Week in Review
On July 6, 2013, a 4,701 ft-long train weighing 10,287 tons carrying crude oil stopped for the night at Nantes, Quebec. She stopped on the mainline as the siding was occupied. The crew of one parked the train, set the manual handbrakes on all 5 locomotives and 10 of the 72 freight cars and shut down 4 of the 5 locomotives. Leaving one on to supply air pressure for the air brakes. Then caught a taxi and headed for a motel.
The running locomotive had a broken piston. Causing the engine to puff out black smoke and sparks as it sat there idling. Later that night someone called 911 and reported that there was a fire on that locomotive. The fire department arrived and per their protocol shut down the running locomotive before putting out the fire. Otherwise the running locomotive would only continue to feed the fire by pumping more fuel into it. After they put out the fire they called the railroad who sent some personnel out to make sure the train was okay. After they did they left, too. But ever since the fire department had shut down that locomotive air pressure had been dropping in the train line. Eventually this loss of air pressure released the air brakes. Leaving only the manual handbrakes to hold the train. Which they couldn’t. The train started to coast downhill. Picking up speed. Reaching about 60 mph as it hit a slow curve with a speed limit of 10 mph in Lac-Mégantic and jumped the track. Derailing 63 of the 72 tank cars. Subsequent tank car punctures, oil spills and explosions killed some 47 people and destroyed over 30 buildings.
This is the danger of shipping crude oil in rail cars. There’s a lot of potential and kinetic energy to control. Especially at these weights. For that puts a lot of mass in motion that can become impossible to stop. Of course, adding safety features to prevent things like this from happening, such as making these tank cars puncture-proof, can add a lot of non-revenue weight. Which takes more fuel to move. And that costs more money. Which will raise the cost of delivering this crude oil to refineries. And increase the cost of the refined products they make from it. Unless the railroads find other ways to cut costs. Say by shortening delivery times by traveling faster. Allowing them an extra revenue-producing delivery or two per year to make up for the additional costs. But thanks to the tragedy at Lac-Mégantic, though, not only will they be adding additional non-revenue weight they will be slowing their trains down, too (see Rail safety improvements announced by Lisa Raitt in wake of Lac-Mégantic posted 4/23/2014 on CBC News).
Changes to improve rail safety were announced Wednesday by federal Transport Minister Lisa Raitt in response to recommendations made by the Transportation Safety Board in the aftermath of the tragedy in Lac-Mégantic, Que.
The federal government wants a three-year phase-out or retrofit of older tank cars that are used to transport crude oil or ethanol by rail, but will not implement a key TSB recommendation that rail companies conduct route planning when transporting dangerous goods…
There are 65,000 of the more robust Dot-111 cars in North America that must be phased out or retrofitted within three years if used in Canada, Raitt said, adding, “Officials have advised us three years is doable.” She said she couldn’t calculate the cost of the retrofits, but told reporters, “industry will be footing the bill…”
The transport minister also announced that mandatory emergency response plans will be required for all crude oil shipments in Canada…
Raitt also said railway companies will be required to reduce the speed of trains carrying dangerous goods. The speed limit will be 80 kilometres an hour [about 49 mph] for key trains, she said. She added that risk assessments will be conducted in certain areas of the country about further speed restrictions, a request that came from the Canadian Federation of Municipalities…
Brian Stevens head of UNIFOR, which represents thousands of unionized rail car inspectors at CN, CP and other Canadian rail companies, called today’s announcement a disappointment.
“This announcement really falls short, and lets Canadians down,” he told CBC News.
“These DOT-11 cars, they should be banned from carrying crude oil immediately. They can still be used to carry vegetable oil, or diesel fuel, but for carrying this dangerous crude there should be an immediate moratorium and that should have been easy enough for the minister to do and she failed to do that.
“There’s a lot of other tank cars in the system that can carry crude,” Stevens explained. “There doesn’t need to be this reliance on these antiquated cars that are prone to puncture.”
Industry will not be footing the bill. That industry’s customers will be footing the bill. As all businesses pass on their costs to their customers. As it is the only way a business can stay in business. Because they need to make money to pay all of their employees as well as all of their bills. So if their costs increase they will have to raise their prices to ensure they can pay all of their employees and all of their bills.
What will the cost of this retrofit be? To make these 65,000 tank cars puncture-proof? Well, adding weight to these cars will take labor and material. That additional weight may require modifications to the springs, brakes and bearings. Perhaps even requiring another axel or two per car. Let’s assume that it will take a crew of 6 three days to complete this retrofit per tank car (disassemble, reinforce and reassemble as well as completing other modifications required because of the additional weight). Assuming a union labor cost (including taxes and benefits) of $125/hour and non-labor costs equaling labor costs would bring the retrofit for these 65,000 tanks cars to approximately $2.34 billion. Which they will, of course, pass on to their customers. Who will pass it on all the way to the gas station where we fill up our cars. They will also pass down the additional fuel costs to pull all that additional nonrevenue weight.
Making these trains safer will be costly. Of course, it begs this burning question: Why not just build pipelines? Like the Keystone XL pipeline? Which can deliver more crude oil faster and safer than any train can deliver it. And with a smaller environmental impact. As pipelines don’t crash or puncture. So why not be safer and build the Keystone XL pipeline in lieu of using a more dangerous mode of transportation that results in tragedies like that at Lac-Mégantic? Why? Because of politics. To shore up the Democrat base President Obama would rather risk Lac-Mégantic tragedies. Instead of doing what’s best for the American economy. And the American people. Namely, building the Keystone XL pipeline.
Tags: air brakes, air pressure, Canada, costs, crude oil, Dot-111 cars, fuel, handbrakes, Keystone, Keystone pipeline, Keystone XL pipeline, Lac-Megantic, locomotive, North America, oil, pipeline, puncture, rail cars, rail safety, railroad, retrofit, revenue, tank cars, train
Week in Review
Before the Americans declared their independence from Great Britain they tried to reconcile their differences with Great Britain. For many believed Great Britain had the greatest form of government in the world. A constitutional monarchy. The form of government that vaulted the British Empire into a superpower. And gave her people more rights and liberties than any nation in the world.
