution. He was a Founding Father. Perhaps as indispensable as George Washington. So if Franklin were here today what would he think about the country he helped create? And who would he endorse in the 2012 election?
First of all he would be appalled at the size of the federal government. Which would be unrecognizable to him from the limited government he helped create. He would find the taxes and regulations on business suffocating to the entrepreneurial spirit. Dissuading who knows how many from working those long hours. Like he did. He spent his time doing what he loved. Printing, publishing, writing, etc. Not hiring lawyers and accountants to help him pay his taxes and comply with regulations. He would like the cheap credit available to business but he would have been shocked by the level of government spending and the level of the federal debt. For the federal government is anything but frugal. And the size of the welfare state, the amount of people receiving federal benefits, would have confirmed his fears about too much social engineering. The blatant bias in the media would have disturbed his nonpartisan senses greatly. Finally, being someone who rose from the middle class and built his own wealth he would have been greatly offended by the class warfare in politics today.
So who would Franklin endorse in the 2012 election? Well, the Democrats want to make government bigger. They want to increase taxes and regulations. With Obamacare being a big one that will discourage many small businesses from growing. The current Democrat administration has been the least frugal of all administrations. Their spending having even caused a credit downgrade. Their stimulus bill did not benefit the middling people. Instead, most of that money went to rich Democrat donors. They want to increase an already immense welfare state. Which under the current administration has set a record for the number of people on food stamps. Other than one cable channel (FOX News) and talk radio most media has a liberal bias. Where truth and error do NOT have fair play. And it’s the Democrats that push class warfare. Who want to transfer even more of the tax burden to the wealthy. Even though the top 10% of earners are already paying about 70% of the taxes. While the Republicans want to cut taxes and regulations. Cut spending. Shrink the size of government. And provide a business-friendly environment. So others may start a business and rise up from the middle class. Who can then give back to their community. Like Franklin did. So it is likely that if Franklin were here today he would endorse the party that was closer to his political and business philosophies. The Republicans. And the Romney-Ryan ticket.
Tags: 2012 election, artisans, Benjamin Franklin, charity, class warfare, Democrats, dependence, entrepreneur, Franklin, frugality, good works, industry, limited government, middle class, middling people, newspaper, newspaper publisher, Philadelphia, printer, publisher, regulations, Republicans, rugged individualism, small business owner, social engineering, taxes, taxes and regulations, unintended consequences, virtuous, welfare state
Hamilton trusted Men of Integrity to Govern Justly while Jefferson believed Money and Power would Corrupt Anyone
Nasty politics began back in the Washington administration. With the seething hatred between Alexander Hamilton and Thomas Jefferson. These American greats had two different visions for America. Based on their background. Hamilton’s from his experience in the Continental Army and his business experience. Jefferson’s from his books. As different as their views for America were, and despite their hatred for each other, they both loved their country. And wanted what was best for their country. While absolutely sure that the other had nefarious plans for its ruin.
Both were students of the Enlightenment. Both believed in the natural, God-given rights of the people. And both believed vehemently in the rule of law. In fact, both were lawyers. But Hamilton was part of the Continental Army when its troops were barefoot, half-naked and starving. Which were barefoot, half-naked and starving because of a weak Continental Congress that could not provide for them. Because they were weak, impotent and could not levy taxes. All they could do was ask the states to give them money. The states promised little. And delivered even less. Threatening the American Revolution itself.
Jefferson, on the other hand, saw that history was replete with examples of corruption and oppression whenever financial centers and the seat of power got too close. Hamilton may have seen this. But what he was most conscious of was the British Empire. The greatest empire in the world. Which became the greatest empire in the world by bringing the financial centers and the seat of power together. Which is what Hamilton wanted to do. Trusting in the integrity and moral character of gentlemen of the Enlightenment. Who would rule with selfless indifference. Principled men with strong Judeo-Christian values. These were the men that would rule America. Men like the Founding Fathers. Who they could trust with money and power. Who America should trust with money and power. To make an American Empire to surpass the British Empire. This is what Hamilton wanted. While Jefferson believed that money and power would corrupt anyone. If not in their generation then surely in the generations to follow. And the best way to prevent this was by giving government as little money and power as possible.
