Snow Ski

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 26th, 2014

Technology 101

Gravity and Speed keeps a Skier’s Skies in contact with the Mountain and Provides Control

The Winter Olympics have come and gone.  And if you are a big fan of the Winter Olympics you probably were somewhat disappointed.  Especially if you’re a fan of alpine skiing.  Because it was just too warm.  They have the Olympics in February for a reason.  Because February is a very cold month.  And the mountains have a couple of months of snow on them by February.  Allowing the snow groomers to do their magic.  And turn those mountains into hard sheets of ice.

Yes, ski racers ski on ice.  Not snow.  If you ever skied on a mountain where there was once an Olympic downhill racecourse you will see very steep slopes of ice.  If you ski slowly across the fall line of the slope at the top of the mountain you will slide further down hill than you ski across the slope.  With your ski edges sliding across the ice.  And about the only thing that will stop your ‘free-fall’ slide down that steep ice-covered slope is the loose snow on the sides of the slope.  But if you travel down this same slope at speeds around 70 mph your skies will carve into that ice.  Giving you great control.  If you have the skills of an Olympic downhill skier, that is.  If you’re not as skilled as a downhill racer then you shouldn’t try this.  Because if you fall at speed up there you can do some real damage to yourself.

Downhill skiers love that speed, though.  And will give themselves up completely to gravity.  And let it pull them down these steep, sheets of ice at breakneck speeds.  With nothing to keep them from flying off the mountain and breaking their necks but their skies.  As gravity and speed keeps their skies in contact with the mountain.  Giving them control to stay on their skies.  And carve their way down the mountain.  Literally.

When a Skier leans over on a Ski the Curved Edge of the Ski carves into the Snow or Ice and Turns the Skier

In alpine skiing there are 5 different races.  The downhill.  The super giant slalom (known as super G).  Giant slalom.  Slalom.  And combined.  Which is a combination of two ski races.  One downhill race and one slalom race.  The downhill is the straightest and fastest down the mountain.  The super G is a little more ‘turny’ and a little slower than downhill.   The giant slalom is more ‘turny’ and slower than Super G.  And the slalom is more ‘turny’ and slower than giant slalom.  The downhill is all about speed.  The turns aren’t that sharp.  While the slalom is all about the turns.  With speeds that aren’t that fast.

Each of these races requires different types of skies.  The downhill race needs long skies that will absorb the bumps of rough terrain without bouncing off.  And speed is more important than turning.  While slalom skies need shorter skies to make sharper turns.  And because they are shorter they may come off the snow as they bounce over rough terrain.  So they match the ski to the race.  And because of the requirements of downhill racing these skies are available only to professional skiers.  You will not find them in any sporting goods store.  As amateur and recreational skiers could not control them safely on steep sheets of ice at downhill speeds.

If you look at a ski lying on the ground you will see that it is narrower at the center where it attaches to the ski boot and wider at the tip and the tail.  And it goes from wide to narrow to wide in a continuous curve.  This curve is the side-cut radius.  This is what turns the ski.  When a skier leans over on the ski the curved edge of the ski carves into the snow or ice.  Turning the skier.  The more curved the side-cut radius the tighter turns it will allow.  So slalom skies are more curved in the side-cut radius than downhill skills.

The Winter Olympics are in February so Ski Racers can ski on Mountains that are Hard Sheets of Ice

Looking at a ski resting on a hard surface you will notice something else.  The center of the ski will be off that hard surface.  While the tip and the tail will be in contact with that surface.  This arch—or camber—of the ski helps to force the ski into contact with the snow when you place weight onto them.  Especially the steel edges when turning.  When a skier carves a turn he or she will literally carve that turn into the ice of the mountain.  In a clean turn the tail of the ski will follow the same groove carved by the tip.  With a minimum loss of speed.  If the tail slides out of this groove and carve its own groove it will slow the skier down.  And in downhill skiing where first and second place can be separated by one one-hundredth of a second one slight skid in a turn can be the difference between winning and coming in second.

As downhill skiers leave the starting gate they will take a couple of pushes with their ski poles to help gravity pull them down faster and then assume a tuck position.  To decrease their air drag.  As they approach a gate they will turn by leaning on their edges.  The sharper the turn the more they will lean onto to their edges to carve a tighter turn.  And the more speed they will lose.  Which is why racers will look for the best ‘line’ down the mountain.  One that minimizes sharp turns.  Once out of the turn they will release their edges and ski on the bottom of their skies.  Gaining speed.  They will absorb the rough terrain in their legs.  And fight the compression of the g-forces with their legs.  They lean into turns, release their edges, ride on the bottoms of their skis in the flats, lean on their edges, etc.  At speeds around 70 mph.  As they carve their way down a mountain of ice to cross the finish line in the shortest amount of time.