The Americans, rather, the British Americans, were proud to be British. And would have remained proud members of the British Crown had it not been for the immense cost of the Seven Years’ War. That the Parliament tried to pay for by taxing the American colonists. For all the British Crown did to protect the Americans from the French and their Indian allies. Not asking for much, really. But the British taxpayers in Great Britain had representation in Parliament. And had a say in that taxation. But the British living in North America were not given that British right. Which was the source of all the friction between the British Americans and Great Britain. And what brought them to war.
Some of the fighting in the American Revolutionary War was brutal. But the worst of it was between Patriot and Loyalist. American against American. In the civil war that raged in the South. Which is why the United States and Great Britain resumed relations following the war. There had plenty of issues but the post-war relationship was far better than any other nation that fought a civil war. Why? Because there is a Special Relationship between the British and the Americans. We come from the same stock. We share the same values. And traditions. The countries around the world that were once part of the British Empire are some of the most advanced nations in the world. And their people have some of the greatest rights and liberties in the world today. All because of our British past.
We may never bow to British Royalty again. Because of our history. But we can embrace the Royal Family. Just as the British do. For it is their tradition. And a deep part of their glorious history. As it is ours. So we welcome the future king into the world. We wish the best for him and the Royal Family. And the British people. Joining them in spirit when they shout God Save the King (see America’s embrace of the Royal Family demonstrates the enduring strength of the Special Relationship by Nile Gardiner posted 7/23/2013 on The Telegraph).
Despite the lukewarm and often insulting approach of the Obama administration towards Britain over the past four and a half years, the Special Relationship between the United States and Great Britain remains extraordinarily strong in terms of defence, intelligence, cultural and trade ties, and is uniquely important to the American people. No other nation in the world holds a place in American hearts as special as Great Britain. And Americans hold an overwhelmingly positive view of the British Royal Family. The most recent poll conducted in the United States on the British Monarchy – a CBS/New York Times poll back in April 2011 – showed that 71 percent of Americans believe the Royal family “is a good thing” for the British people, with only 15 percent against. In the same poll, the Queen held a 61 percent approval rating, at the time about 15 points higher than that of the US president.
There are defeatists who argue that Britain hardly matters anymore to the world’s superpower, and that the UK can only maintain influence in Washington through the lens of the EU. The huge US interest today in events thousands of miles away in London, and the tremendous support for the Royal Family suggests that the Special Relationship is far from dead. With good reason Americans admire the British for their uncompromising defence of tradition, their warrior spirit, and their willingness to uphold national sovereignty.
Britain matters. And if the Eurozone collapsed as well as the EU they will matter more. Thanks to Margaret Thatcher. Who reversed their slide into Socialism. Unlike other European nations. And of late, the United States. Sadly.
President Obama insults our greatest friend and ally because Britain bucks the socializing of Europe. Britain is often the lone rational voice in the European Parliament. Currently that voice belongs to Daniel Hannan. Who knows the history of Britain. The United States. And our Special Relationship. Which is conservative. Not liberal. Which is why the Special Relationship is anathema to a liberal like President Obama.
God save the future king. The queen. The United States of America. And our Special Relationship.
Tags: American, American Revolutionary War, Britain, British, British Americans, British Crown, British Empire, British Royalty, God Save the King, Great Britain, liberties, North America, Parliament, President Obama, Revolutionary War, rights, Royal Family, Special Relationship, tax
With the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 Islam spread Unchecked into Christian Lands
Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire to a place on the Bosporus. Where the ancient city of Byzantium once sat. Where Asia met Europe. Where the Mediterranean Sea met the Black Sea. And the great rivers beyond. The Danube. Dnieper. And the Don. Constantine named his new city Constantinople. And made it a jewel. With great Christian churches. To celebrate his new conversion to Christianity. Which started following the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Where on the eve of battle Constantine and his soldiers had a vision of the Christian God. Promising them victory if they placed His symbol on their shields. Which they did. And they won.
Constantine spared no expense in his new city. Which was easy to do because it was a very wealthy city. For the greatest trade routes went through the Bosporus. Which is why when the western half of the Roman Empire fell the eastern half, or the Byzantine Empire, carried on for another thousand years. Give or take. As it thrived on that trade pouring through it. Especially from the Far East. Along the Silk Road. Which peaked during the Byzantine Empire. Bringing the exotic goods of the Far East west. From silk to porcelain to spices. Which flowed unhindered to Christian Europe while the Christians still controlled the Byzantine Empire.
But all good things must come to an end. Thanks to the Seljuk Turks. And the rise of the Ottoman Empire. Islam had united the Arab people. And with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 Islam spread unchecked into Christian lands. Up through the Balkans into southern Europe. Lands they would contest for time and again. Making for some bitter Christian-Muslim animosity that continues into modern times. But more crucially at the time was the loss of control over that trade from the Far East. Making those goods not as reasonably priced as they once were. Which proved to be quite the problem. As the European Christians had grown quite fond of them. Luckily for them, they could do something about that. Thanks to all of those wars they fought with the Muslims. The Crusades. Which brought back a lot of Greek books of science that were collecting dust in some of the old great Greek cities all around the Mediterranean. Founded during the Hellenistic period. Which came before the Roman Empire. Thanks to a fellow by the name of Alexander the Great. Who spread Greek learning throughout the known world after he conquered it.