An Outbreak of Yellow Fever in Philadelphia nearly settled the Quarrel between Hamilton and Jefferson
So Jefferson opposed Hamilton at every opportunity. Such as the Bank of the United States. And Hamilton’s funding system. Making matters worse was that Hamilton’s Treasury Department was the largest department in the federal government. While Jefferson’s State Department was one of the smallest. So Jefferson tried to transfer some parts of Treasury to his State Department. The Post Office. Which he failed in getting. But he did succeed in transferring the Mint from Treasury to State. Hamilton even learned that James Madison and Jefferson met with Robert Livingston and Aaron Burr to conspire against Hamilton to remove him from office. Hamilton saw an ambitious Jefferson. Who wanted the kind of power Jefferson accused Hamilton wanted for himself.
So these gentlemen began a campaign to force the other from office. Hamilton had an ally in the Gazette of the United States who championed his policies. To counter Jefferson hired Philip Freneau into the State Department to help finance a new paper. The National Gazette. Whose sole purpose was to attack Hamilton while praising everything Jeffersonian. Hamilton wrote anonymous attacks published in the Gazette of the United States. While Jefferson left his dirty work to Freneau. And the attacks grew uglier. The attacks were not just on policy or the future vision of the nation. But these were personal attacks on each other. Where accuracy was not a major requirement. Such as when Hamilton took Jefferson out of context. Quoting selective excerpts from a 1787 letter to suggest that Jefferson wanted to rob the Dutch to repay the French. Hamilton and Jefferson became like two quarreling children in Washington’s cabinet. Each running to ‘father’ tattling on the other. Insisting that Washington demand the resignation of the other.
An outbreak of yellow fever in Philadelphia nearly settled the question. By almost killing Hamilton. But he survived. Unlike some 4,000 others in Philadelphia. Even Hamilton’s illness was seen through a political lens. Hamilton sought the medical advice from an old college buddy. As opposed to following the good advice of Dr. Benjamin Rush. Who recommended massive bloodlettings. When Hamilton recovered he publically thanked his friend (who had nothing to do with his recovery) and encouraged others to follow his recommended treatment. Which didn’t include bloodletting. Dr. Rush was infuriated. Accusing Hamilton of killing countless others through this quackery instead of the sensible bloodletting that was established medical practice. Of course, this was a personal attack on Dr. Rush. Because he was not a Federalist. But a Republican. And a friend of James Madison and Thomas Jefferson.
While the French were causing Headaches for Jefferson and his Republicans the British were doing the same to Hamilton and his Federalists
The yellow fever also claimed another casualty. The National Gazette. As people fled Philadelphia, or died, circulation fell. And the paper lost money and closed shop. About the same time that happened Jefferson resigned from the cabinet. And returned to Monticello. Things were looking up for Hamilton. Until the reverberations of the French Revolution further divided the country. The Federalists were reestablishing trade with the British. So when the French and British were back at war with each other it caused some problems in America. For the American people still hated Britain. While having deep emotional ties to the country that had helped them win their independence. France. The United States had proclaimed their neutrality in this new war. But being a maritime nation dependent on exports her best interests lay with Great Britain and the most powerful navy in the world. Which further proved that Hamilton and his Federalists were secret monarchists. And that Hamilton wanted to be king.
Meanwhile, the French had sent their new ambassador to America. Citizen Genêt. Who Jefferson, the Republicans and the American people welcomed with open arms. But then he started issuing letters of marque to American captains to attack and capture British shipping. Bringing them back to American ports to refit them. Which was a dangerous thing for a neutral nation to do against the nation that kept the sea lanes safe for their commerce. Then Citizen Genêt tried to raise an American army to attack the Spanish in Florida and in New Orleans. With further aims of attacking the British in Canada. This was too much even for Jefferson. And it was one of the few times that Jefferson and Hamilton were in agreement. Citizen Genêt had to go. For Jefferson he was proving to be an embarrassing liability for the Republicans.
While at the same time the British were retaliating. Issuing orders to blockade France and to seize any neutral shipping trying to supply France with corn. Which was pretty much any agricultural grain product. A major export of the United States. So this was a direct blow against U.S. commerce. Even though she was a neutral in this current war between France and Great Britain. This did not make the American people happy. Nor did it help Hamilton or his Federalists with their rapprochement with Britain. Then the British began to seize all shipping going to and from the French West Indies. Which were mostly American ships. So while Citizen Genêt was causing great headaches for Jefferson and his Republicans the British were doing the same to Hamilton and his Federalists. Further dividing the nation. And bringing them closer to war. In large part due to the politics dividing the nation.