As spring approaches the ski resorts warm up.  Some people love this.  Spring skiing conditions.  Loose snow on the slopes but warming weather.  So warm that a lot of ski areas will have events like bikini races or lingerie races where girls will ski down the mountain half naked in the warming weather.  It can be a real party on the slopes.  But the skiing will be horrible.  The snow will be melting.  It will be wet.  Granular.  Pushed up into piles.  Making it easy to catch an edge and fall.  And difficult to build up any speed.  Which is why the Winter Olympics are in February.  In the coldest part of winter.  With a lot of snow frozen on the mountain.  And they typically don’t hold them in subtropical climates.  Where the average temperature in February is 50 degrees Fahrenheit.  Like in Sochi, Russia.  Where skiers had to deal with spring skiing conditions.  And varying conditions.  As the snow at the top of a run was different from the snow at the bottom of the run.  Despite the amount of chemicals they put on the snow to try and raise the melting temperature of the snow.  Making these Winter Games not as good as past Winter Games.  If you’re a fan of alpine skiing, that is.  Or prefer seeing cold winter vistas at the Winter Olympics.  And not people lying on the bare grass catching a suntan.

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Like Greece Japan looks forward to the Economic Stimulus from Hosting the Olympics

Posted by PITHOCRATES - September 15th, 2013

Week in Review

During the Eighties Japan was an economic powerhouse.  The government partnered with business.  Creating what became known as Japan Inc.  It was the way of the future.  Way better than free market capitalism.  Because smart government people were tweaking the free market.  Making it better.  Or so they thought.  All that tweaking came in the form of a credit expansion.  Which created a huge asset bubble.  And when it burst Japan fell into a deflationary spiral.  Through their Lost Decade.  The Nineties.  And beyond.

Tired of sluggish economic growth since their Lost Decade their prime minister, Shinzō Abe, returned to the ways of their past.  And starting pumping yen into the economy like there is no tomorrow.  And the economy has turned.  Of course, the economy was going gangbusters before it collapsed into its deflationary spiral. So this spurt of economic activity may be nothing but that.  A spurt.  And sluggish economic growth will return.  With more inflation to wring out of the economy.  And this will probably not make things better (see Hopes Japan’s win to host Olympics could kickstart the economy by Bill Birtles posted 9/10/2013 on Radio Australia).

Japan could get an economic boost from hosting the 2020 Olympics in Tokyo…

As Japan begins its largest project in 42 years in preparation for the Olympics, there is still plenty left to do.

Just last week, Abe’s government pledged $US500 million to fix Fukushima.

In addition, Japan faces the problem of massive debt and an ageing population.

Prime Minister Shinzo Abe will also need to take a call on raising the country’s sales tax.

The Chief Economist at RBS Securities, Junko Nishioka, says for now though, keeping spending under control will be a priority for the country of about 130 million.

Greece was talking the same way in the run-up to the 2004 Summer Games.  Where Greece went on an expansionary binge.  Then came the Great Recession.  Greek economic activity fell.  As did their tax revenue.  All the while they had a new boatload of debt on the books from the Olympics.  They had to borrow money to pay for what their tax revenue did not.  Borrowing more and more increased their debt.  And their borrowing costs.  Until they could borrow no more. Kicking off the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis.  And an economic malaise that continues to this day.

So with Japan’s past history and Greece’s past history a surge in more spending to get ready for the Olympics is not likely to solve any problems.  Or bring back Japan Inc.  As this kind of spending has a history of causing problems more than solving problems.

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The Ruins of Past Greek Overspending join the Ruins of their Glorious Past

Posted by PITHOCRATES - July 22nd, 2012

Week in Review

Greece is at the heart of the Eurozone crisis.  Or, as some would say, the cause of the Eurozone crisis.  Their deficit spending threatens to bring an end to the Euro itself.  For the only way to save the Euro appears for other Eurozone members to assume Greece’s debt.  And make their taxpayers pay for it.  Something their taxpayers understandably don’t want to do.  But the Keynesians urge such a plan.  Along with some debt forgiveness.  So the Greeks can start spending some more.  To stimulate their economy to recovery.  As if their overspending ways of the past had never happened (see Greek athletes strive for London as Athens legacy fades by Mark Lowen posted 7/22/2012 on BBC News Europe).

Outside lie many of the venues from the Athens games, others dotted around the city. Most are idle, locked up and empty, simply rusting under a baking summer sun.

They mirror the decay now felt across the country – but also stand as monuments to Greece’s mistakes: the massive overspend of the past, without any plan for later use.

They’re seen as representative of the short-term vision that got Greece into its financial mess in the first place. The hoped-for privatisation of many of the sites has been thwarted by a mix of bureaucracy and mismanagement…

They came at the height of Greece’s borrowing boom: three years after the country joined the Euro, Athens was investing in grand infrastructure projects that it simply couldn’t afford: among them, the Olympics.