Christopher Columbus sailed West to establish Far East Trade without going through Muslim-Controlled Constantinople
From those books the Europeans were able to become better sailors. On ships that could catch the wind and navigate their way great distances. Portugal and Spain led the way. Prince Henry (1394-1460), the Navigator, trained navigators in Portugal. His students pushed further and further down the African coast until Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope (1486). Vasco de Gama would round the Cape of Good Hope and sail up the eastern coast of Africa all the way to India (1498). Pedro Álvares Cabral was heading south to round the Cape of Good Hope in (1500). Swung out too far west. And ran into Brazil in South America.
Spain then financed the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Who had read that the earth was round. And wanted to prove it. As well as spread Christianity. Columbus wanted to find a way west to the Far East. Sure it was just beyond the horizon of the Atlantic Ocean. After a voyage longer than his near mutinous crew expected they finally landed on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas (1492). Thinking he found an ocean passage to the Far East. Around the Muslim controlled land route. He would later understand that he had found the New World. Which we would be calling Columbia. Had his dispatches beat a Florentine passenger’s on a Portuguese ship who wrote about what he saw. Amerigo Vespucci. Which is why there is not a North Columbia, a Central Columbia and a South Columbia. Instead, there is a North America, a Central America and a South America.
With Columbus’ success Spain financed others. Vasco Núñez Balboa. Who crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean (1513). Ferdinand Magellan. Who sailed around South America through the Straits of Magellan and into the Pacific Ocean. Sailing on to the Far East. And back home. Being the first to circumnavigate the globe (1519-1522). Hernán Cortés. Who conquered the brutal Aztec regime in Mexico (1521). Eventually the Spanish would bring great riches of gold and silver back to the Old World. Meanwhile France financed Jacques Cartier in his attempt to find a Northwest Passage to the Pacific. Who sailed up the St. Lawrence River to Montreal (1534). Then Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec (1608). Where they established a lucrative fur trade with the native Indians.
Cultivating Tobacco took Large Tracts of Farmland which required more Laborers that they had in the Colonies
Queen Elizabeth of England financed Walter Raleigh. Who explored the coast of North America (1584). Looking for a place to settle a colony. On a subsequent voyage he brought 100 settlers with him. And settled a colony at Roanoke, North Carolina (1585). Which became the Lost Colony of Roanoke (1591). The Virginia Company of London, a joint-stock company, would have better luck. They raised financing by selling stock shares to investors who would share in any profits of the colony. Christopher Newport led a voyage that established the first permanent English settlement in the New World. At Jamestown (1607).
Though the Americas were not the Far East it was a vast landmass with inexhaustible resources. And endless tracts of fertile soil. The possibilities were endless. The marriage of John Rolfe to Pocahontas (1614) provided an uneasy peace between the settlers and their Indian neighbors. Then Rolfe figured out how to cure tobacco (1612). Something the English began smoking after Columbus observed the Cubans sticking burning rolls of tobacco in a nostril. The English refined smoking with a pipe. And they really enjoyed it. Importing vast quantities from the Spanish colonies in America. Thanks to Rolfe, though, the English could produce their own tobacco. Once they worked out a few problems.
Cultivating tobacco took large tracts of farmland. But to put large tracts of farmland into production you needed laborers. And in 1612 Virginia there just weren’t a lot of colonists living there yet. The demand for labor far outstripped the supply. So they tried to satisfy that demand with indentured servants. Preferably from Europe. Even criminals from English jails. As well as from Africa. Who worked in bondage during their indentures. Then went free. Until around the 1660s. When things changed. Starting in the southern colonies. Where slavery became hereditary. For Africans, at least. Like it was in the Old World. Where peasants and serfs were bonded to the land. Once a slave. Always a slave. And if your parent was a slave so were you. Like it was in ancient Athens. At the end of the Western Roman Empire. And in the Muslim world.
Muslim didn’t only enslave Christians. They also established slave markets with African slave traders. Who opened their markets to the Portuguese, the Spanish, the French and the English. To help them meet that soaring demand for labor during the early days of the New World colonies. When there were so few colonists. Who found their way to the New World in the first place because of the Muslim conquest of Constantinople. Which sent the Europeans to the seas to find a western way to the Far East. And when they did they discovered the New World. Creating the largest market ever for African slaves. And the greatest convulsions in the New World as they struggled to end slavery in the Americas.
Tags: African slaves, America, Bosporus, Byzantine Empire, Cape of Good Hope, Christian, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, colonies, colonists, Columbia, Columbus, Constantine, Constantinople, England, Far East, France, Islam, Mediterranean, Muslim, New World, North America, Old World, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Roanoke, Rolfe, Roman Empire, slave, slavery, South America, Spain, tobacco, trade, Virginia
At first the Six Nations feared the French taking their Land more than the British
George Washington entered the history books when he entered the Ohio Country. Where the French and the British were claiming the same land in North America. While his contemporaries went to college Washington went to war. Over the Blue Ridge Mountains. In the harsh frontier lands of the Ohio Country. Fighting for the British against Britain’s archenemy. France. Who had seized a half-built fort near the junction of the Allegheny and Monongahela rivers. Renamed it Fort Duquesne. And proceeded to turn the surrounding area French. Until, that is, Washington arrived on the scene.
It is much debated about what happened when the British fell upon a French force outside of Fort Duquesne. Especially who fired first. Or what happened after the French surrendered. The French commander, Joseph Coulon de Villiers, sieur de Jumonville, was wounded. And as he explained he was on a diplomatic mission to deliver a message to the British Washington’s Indian ally, Tanacharison, who was the diplomatic representative of the Six Nations (Iroquois Confederation), brutally murdered Jumonville while he was explaining his diplomatic mission. Tanacharison spoke fluent French. And had apparently heard enough. For he feared the French taking their land more than the British at that time.