Tags: Alexander Hamilton, Britain, British, British Empire, Citizen Genêt, commerce, Continental Army, corruption, Dr. Rush, Enlightenment, Federalists, France, French, French Revolution, Freneau, Gazette of the United States, Great Britain, Hamilton, James Madison, Jefferson, letters of marque, Madison, money and power, National Gazette, neutral shipping, neutrality, Philadelphia, Republicans, State Department, Thomas Jefferson, Treasury Department, Washington, yellow fever
The People trusted no One Man with Great Power except, of course, George Washington
America had a new constitution. It wasn’t easy. For the American states covered a lot of geography. And ideology. These were a very different people. Who had only joined together in union to resist their common enemy. Great Britain. But now that common enemy was no more. What now? These delegates who worked behind closed doors for 4 months in some of the hottest and most humid weather had done the best they could. It was less a triumph of solidarity than the recognition that this was the best anyone was going to do considering how vast and disparate the people were. So now it was up to the states to ratify it. But would they?
Good question. For there was a lot of opposition to transferring power, any power, from the states to a new central authority. They had just cut the ties to one king. And they didn’t do this just to submit to another king. Of course, America would have no king. For they would simply call their new executive president. But it was still one man. And many feared that this one man given some power may take more power. So whoever the first president was had to be one of impeccable character and integrity. A true Patriot. One whose Revolutionary credentials were beyond questioning. Someone who was in the struggle for independence from the beginning and never wavered in the cause. Someone the people universally loved. And respected. Of course that could be but one man. George Washington.
This is why we call George Washington the Father of our Country. For without him there would have been no country. For the people trusted no one man with great power. But they trusted Washington. And respected him. Would even have made him king they trusted him so. So because Washington was available to be the first president the delegates in Philadelphia signed the new Constitution. For all their sectional differences this was one area where everyone agreed. They were willing to risk having this new central government because they trusted it in the hands of this one man. George Washington.
When Patrick Henry and George Mason opposed the new Constitution it was Doubtful Virginia would Vote for Ratification
Of course they weren’t just going to hand the presidency to Washington. But the electors in the Electoral College simply weren’t going to have a better candidate to vote for. Washington didn’t want the job. He just wanted to enjoy retirement on his farm before he died. And based on the longevity of Washington men he was already living on borrowed time. But he would serve. Again. Because he fought too long and too hard to see the new nation collapse before it could even become a nation. And he had no illusions about how horrible the job would be. It was one thing giving orders in the Continental Army where people did what he told them. But it was another dealing with Congress during the war. Who couldn’t accomplish anything for the spirit of liberty. As the states tended to look more after their own interests than the army fighting for their liberty. Leaving his army barefoot, half naked and starving during the winter at Valley Forge. And through most of the war.
So, no, being the president wasn’t going to give him the peace and serenity he could find under his vine and fig tree at home. It would just put him closer to the partisan bickering. But he was willing to sacrifice his own wants and desires yet again. To serve the people. But would the people want him? For it wasn’t up to the delegates at the Constitutional Convention. All they could do was make their case to the people. Then let the people decide if they wanted this new government. And perhaps the most critical state was Virginia. Which not only gave us George Washington. But George Mason. Patrick Henry. Thomas Jefferson. And James Madison.
Patrick Henry said, “Give me liberty or give me death!” He was a great orator whose speeches could awe listeners. He dripped Patriotism (even refused to attend the Philadelphia Convention as he feared it would lead to monarchy). So did George Mason. His Virginia Declaration of Rights (1776) no doubt inspired his fellow Virginian, Thomas Jefferson, who studied the same philosophers as Mason did. So when Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence you could read some Virginia Declaration of Rights in it. So his Revolutionary credentials were solid. So when Henry and Mason opposed the new Constitution (Mason was a delegate at the convention but refused to sign it) it cast doubt over whether Virginia would ratify the new Constitution.
George Mason and Patrick Henry joined James Madison in fighting for Ratification of the Bill of Rights
Mason supported republican government. But he didn’t trust a large republican government. Not without a bill of rights. Which is why he refused to sign the Constitution at the convention. James Madison, the Father of the Constitution, argued against any bill of rights. For he did not think it was needed. For the Constitution enumerated the powers of the federal government. Citing specifically what it could do. And whatever wasn’t specifically enumerated they couldn’t do. Madison feared if they included a bill of rights that it could backfire on them later. For someone would argue that the Constitution stated the government can’t do A, B and C. But it didn’t say anything about D. So clearly the federal government can do D because it wasn’t included in the list of things it couldn’t do. Madison saw that if you listed some rights you must list all rights. Which changes the Constitution from forbidding the federal government from doing anything not enumerated to something that allows the government do whatever it wants as long as it is not listed in a bill of rights.