What the Keynesians fail to explain (at least with a straight face) is how more such spending will not saddle Greece with more debt that they will also not be able to service.  Putting them back exactly where they are now.  Or even in a worse financial position.

During the 20th century the European countries became social democracies.  Promising a cradle to the grave welfare state.  And large public sectors.  With large public spending.  All paid for by large tax rates on the taxpayers.  Only one problem.  All of Europe’s population is aging.  People are having fewer children.  Meaning there are fewer people entering the workforce to become new taxpayers.  While a greater number of people are leaving the workforce to go into retirement.  While enjoying their pensions and health care.  Paid for by a shrinking workforce.  Add that to grand infrastructure spending and you get unsustainable government spending obligations.  Ever more government borrowing.  And a Eurozone debt crisis.  Or in other words, Greece.

The Greek government did a great disservice to their people.  They spent so much that cutting back will be incredibly painful for their people.  But it’s the spending that’s the problem.  They have to cut it.  And if they don’t do it now it will only become more painful in the future.

Greece.  Home of Athens.  The cradle of Western Civilization.  Once the greatest place in the civilized world.  The nation that pushed back the mighty Persian Empire.  Now adds new ruins to their landscape among those of their glorious past.  But they can once again restore their glory.  If they just abandon Keynesian economics.

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East German Katarina Witt’s Privileged Life in her Socialist Paradise was not as Good as the Life of the Average Western Capitalist

Posted by PITHOCRATES - March 24th, 2012

Week in Review

Katarina Witt was young and beautiful during the Olympics.  Italian great Alberto Tomba was even smitten with her.  But even the suave and debonair Tomba got the cold shoulder from Witt when meeting her during the games.  For they may have both been superstars.  But her star shined brighter.  Few could ski like Tomba.  But no one could skate like Katarina.  She was just beautiful on the ice.  Poetry in motion.  Which is why the Stasi (East German secret police) took such great interest in her.  She could prove the superiority of communism.  And bring home the medals.  For that she lived a privileged life in East Germany.  But even that privileged life couldn’t match what she saw outside of her socialist utopia (see The Stasi watched my every move: Dancing on Ice star Katarina Witt reveals East German secret police spied on her since the age of eight by Katarina Witt posted 3/24/2012 on the Daily Mail).

Of course I became aware of international differences as I grew older. I remember my first trip abroad to compete in Vienna when I was 12.  I looked at one shop window after another, crammed with goods.  Everything was so much more  colourful than shops at home in Karl Marx Stadt (which has now reverted to its original name of Chemnitz). Every Viennese street felt like a candy store, but an expensive one. I must have spent five hours trying to find an outfit I could afford.

In later years, I went on international exhibition tours alongside skaters from other countries. We became friends and, in the evenings, we would all get together in one or other of our hotel rooms and talk – with the Americans, the Russians, the West Germans. The Russians brought the vodka, naturally. The Americans ordered French fries.

Looking back, two decades later, it is as if we were living on a different planet, but we never questioned it  at the time. The constant control,  particularly when it came to travelling abroad, just became a part of my life. ‘We want to  protect you,’ was the message. ‘We want to make sure you’re safe and sound.’

The rhetoric was all rather comforting in its way. I believed we were a country of fairness and good social values. Would I have wanted to live in another country? A free country? The question never occurred to me.

In fact, I probably had even less reason to question than most as I was well treated. Like other leading athletes,  I was given rewards for winning. There were financial bonuses, for example, and  I was allowed to rent an  apartment of my own, even  though I was only 19 and not married!

They let me jump the queue to buy a Russian-made Lada instead of going on the  ten-year waiting list like  everyone else.

This is communism.  Karl Marx’s socialism.  The caring, loving state.  In a country of fairness.  And good social values.  And when one of the privileged got a taste of Western capitalism she saw that life was better in the West.  And what they were protecting her from was that better life in the West.

This is the path the U.S is on.  For Obamacare is all those things.  And will help us become what East Germany was.  Free stuff but no liberty.  A caring government but a life that’s dull and gray.  So much so that people risked their lives to escape it by climbing over the Berlin Wall.  A life that is fair where everyone is equally miserable.  Where the government provides everything but everything is un-colorful and even less plentiful.  Where life is not being in a candy store.  But more like being in grade school.  Where you do as you’re told and someone is always watching you for your own good.  But without the good social values.  For the left gave those up long ago to get the youth vote.

Katarina Witt was one of the most talented people in East Germany.  And beyond.  And the Stasi rewarded her well for that.  So her life wasn’t all that bad compared to other East Germans.  But imagine their life.  Those who didn’t get financial bonuses.  An apartment.  A car without waiting 10 years.  Imagine that life.  Or, better yet, just wait.  For it will soon be upon us here in the U.S.  If we don’t repeal Obamacare.

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