So this international incident brought war once again between the French and the British. The Seven Year’s War as they called it in Europe. Or the French and Indian War as they called it in British North America. Even though the British also had Indian allies. There were more French in the area. So Washington built a fort to wait for their counter attack. Fort Necessity. The French came. And after a brutal fight the British surrendered. The Articles of Capitulation Washington signed included the word ‘assassination’. Of Joseph Coulon de Villiers, sieur de Jumonville. Washington later claimed the document was poorly translated from French and that he did not know he was admitting to assassinating a French diplomat. Whether he did or not it put the blame of the French and Indian War on the British. Not a very auspicious start for America’s indispensible Founding Father.
Washington felt that the British looked down on him and his Fellow Americans
The British came up with a bold plan to remove the French from North America. By marching into the Ohio Country. And taking Fort Duquesne. Then capturing the forts along the Great Lakes. And then capturing French Canada. A bold plan. Executed by a very experienced general. Edward Braddock. A veteran of European battles. But without a clue of what it was like fighting in the American wilderness. He had at his disposal the largest military force ever assembled in America. Equipped with the finest arms. So confident of victory he told the Indians that were friendly to the British that he didn’t need their help. And that he was going to take all their land for the British Crown. Making most switch sides and fight alongside the French against the British.
Washington requested to join General Braddock. Hoping to get a good military career out of this great military expedition. And a commission in the British Army. Braddock took him along. But disaster fell upon the expedition. A force of French and Indians fell onto the lumbering column and attacked. The British regulars formed into ranks as they would on any European battlefield. And were shot down in droves. Then broke and ran. Braddock fell mortally wounded. Washington then took command and rallied the troops and made an orderly retreat. While having two horses shot out beneath him. And four musket ball holes in his jacket. But he didn’t suffer a scratch. Washington learned a lesson that day. You didn’t win battles in the American wilderness with European tactics. No matter how superior you numbers and arms.
He never would receive that British commission. Feeling in part that the British looked down on him and his fellow Americans. They may have been part of the British Empire. But they were not truly British. Which made it difficult for Washington to respect his British superiors. In fact, though he was a good soldier who followed orders he often felt superior to his superiors. And preferred giving orders. With the future of a British commission not in the cards he retired from the army. Married Martha Dandridge Custis. Thanks to her wealth he became one of the wealthiest men in Virginia. As well as becoming one of the more successful planters in Virginia. He had wealth (through his marriage to Martha). Land. And leisure time. He lived the good life. And spent the money. And why not? He married into great wealth. And had vast land holdings earning wealth. Life was good.
If George Washington were around Today he would Likely Endorse Republicans Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan
He bought the finest things from London from Robert Cary. Who ran London’s largest mercantile houses. Cary & Company. Washington also sold his tobacco crop to Cary. And early on he complained about the price he was getting for his tobacco. And all the charges on his invoices. But he had even bigger problems. He was spending more than he was earning. With the balance due coming from the wealth he got from his marriage. Worse, his account at Cary & Company was in arrears. The price for those fine things continued to go up while the price he was getting for his tobacco did not. He didn’t trust Cary. But he recognized the real problem was tobacco. And mercantilism. Where American colonists sent raw material to the mother country. And bought finished goods from the mother country with the proceeds. Making the planters dependent on people like Robert Cary. Well, after this revelation Washington made some changes. He planted wheat instead of tobacco. Wheat he ground into flour in his own mill. Which he sold locally. Without going through Cary. He built a ship to fish the Potomac. And bought a ship to transport his goods to markets in the Caribbean. Even all the way to Europe. He set up a small textile shop to produce linen and wool fabric. These changes helped Washington return to profitability. Unlike some of his fellow planters. Like Thomas Jefferson. Who would die in debt.
Washington was an astute business man. Who did not like being controlled by men in faraway places. Around this time Parliament passed the Stamp Act to raise revenue to help pay the costs of the British Empire. While he agreed with his fellow colonists that this was taxation without representation he did see something good in it. The higher tax would reduce British imports. As Americans gave up on British luxuries and provided for their own needs. Which would help the Americans get away from the control of people in faraway places. Something he was more and more interested in. Economic independence. Then came the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Which shut off the Ohio Country to American settlers. To ostensibly keep the peace with the Indians on the frontier. Which stung Washington particularly hard. Having helped to defeat the French to clear them from the Ohio Country King George was now denying this land to those who won it. Still, they did promise to give some land to the veterans who fought there. As long as they were a veteran of the British Army. Yet another British slight directed at Washington. And evidence of British cronyism when it came to the rule of the American colonies. Then came the Intolerable Acts. The Quebec Act. The Townshend Acts. Further encroachments by men in faraway places. Washington had had enough. And joined those demanding independence from Great Britain.
So if George Washington were around today who would he endorse in the 2012 election? Well, he would not like the party that wanted to reach further into business affairs from faraway places. Or that raised taxes and increased the regulations on business. Or one that elevated the state over businesses. Where the government picks winners and losers in the market place. Like the mercantilism of old. He would not like the smug, elitist politicians who know better than we do. And change things in our lives to what they perceive as being for our own good. Such as telling us what cars to drive or what fuels to use to make our electric power. He would not like the massive spending. Or the debt it gave us. As his brief brush with inundating debt shook him to his core. Making him turn away from the governing powers, returning to his rugged individualism of his days in the Ohio Country. And so on. Clearly the party he would not endorse would be the Democrat Party with their oppressive rules and regulations and their nanny state. So it is likely that if he were around today he would endorse the Republican ticket of Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan.
Tags: 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, American wilderness, Braddock, British, British Army, British Empire, Cary & Company, Economic independence, Fort Duquesne, Founding Father, French, French and Indian War, frontier, General Braddock, George Washington, Indians, Jumonville, Martha, Mitt Romney, North America, Ohio Country, Paul Ryan, planters, Robert Cary, Six Nations, Tanacharison, tobacco, Washington, wheat
The French claimed great Territories in the New World but they did not Settle them nor could they Defend Them
In the Age of Discovery the Old World discovered the New World. The Portuguese bumped into Brazil while sailing around Africa. And they stayed awhile. Which explains how the language from tiny Portugal is one of the top ten spoken languages in the world today. Because of Brazil. Population 205,716,890 in 2012. The Spanish pretty much discovered and settled the rest of South and Central America. Working their way up the Pacific coast of North America. And into Mexico, Texas and Florida. Because of this Spanish is now the 4th most spoken language in the world. The British discovered and settled North America east of the Appalachians between Maine and Georgia. They also settled parts of Canada south of the Hudson Bay. And some of the Maritime Provinces. Today English is the 2nd most spoken language in the world. The French also came to the New World. But they weren’t as successful. Today French is only the 10th most spoken language in the world.