For some, though, a bill of rights was conditional for ratification. George Mason simply wouldn’t vote for ratification unless the Constitution included a bill of rights. Even Thomas Jefferson wrote Madison from Europe urging him to include a bill of rights. The tide of Virginian opinion appeared to be against him on the issue. And Madison needed Virginia. For if Virginia didn’t ratify the chances were slim for ratification in other states. Which did not bode well for the country. Because of how vast and disparate the people were. The northern states weren’t like the southern states. And neither was like the western territory. If there was no union the north would probably form a confederation. And being a maritime region they’d probably seek out closer ties to Great Britain and their Royal Navy. With some of the bloodiest fighting in the south perpetrated by the British and their Loyalist allies this would probably align the southern states to Britain’s eternal enemy. France. With two of Europe’s greatest powers entrenched in the east the western territories would probably align with that other European power. Spain. Who controlled the mouth of the Mississippi River. The gateway to the world for western agriculture. Turning America into another Europe. Wars and all.
Madison worked tirelessly for ratification. Working with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay on a series of articles published in newspapers making the case for ratification. Later bound together into the Federalist Papers. And then changing his stand on a bill of rights. Promising to include a bill of rights as the first order of business for the new federal congress. This brought George Mason around. He even helped Madison on the bill of rights. Which helped tip Virginia towards ratification despite a fierce opposition led by Patrick Henry. But after ratification he, too, helped Madison pass the first 10 amendments to the Constitution. The Bill of Rights. Which Madison delivered during the first Congress as promised. And then worked tirelessly for its ratification.
Tags: Bill of Rights, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, enumerated powers, federal government, George Mason, George Washington, Henry, James Madison, Jefferson, Madison, Mason, Patrick Henry, Patriot, Philadelphia, Philadelphia Convention, president, ratification, republican government, revolutionary credentials, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginia Declaration of Rights, Washington
Funny thing about the Americans is that they just didn’t Like Paying Taxes
United we stood. For awhile. Until we defeated the British at Yorktown. And negotiated the Treaty of Paris where Great Britain recognized our independence from the British Crown. But people grew weary of the war. On both sides of the Atlantic. And those in the once united states (small ‘u’ and small ‘s’) were eager to retreat to their states. And forget about the Continental Congress. The Continental Army. And everything to do with the confederation. Threatening to undo everything they fought for. Because of their sectional interests.
Shays Rebellion nearly pushed the country into anarchy. It was the tipping point. They had to do something. Because if they weren’t united they would surely fall. They owed Europe a fortune that they had no hope of repaying. Funny thing about the Americans. They just didn’t like paying taxes. Making it difficult to repay their debts. The Europeans gave them little respect. France tried to sell them out during the peace talks to rebalance the balance of power in their favor. Spain wanted to keep them east of the Mississippi River. And off of the Mississippi. Even refused them passage through the Port of New Orleans. Britain didn’t evacuate their western forts. The Barbary pirates were capturing American shipping in the Mediterranean and selling their crews into slavery. And Catherine the Great of Russia wouldn’t even meet the American ambassador. So the Americans were the Rodney Dangerfield of nations. They got no respect.
In 1787 delegates gathered in Philadelphia. To revise the Articles of Confederation to address these problems. Some enthusiastically. Some begrudgingly. While one state refused to attend. Rhode Island. For they were quite happy with the way things were. As the smallest sate in the union they had the power to kill almost any legislation that didn’t benefit Rhode Island. For some legislation the vote had to be unanimous. And they enjoyed charging other states tariffs for their goods unloaded in Rhode Island ports. Things were so nice in Rhode Island that they didn’t need much taxation. Because they had other states funding their needs. Thanks to those tariffs. Of course, this did little to benefit the union. While imposing taxes on their neighbors in the union. Sort of like taxation without representation. Funny thing about Americans, though. They didn’t like paying taxes.
Montesquieu said a Republican Government must Separate Power into Three Branches
Thomas Jefferson was in Europe in 1787. John Adams, too. But just about every other “demi-god” (as Jefferson called those at that gathering) was in Philadelphia in 1787. America’s patriarch Benjamin Franklin. The indispensable George Washington. The financially savvy Alexander Hamilton. The studious James Madison. The Framers of the Constitution. Highly principled men. Well read men. Prosperous men. Who were familiar with world history. And read the great enlightenment philosophers. Like John Locke. Who especially influenced the writing of the Declaration of Independence. With his inalienable rights. Consent of the governed. And property rights.
As they gathered in Philadelphia to revise the Articles it became clear that they needed something more. A new constitution. A stronger federal government. With the power to tax so they could raise money. For without money the union could not solve any of its problems. So they set upon writing a new constitution for a new government. A republican government of republican states. As they began to frame this constitution they drew on the work of a French philosopher. Charles de Montesquieu. Who championed republican government. The ideal government. A government of the people who ruled at the consent of the governed. With built-in safeguards to protect the people’s inalienable rights. The key requirement being the separation of powers.
Montesquieu said a republican government must separate power into three branches. The legislature, the executive and the judiciary. A nation of laws requires a legislature to write the laws. Because the laws must respect the inalienable rights of the people the people must elect the legislature from the general population. So the legislature’s interests are the people’s interest. However, if the legislature was also the executive they could easily write laws that represented their interests instead of the people. Elevating the legislature into a dictatorship. If the legislature was also the judiciary they could interpret law to favor their interests instead of the people. Elevating the legislature into a dictatorship. Likewise if the executive could write and interpret law the executive could elevate into a dictatorship. Ditto for the judiciary if they could write the law they were interpreting. So the separation of powers is the greatest protection the people have against a government’s oppression.
If a Power wasn’t Delegated to the New Federal Government it Remained with the States
During the Constitutional Convention they debated long and they debated hard. The Federalists were in favor of a stronger central government. The anti-Federalists were not. The Federalists included those who served in the Army and the Congress. The anti-Federalists were those who didn’t serve ‘nationally’ and favored states’ rights. In general. So one side wanted to increase the power of the central government while the other side wanted no central government. For their fear was that a new federal government would consolidate power and subordinate the states to its rule. As if the last war never happened. And the states would still bow to a distant central power. Only this time to one on this side of the Atlantic.
So the balance they struck was a two-house (i.e., bicameral) legislature. A House of Representatives. And a Senate. The people in each state elected a number of representatives proportional to their state’s population. So a large state had a large representation in the House. So that house represented the will of the people. To prevent the tyranny of the minority. So a small privileged class couldn’t rule as they pleased. Whereas the Senate prevented the tyranny of the majority. By giving each state two senators. So small states had the same say as big states. Together they represented both the majority and the minority. Further, states’ legislatures chose their senators (changed later by Constitutional amendment). Providing the states a check on federal legislation.
To round things out there was an executive they called the president. And a judiciary. Providing the separation of powers per Montesquieu. They further limited the central government’s powers by enumerating their powers. The new federal government could only do what the Constitution said it could do. Treat with foreign powers. Coin a national currency. Declare war. Etc. If a power wasn’t delegated to the new federal government it remained with the states. To give the new federal government some power. Including the power to tax. While leaving most powers with the states. Striking a compromise between the Federalists and the anti-Federalists.
Tags: 1787, anti-Federalists, Articles of Confederation, central government, Charles de Montesquieu, consent of the governed, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, dictatorship, enumerated powers, executive, federal government, Federalists, Framers, House of Representatives, inalienable rights, Jefferson, John Locke, judiciary, legislature, Locke, Montesquieu, Philadelphia, republican government, Rhode Island, rights, Senate, separation of powers, states' rights, tariffs, taxation, taxes
After Winning their Independence from Great Britain the Common Enemy was no more Leaving them Little Reason to Unite
The South lost the American Civil War for a few reasons. Perhaps the greatest was the North’s industrial superiority. Her industry could make whatever they needed to wage war. While the South suffered behind the Union’s blockade. Unable to trade their cotton for the means to wage war. And then there was the fact that the North was united. While the states’ rights issue that they were fighting for prevented the South from being united. The southern states (whose governments were dominated by the planter elite) did not like the federal government in Washington (except when they forced northern states to return southern slaves). And as it turned out the states didn’t like the federal government in Richmond any better. They fought Jefferson Davis from consolidating his power. They put the states’ interests ahead of the national interest. Such as winning a war to secure their states’ rights. And any supplies a state had they wouldn’t share them with another state. Even if they had a warehouse full of surplus shoes while troops from another states fought barefoot.