The Age of Discovery was also the age of mercantilism. Which is why the Old World was racing to settle the New World. So they could establish colonies. And ship back raw materials to the mother country. And in Spain’s case, all the gold and silver they could find. Which they found a lot of. Mercantilism is a zero-sum game. To maximize the export of manufactured goods. And to maximize the import of raw materials and bullion. To always maintain a positive balance of trade. And whoever had the most overseas colonies sending raw material back to the mother country won. And as they expanded throughout the New World they eventually began to bump into each other. As well as the Native Americans. Who weren’t mercantilists. But hunters and gatherers. Like all Europeans were some 5,000 years or so earlier. Before they became farmers. Moved into cities. Where they took control of their environment. And became more efficient. Growing ever larger populations on smaller tracts of land. Which proved to be a great threat to the Indians. For when these Europeans took their land they also increased their numbers. Greatly. And this fast growing population had the latest in war-fighting technology.
Soon they were stepping on each others’ toes in the New World. The British and the Spanish north of Florida. The British and the French between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians. In New Brunswick. And large parts of Ontario and Quebec. A lot more territory was in dispute between the British and the French. And that’s because the French claimed so much territory in North America. Their claims included the lands around the St. Lawrence Seaway. All the land around the Great Lakes. And pretty much the total watershed into the Mississippi River. The French had profitable business in the fur trade. They used the rivers in North America for that trade. With a few forts scattered along the way. Where they traded with the Indians. But the big difference between the French and everyone else is that the French claimed the land. But they didn’t settle it. Which made the Native Americans tolerate them more than the other Europeans in the New World. But in the days of the mercantilist empires that was a problem. Because everyone wanted everyone else’s land. And if it wasn’t settled with large and growing populations, someone else was just going to take it.
The Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act of 1774 tried to make Peace with the Indians but Inflamed the Americans
And that’s what happened in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). The European powers came into conflict with each other over their North American territories. The British came out the big winners. And the French were the big losers. Losing pretty much everything east of the Mississippi to the British. And everything west of the Mississippi to Spain. The various Indian tribes fought alongside the various European powers. But it is the fighting on the side of the French that we know them for in this war. Where their fighting against the British Americans was some of the cruelest fighting in the war. For the Indians liked the non-settling ways of the French. While they didn’t care for the settling ways of the American colonists at all. Who kept encroaching on their hunting grounds. So at the conclusion of the French and Indian War the Native Americans were restless. Something the British were keenly aware of. And after the long and expensive war they just fought they didn’t want a return to hostilities. So King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Setting the border between the British American colonists and the Indian lands along the watershed of Appalachia. Lands where the rivers flowed to the Atlantic Ocean were the American colonists’ lands. Lands where the rivers flowed into the Mississippi River and its tributaries (east of the Mississippi) were Indian lands.
This did not go very well with the American colonists. For they planned to expand west until they could expand west no further. At the shore of the Pacific Ocean. Especially Virginia. Who wanted to expand into Kentucky. And into the Ohio Country (across the Ohio River from Kentucky). Before the Proclamation of 1763 could even go into affect the Indians rose up in the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country and Ohio Country. Where the British displaced the French. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763–66). A rather nasty and brutal war where the Indians killed women and children as well as prisoners. And the British used biological warfare against the Indians. Giving the Indians smallpox-infested blankets. In 1774 Parliament passed the Quebec Act. Which did a lot to further annoy the American colonists. Especially that part about extending the province of Quebec (the former French territory from Labrador all the way to the Great Lakes region) south into the Ohio and Illinois country. Many lumped the Quebec act in with the Intolerable Acts of 1774 which were to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. All these acts of Parliament and proclamations of the Crown failed in one of their main objects. Maintaining the peace on the frontier. One year later there was another shooting war in North America. And this one did not end well for the British.
The American Revolutionary War evolved into a World War. Once the Americans defeated a British army at Saratoga the French joined the American cause and declared war on Great Britain. Eager to get back their North American territories. The Spanish would join the French in alliance and declared war on Great Britain. Primarily to settle some old scores in the Old World as opposed to helping the American cause. They had the lands west of the Mississippi and control of that same river. They had no desire to see the Americans advance any further west. In fact, they wanted to expand their territory at the expense of both the Americans and the British. The Indians, meanwhile, saw the Americans as the greatest threat and allied with their two-time past enemy. The British.
The Indians were Little More than Bystanders while the Europeans Traded their Land with each Other
The war in the frontier lands of the West was as nasty and brutal as ever. The British coordinated their war effort against the Americans from their frontier outposts. Where they traded with their Indian allies. Some even paying the Indians for each scalp they brought back from their raids. And so the Indians crossed the Ohio River into Kentucky. Throughout the war. And attacked these frontier settlements. While the Americans fought a defensive war. Until one man arose. Who believed the strongest defense was a strong offense. And he took the war to the Indians and the British in the West. Saving Kentucky. And conquered the Northwest Territory.