So the North won the American Civil War because they were united. They had an advanced economy based on free market capitalism and free labor. And they were wealthy. Basically because of the prior two statements. But it wasn’t always like this. The United States of America is a large country. Even before it was a country. When it was only a confederation of sovereign states. With independent republican governments. Still it covered great tracts of land. Allowing the states to keep to themselves. Much like it would be some 75 years later in the South.
After winning their independence from Great Britain the common enemy was no more. And they had little reason to unite. Which they didn’t. For the several states included a lot of disparate people. Who agreed on little with the people beyond their state’s borders. Which was one of the criticisms of republican government (i.e., an elected representative government). And one held by perhaps the greatest influence on the Framers of the Constitution. French philosopher Charles de Montesquieu. Who believed that the larger the geographic size the more dissimilar the people’s interest. And therefore making republican government more difficult. As it was too difficult to arrive at a consensus with such a large electorate. Which James Madison disagreed with, making this a heated topic during the Constitutional Convention and the ratification process. But before that convention it would appear to be incontrovertible. The United States were anything but united.
The Americans defeated one Distant Central Power and were none too keen on Answering to a New Central Power
The first American identity appeared in the Continental Army. Where soldiers came from different states and fought together as Americans. General Washington fostered this spirit. Forbidding any anti-Catholic displays. One thing that all the Protestant American colonists enjoyed. No matter which state they came from. But to fight the British Empire they needed a large army drawn from all the states. And to get the French Canadians living in British Canada to join them they needed to embrace religious freedom. Even for Catholics. Which was even more important if they had any chance of getting support from the most likely foreign power. The eternal enemy of Britain. Catholic France. Washington, as well as those who served in the Continental Army, understood the success of their cause required less infighting and more uniting. That it was imperative to set aside their sectional interests. Only then could the new nation join the world of nations. Strong and independent. And avoid the European nations pulling them into their intrigues.
But of course that wasn’t going to happen. After the war no one called themselves American. Except for a few. Like Washington. And some other veterans of the Continental Army. No. The country people belonged to was their state. Thomas Jefferson, the author of the Declaration of Independence, called Virginia his country. As did most if not all of the Patriots of ’76. The war was over. They defeated the distant central power. And they were none too keen on a new central power to answer to. Even if it was on their side of the Atlantic. To these Revolutionary Patriots the Continental Congress was just another foreign legislature trying to infringe on their sovereignty.
The national congress had no power. Delegates didn’t always show up leaving the congress without a quorum. Which didn’t matter much as they couldn’t pass anything when they had a quorum. For any legislation they wanted to pass into law required a unanimous vote of all thirteen states. Which rarely happened. They couldn’t levy taxes. Which meant they couldn’t fund an army or navy to protect their states from foreign aggressors. Or protect their international trade on the high seas. Which was a problem as the British no longer provided these services. And they couldn’t repay any of their debts. Their prewar debt owed to a lot of British creditors (which they had to repay according to the treaty that ended the war and gave them their independence). Or their war debt. States owed other states. And the Congress owed foreign creditors in Europe. Especially their war-time ally. France. Who they owed a fortune to. The states charged duties and tariffs on interstate commerce. They made their own treaties with the Indians. Some states defaulted on the debt they owed to out of state creditors. States even fought each other over land. The Untied States were anything but united. And it showed.
The Delegates of the Continental Congress agreed to meet in Philadelphia in 1787 to revise the Articles of Confederation
Europe watched the Americans with amusement and contempt. The Americans didn’t get much respect from Catherine the Great, tsarina of Russia. The ruler of the world’s largest country viewed the Americans as a bit uppity and not worthy to join the European courts. Besides, she was more interested in expanding her powers into Turkey. And into Poland. Who caught some of that spirit of liberty from the Americans. That Catherine wanted to squelch. Making her less of an America fan. But it wasn’t only Russia. The Barbary pirates were targeting American shipping in the Mediterranean. Selling their crews to the slave markets of North Africa. Western settlers using the Mississippi River to ship their produce were denied passage through the Port of New Orleans by Spain. The British refused to vacate their forts in the Northwest. Even worked with the Indians to cause some mischief in the borderlands. Why did the Europeans do these things? Because they could. For the Americans could not stop them.
To make matters worse the Americans were drifting towards civil war. The northern provinces were talking about leaving the confederation and forming their own. The North feared the South would do the same. Even aligning itself more with Europe than the American states. Meanwhile the economy was tanking. Trade was down. People were out of work. Farmers were unable to pay their debts. Even losing their farms. In western Massachusetts Daniel Shays gathered together disgruntled veterans and rebelled. Again. Only this time it wasn’t against the British. It was against the legal authorities in Massachusetts. Shays Rebellion spread to other states. And grew violent. Massachusetts asked the Continental Congress for help. And the Congress asked the states for $530,000 to raise an army to put down the rebellion. Twelve of the thirteen states said “no.”
With no other choice Massachusetts went to rich people for funding. Used it to raise a militia of some 4,400 men. In time and after some bloody fighting they put down this rebellion. But some of the rebels continued a guerilla war. Making many in the new United States live in fear. Washington, despondent of what was happening to the republic he had fought for so long to secure, pleaded, “Let us look to our national character and to things beyond the present moment.” And so they did. The delegates of the Continental Congress agreed to meet in Philadelphia in 1787. To revise the Articles of Confederation. To reign in the chaos. To get their finances in order. And to gain the respect of the world of nations. But to do that would require s stronger central government. And that is exactly what emerged from Philadelphia. So they did what the Confederates did not do nearly 75 years later. Which is the reason why they lost the American Civil War. Because of an ideal. States’ rights. That was so absolute that it weakened the Confederacy to the point she could not survive. Something the Miracle of Philadelphia prevented in 1787. Which left the states sovereign. And the new federal government only governed that which extended beyond the states’ borders. And it worked well. For some 75 years. When it hit a road bump.
Tags: 1787, American, American Civil War, American identity, Barbary pirates, Britain, British, British Empire, central power, Civil War, Constitutional Convention, Continental Army, Continental Congress, creditors, debt, distant central power, federal government, France, General Washington, Great Britain, interstate commerce, Massachusetts, Miracle of Philadelphia, North, Philadelphia, republican government, Russia, Shays Rebellion, South, Spain, states' rights, Washington
General Gates gave the British Lenient Terms of Surrender at Saratoga allowing a Defeated British Army to be Replaced by Another
When the Americans began fighting for their independence the British said, “Really? You’re going to fight us? The greatest military power in the world? Yeah, right. Forgive us if we don’t tremble in our boots.” Then came Lexington and Concorde. Bunker Hill. Then the Siege of Boston. Not exactly an auspicious start for the greatest military power in the world. But a little premature for the Americans to be feeling big in the britches department. For the British had a cure for britches that ware too big. It’s something they called the greatest military power in the world. Which General Sir William Howe unleashed on the Americans on Long Island. And he didn’t stop pushing the Americans back until he took winter quarters in New Jersey. General Howe took those big American britches and shrunk them down in good order. Very disheartening times for the Patriots. Times that Thomas Paine wrote “try men’s souls.”
The British were feeling confident. Even their hired mercenaries. The Hessians. Who where in Trenton. Across the Delaware from Washington’s army that was “almost naked, dying of cold, without blankets, and very ill supplied with provisions.” Ill conceived words from the Hessian commander. Considering that naked, starving army surprised the bejesus out of them. Giving the Americans a much needed win in the field against the British. Or their Hessian allies. Giving the Patriots fresh hope. After they had just lost pretty much all of it. And when they emerged from winter quarters they came out fighting. Came close to a couple of victories. But unable to pull out a victory. Losing more land in the process. Including Philadelphia. And when the army took winter quarters at Valley Forge they were “almost naked, dying of cold, without blankets, and very ill supplied with provisions” again.
But it wasn’t all bad. For there was an American victory up north. At Saratoga. Where a British army surrendered. To an American force. Something the French had great trouble doing themselves in the last century. So this win was big. But it could have been bigger. For General Gates gave the British painfully lenient terms of surrender. Allowing the British army to go back to Britain if they promised that they would never fight in North America again. Of course the fault with that logic is that if that army went back to Britain they could relieve other forces that could fight in North America. So the victory was a hollow one militarily. As it did not weaken the enemy militarily. Worse, had that British army been interned in a POW camp the war may not have continued for another 5 years. For that win at Saratoga brought the French into the war.