George Rogers Clark’s plan for conquering the Northwest was bold. First take Vincennes (in southern Indiana near the Illinois border). Travel up the Wabash River. Down the Maumee River. And then on to Detroit. After taking Detroit head north to Michilimackinac (on the northern tip of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula). The Virginian authorities liked the plan. And commissioned him colonel in the Virginian forces. And authorized him to conquer the Northwest. For Virginia. So Clark led his men down the Ohio River. And traveled all the way to Kaskaskia near the Mississippi River in southern Illinois. Not far from St. Louis. Took it. And marched to Vincennes. And took Fort Sackville at Vincennes. Shortly thereafter Henry Hamilton (who had a reputation for buying scalps from the Indians), governor of Detroit, Left Detroit and headed to Vincennes. Gathering Indians along the way. Recaptured Vincennes. Then Clark returned and in one of the most fabled actions of the entire Revolutionary War took back Vincennes. Despite the British and Indians greatly outnumbering Clark’s force. Detroit lay open. But Clark did not have the men or provisions for that conquest.
Meanwhile the Spanish were looking to cash in on their alliance with France. And moved against British outposts from New Orleans. Taking Baton Rouge. Natchez. Mobile. And Pensacola. To turn back the Spanish Governor Sinclair of Michilimackinac gathered a force and headed to the Spanish outpost St. Louis. With the ultimate goal of taking New Orleans. It did not go well. The following year the Spanish launched an offensive of their own to take Detroit. They got as far as St. Joseph on the other side of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Around the bottom of Lake Michigan from Chicago. A lot of land changed hands in the Northwest. But thanks to Clark much of it remained in American hands at the end of the war. Who came out the big winners in this war. The British ceded all their claims east of the Mississippi to the Americans. Including all of the Illinois and Ohio country. Including Michigan and the lands surrounding the Great Lakes south of Canada. The French did not drive the peace as they had hoped. And recovered none of their North American territories. The Spanish emerged with pretty much what they had when they entered. Only with the Americans across the Mississippi instead of the British. Who were much more interested in westward expansion than the British. But they didn’t have to worry about the Americans crossing the Mississippi. For Napoleon strong-armed the Louisiana Territory from the French in exchange for some land in Tuscany. Who would later sell it to the Americans. While being rather vague on the exact boundaries. Which the Spanish would have to worry about in the years to come as the Americans headed west. Towards Spanish country on the west coast.
Of course the Indians were the greatest losers. For they were little more than bystanders while the Europeans traded their land with each other. Making the Native Americans ever more restless. And unwilling to give up their hunting and gathering ways. Which sealed their faith. For while they retreated west the American population exploded. Due to their efficient use of the land. It was the New World against the Very Old World. Modern farming civilizations displaced the hunters and gatherers everywhere in the world. A trend that started some 5,000 years earlier. And the history of North America would be no different. The Indian ways since then have been fast disappearing. The Indian languages were so rarely spoken in the 20th century that the code based on it was the one code the Japanese couldn’t crack during World War II.
Tags: Age of Discovery, American cause, American Revolutionary War, Americans, Appalachia, Appalachian, Britain, British, British Americans, Clark, colonies, Detroit, English, Europeans, France, French, French and Indian War, frontier, frontier outposts, George Rogers Clark, Great Britain, Great Lakes, hunters and gatherers, hunting grounds, Illinois country, Indian allies, Indians, Kentucky, Louisiana Territory, Lower Peninsula, mercantilism, Michilimackinac, Mississippi, Mississippi River, Native Americans., New Orleans, New World, North America, Northwest Territory, Ohio Country, Ohio River, Old World, Parliament, Proclamation of 1763, Quebec, Quebec Act, Quebec Act of 1774, Revolutionary War, Spain, Spanish, St. Louis, Vincennes, Virginia
Wealth is the Stuff we use our Talent and Ability to Make
Mercantilism gave us the United States. For it was because of these policies that the British established colonies in North America. And it was those same policies that led to American Independence. Because those polices pissed off the Americans.
The mercantile system came into being as nation states arose from feudal estates. Kings arose and consolidated these estates into larger kingdoms. Then one king arose to consolidate the kingdoms into a nation. Creating Spain, France, the Netherlands, England, etc. Enlightened thinking and better technology created food surpluses. With food surpluses a middle class of artisans arose. And manufactured goods. People met in markets to trade their food and goods. These markets grew into cities. All of this economic activity created wealth. Food. And manufactured goods. That we bought with money. Often silver and gold.
There was wealth. And there was money. Two different things. Wealth is the stuff we use our talent and ability to make. Food and manufactured goods, for example. And the more food and manufactured goods a nation has the wealthier that nation is. This is a critical point. And the mercantile policies ultimately failed because those policies mistook money for wealth. But money is not wealth. It’s a temporary storage of wealth. To make our trading of food and manufactured goods easier. By reducing the search costs to find people to trade with. Which is why the barter system failed in a complex economy. It just took too long to find people to trade with. Money solved that problem. Because you could trade what you had for money. Then trade your money for what you wanted.
England used the Positive Flow of Bullion to Finance the Building of the Royal Navy
Mercantilism focused on the money. And used wealth to accumulate it. Instead of the other way around. The way most advanced nations do today. These European nations accumulated money with international trade. Beginning in the 15th century they started looking at the balance of trade between nations. And did everything they could to maintain a positive balance of trade. Meaning they tried to export more than they imported. Why? Well, nations often did trade with each other. So they owed each other money. And when you settled your account if other nations owed you more than you owed them there was a net flow of money to you. Bullion. Silver and gold. Which is what they wanted.
To maintain a positive balance of trade the government actively intervened into the economy. It set up monopolies. It provided subsidies for manufacturers who exported their goods for bullion. It placed tariffs on imports. Or simply blocked the importation of any goods that they produced domestically. They set up colonies to harvest raw materials to ship back to the mother country. Which would use those raw materials in their factories to produced higher valued finished goods. That they would export. Especially to their colonies. Which were convenient captive markets for their finished goods. On the mother country’s ships. Through the mother country’s ports. Where they, of course taxed it. Guaranteeing that at every step of the way they added to the positive bullion flow back to the mother country.
And it worked. To a certain extent. England used that positive flow of bullion to finance the building of the Royal Navy. Which proved invaluable in the wars that followed in the mercantile world. For mercantilism is a zero-sum game. For every winner there had to be a loser. Which is why this era was an era of world war. To wrest control of those colonies. And those sea lanes. Great Britain came out the victor. Thanks to their Royal Navy. But it wasn’t all good. For Spain found gold in the New World. And they took it. Shipped it back to the Old World. Just like a good mercantilist would. Which caused problems in the Old World. Because money is not wealth. It’s a temporary storage of wealth. And when they inflated their money supply it took more of it to hold the same amount of value it once did. Because there was so much of it in circulation. And what happens during inflation? Prices rise. Because the money is worth less it takes more of it to buy the same things as it did before. So by hording bullion to create wealth they actually destroyed wealth. With wealth-destroying inflation.
With the Boston Tea Party the Americans Renounced Mercantilism and Demanded Free Trade
Spain was one of the greatest mercantile nations of the era. But they quickly became a shadow of their former self. Even though they had more bullion than their European neighbors. For it turned out that those mercantile policies hindered economic growth. Which is the true source of wealth. Economic growth. Where people use their talent and ability to create things. That’s where the true value lay. Not the money that held that value temporarily. All those mercantilist policies did was raise domestic prices. And allocated scarce resources poorly.
It turned out free trade was the secret to wealth. For free trade can increase wealth. For both nations. Thanks to something we call comparative advantage. Instead of both nations manufacturing all of their goods they should only manufacture those goods that they can manufacture best. And trade for the goods they can’t manufacture best. This more efficiently allocates those scarce resources. And produces a greater total amount of wealth. By allowing people to buy lower cost imports they have more money left over to buy other stuff. Increasing the overall amount of economic activity. Which is why when Great Britain adopted free trade in the 19th century the British Empire went on to rule the world for a century or so. And led the Industrial Revolution. By creating wealth. Goods and services people created with their talent and ability. That changed the world. And ushered in the modern era. Something no amount of bullion could do.
But before Britain adopted free trade they were struggling with one of their belligerent colonies. Their British American colonies. Who were unhappy over taxation without representation in Parliament. And the mother country forcing them to buy only British tea shipped on British ships at higher prices than they could get from the Dutch. The British thought they found a solution to their problem. By permitting their British East India Company monopoly to ship their tea directly to America without passing through an English port. The tea was cheaper because of this. But it also would set a precedent for taxation without representation. Something the Americans weren’t about to accept. So they threw that tea into Boston Harbor. What we affectionately call the Boston Tea Party. Renouncing mercantilism. And demanding the right to engage in free trade. Which they got after winning their independence. And the mother country would follow suit in a few decades. Because they, too, would learn that free trade was better than mercantilism.
Tags: ability, American Independence, balance of trade, Boston, Boston Tea Party, British, bullion, colonies, comparative advantage, economic activity, England, export, finished goods, food, food surpluses, free trade, gold, goods, Great Britain, import, inflation, international trade, king, kingdom, manufactured goods, mercantile, mercantile policies, mercantile system, mercantilism, middle class, money, nation, New World, North America, Old World, positive balance of trade, raw materials, Royal Navy, scarce resources, silver, silver and gold, Spain, talent, talent and ability, technology, temporary storage of wealth, trade, wealth
Washington’s Killing of Joseph Coulon de Jumonville Precipitated the Seven Years’ War
In the Revolutionary War the Americans were feeling out the French since hostilities broke out in 1775. For good reason. The French lost most of their North American possessions in their last war with Great Britain. The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763). Where the French were in Canada and in the great river valleys in the interior of North America. And the British were in what is now the U.S. east of the Appalachians. The British and their American colonists won that war. And took the French possessions. In fact, the American commander in the Revolutionary War, George Washington, opened hostilities against the French in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). Which precipitated the subsequent world war. The Seven Years’ War.
As the French and the British expanded their territories in North America they eventually bumped into each other. And it was in the Ohio Country that the name George Washington entered our history books. Then only a major. Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia sent Washington into the Ohio Country to tell the French to kindly vacate their posts in the area. The French refused. Washington returned to Virginia. Governor Dinwiddie sent him back to the Ohio Country to protect a fort the Ohio Company was building at present day Pittsburg. Before he got there a French force had chased out the British. And then began building Fort Duquesne for their own post at present day Pittsburg.
While on the march to what was now going to be Fort Duquesne Washington’s Indian allies discovered a small French force led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville. Which the Americans and their Indian allies ambushed. The facts are a little hazy about what exactly happened but Jumonville ended up dead. And the French blamed Washington. Said that he killed a diplomat who was doing exactly what Washington had done earlier. Trying to reach a foreign power with a diplomatic message about the Ohio Country. Only the French didn’t kill Washington. As Washington (or someone under his command) had killed Jumonville. Both sides debated the truth for a long time to come. But the French response was to attack the nearby Fort Necessity that Washington built to keep an eye on Fort Duquesne. Captured Washington and his men. But then let them go. And shortly thereafter France and Great Britain declared war on each other. To settle the Ohio Country question. As well as other outstanding issues between the two great powers. Which precipitated the Seven Years’ War. That didn’t end well for the French.
The French hoped to Dictate the Terms of Peace once the Americans won the Revolutionary War
Flash forward some twenty years and here were the Americans feeling out the French to help them in their cause. So they could gain their independence from Great Britain. So they could control the Ohio Country. And other parts of North America. Whose military was led by the guy that killed Joseph Coulon de Jumonville. And started the war that lost France her North American possessions. Which created a very interesting political picture.
The French hated the British. That goes without saying. For they gave the French a humiliating defeat. But the British had help from their British North American colonists to win that fight. Who also helped to take away not only the Ohio Country but New France itself. All of Quebec. And the Surrounding areas of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Great Lakes. So would they enter into another costly war with Great Britain? To help someone obtain their independence from Britain’s constitutional monarchy? Would the French, an absolute monarchy, help the Americans? Of course they would. If the Americans could just impress them enough that they might win this thing. So the French wouldn’t risk losing anything more to the British.