The Americans weren’t Interested in Making a British Peace, what they Had in Mind was an American Win
The British did not want to broaden this war. And the last thing they wanted was to bring in their old nemesis. France. Who would be glad to broaden the war. And would rejoice at the opportunity to bring some hurt down on their old foe. And perhaps recover some of their lost North American possessions. So the British started to send out some peace feelers. They approached Benjamin Franklin in January of 1778. But he was not interested in what terms the British offered for Parliament to recognize America’s independence. For Franklin said it was not up to Parliament to recognize their independence. It was up to the Americans. And they already did.
The British even tried bribing prominent Americans. Such as Franklin and Washington. In exchange for their help in convincing the American people to end their rebellion they would bestow upon them titles and rank. And privilege. Including generous pensions. But Franklin and Washington weren’t for sale. Parliament held heated debate about the American problem. And the Americans and the French entering into any treaties. Lord Rockingham led the Whig opposition who favored American independence. While Lord Chatham vehemently disagreed with giving up sovereignty over America. As it would be an insult to the Crown. He was making his case passionately in Parliament when he collapsed. This became his last speech as he died shortly thereafter. His last breaths in Parliament were for naught, though. As they agreed to send a peace commission to America. To try to end the war before the French could affect the outcome.
The Carlisle Commission arrived in Philadelphia as General Clinton (who replaced General Howe) was moving his army back to New York. Which did not give the British a strong negotiating position. For it is usually easier to get someone to accept your generous terms when you have the world’s most powerful military behind you. Giving people something to think about if they don’t accept your generous terms. The Americans refused to negotiate with them, though. The British then tried bribing some prominent Americans. Even tried to appeal directly to the American people. Who just suffered a British army occupying their city. So the British made no progress towards a negotiated peace. Even though the terms were generous. And had the British offered them a few years earlier the Americans would have accepted them. For they gave them most of what they wanted then. But after three years of war things changed. The British had done things they couldn’t undo. Certain unrestricted warfare things. And the Americans weren’t desperate to make peace. For they had survived 3 years of war against the greatest military power in the world. Recently defeating one of their armies in the field of battle. And now had the French as allies. No, the Americans weren’t interested in making a British peace. What they had in mind was an American win.
After Surviving 3 Years of War and 6 Months at Valley Forge the Americans had Reason to Believe they could Win this War
As General Washington entered winter quarters in the barren land of Valley Forge the British were settling in for a comfortable winter in the city of Philadelphia. The British moved into comfortable homes while the Americans raced the calendar to build some barracks before the snow fell. They had little food. No meat whatsoever. Many were barefoot. Few had a decent shirt to wear. And blankets were few. To stay warm soldiers huddled around fires. Or shivered under shared blankets.
Some 2,500 men would die in all during the 6 months of Valley Forge. But the army emerged intact. And with confidence. They now had an ally. France. And during that awful winter they also trained. Under the Prussian Baron Friedrich von Steuben. Who may have lied on his resume. But he knew how to drill an army into shape. And that’s what emerged from Valley Forge. A professional army. As good as any in Europe. Even European officers led some of their units. Who came over to fight for the cause. Combat engineers like Louis Duportail from France. And Thaddeus Kosciusko from Poland. Also from Poland was cavalry commander Count Casimir Pulaski. And, of course, Marquis de Lafayette from France. The one foreign officer that never caused Washington any grief over persistent demands for promotion and rank. Not Lafayette. Who proved himself in battle. And even changed his political persuasion during the war. From monarchy to the liberty of republicanism. Washington looked upon Lafayette as a son.
After surviving 3 years of war and 6 months at Valley Forge the Americans had reason to believe they could win this war. For the army that emerged from Valley Forge was a better army than the one that defeated General Burgoyne at Saratoga. And they were less alone. Thanks to France. And these foreign officers. Making it more difficult for Britain. For with France (and her ally Spain joining in) the American Revolutionary War became a world war. Diverting British resources elsewhere as their new enemies looked to take advantage of Britain’s American problem. Which the Americans knew when rejecting the Carlisle Commission. Namely that a quick peace didn’t favor the Americans. It favored the British.
Tags: American problem, Americans, Britain, British, Carlisle Commission, Chatham, Franklin, French, General Gates, General Howe, greatest military power in the world, Hessians, independence, Lafayette, lenient terms of surrender, negotiated peace, North America, Parliament, Patriots, Philadelphia, Poland, Rockingham, Saratoga, terms of surrender, Trenton, Valley Forge, Washington, winter quarters, world war
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