Well the French were impressed with the American win at Saratoga. And they joined the Americans. Made some treaties with them that were favorable to the French. And hoped that once they won that it would be the French who would dictate the terms of the peace. For one of their conditions of joining the Americans was that there would be no separate peace between the Americans and the British. No. That peace would involve the French. As the French were already going into great debt helping the Americans in every way short of fighting alongside of them, they were going to make sure they got a favorable return on their investment when taking that last step.
When Aid came it was not to Support the Americans but to Gain Something from their Common Enemy, the British Empire
After negotiating this treaty the French turned to the Spanish. Another longtime foe of Great Britain. And who still had sizeable possessions in the New World. From South America all the way up the Pacific coast to California. And up through Mexico all the way through the Mississippi River and surrounding areas. That big chunk of North America between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains we called the Louisiana Territory. And parts of southern Florida they ceded to Great Britain in the last war that they wanted back. So unlike the French the Spanish worried more about the Americans than the British. Especially their southern and western boundaries. But the French made their case anyway.
France’s foreign minister, the Comte de Vergennes, said the Spanish had much to lose if the Americans lost. For a strong British presence in North America would eventually threaten California. And her other possessions. Great Britain was the threat. Not the Americans. Who had no Army, Navy or manufacturing base that could threaten Spain’s North American possessions. At least, not in the immediate future. Whereas the British did. So it was in Spanish interests to help the Americans. And weaken the British Empire.
Well, the Spanish were all for weakening the British Empire. But they didn’t trust the ambition of the Americans. They still saw them as the immediate threat to Spanish territory in North America. Besides, the whole idea about rebelling against sovereign authority didn’t sit well with them. Sovereigns had sacred rights to their territory. They may not have liked the British but they believed in those sacred rights. Especially when they were holding a lot of territory in the New World. And the idea about supporting a people in their rebellion against their sovereign was risky business. It just might give their own people ideas. They would enter the war. But not in an American alliance. They made a treaty with the French. Offered little to the Americans in blood or treasure. Then declared war on Great Britain. Her immediate goal being Gibraltar. The southern tip of the Spanish peninsula. That the British had taken in a previous war.
As the Americans approached other European nations the result was pretty much the same. When aid came it was not so much to support the Americans. But to gain something from their common enemy. The British Empire. Most European nations stayed out of the war. At most joining in the League of Armed Neutrality to protect their commercial trade. To protect their ships from the Royal Navy trying to prevent arms and supplies reaching America. Though this didn’t help the Americans in the short run. It did make the war far more costly for the British. Which helped the Americans in the long run.
Tags: Americans, British, British Empire, California, European, Fort Duquesne, Fort Necessity, French, French and Indian War, George Washington, Gibraltar, Governor Dinwiddie, Great Britain, independence, Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, Jumonville, League of Armed Neutrality, Louisiana Territory, monarchy, North America, Ohio Country, Pittsburg, Revolutionary War, sacred rights, Seven Years War, sovereign, sovereign authority, Spanish, Washington
General Gates gave the British Lenient Terms of Surrender at Saratoga allowing a Defeated British Army to be Replaced by Another
When the Americans began fighting for their independence the British said, “Really? You’re going to fight us? The greatest military power in the world? Yeah, right. Forgive us if we don’t tremble in our boots.” Then came Lexington and Concorde. Bunker Hill. Then the Siege of Boston. Not exactly an auspicious start for the greatest military power in the world. But a little premature for the Americans to be feeling big in the britches department. For the British had a cure for britches that ware too big. It’s something they called the greatest military power in the world. Which General Sir William Howe unleashed on the Americans on Long Island. And he didn’t stop pushing the Americans back until he took winter quarters in New Jersey. General Howe took those big American britches and shrunk them down in good order. Very disheartening times for the Patriots. Times that Thomas Paine wrote “try men’s souls.”
The British were feeling confident. Even their hired mercenaries. The Hessians. Who where in Trenton. Across the Delaware from Washington’s army that was “almost naked, dying of cold, without blankets, and very ill supplied with provisions.” Ill conceived words from the Hessian commander. Considering that naked, starving army surprised the bejesus out of them. Giving the Americans a much needed win in the field against the British. Or their Hessian allies. Giving the Patriots fresh hope. After they had just lost pretty much all of it. And when they emerged from winter quarters they came out fighting. Came close to a couple of victories. But unable to pull out a victory. Losing more land in the process. Including Philadelphia. And when the army took winter quarters at Valley Forge they were “almost naked, dying of cold, without blankets, and very ill supplied with provisions” again.
But it wasn’t all bad. For there was an American victory up north. At Saratoga. Where a British army surrendered. To an American force. Something the French had great trouble doing themselves in the last century. So this win was big. But it could have been bigger. For General Gates gave the British painfully lenient terms of surrender. Allowing the British army to go back to Britain if they promised that they would never fight in North America again. Of course the fault with that logic is that if that army went back to Britain they could relieve other forces that could fight in North America. So the victory was a hollow one militarily. As it did not weaken the enemy militarily. Worse, had that British army been interned in a POW camp the war may not have continued for another 5 years. For that win at Saratoga brought the French into the war.
The Americans weren’t Interested in Making a British Peace, what they Had in Mind was an American Win
The British did not want to broaden this war. And the last thing they wanted was to bring in their old nemesis. France. Who would be glad to broaden the war. And would rejoice at the opportunity to bring some hurt down on their old foe. And perhaps recover some of their lost North American possessions. So the British started to send out some peace feelers. They approached Benjamin Franklin in January of 1778. But he was not interested in what terms the British offered for Parliament to recognize America’s independence. For Franklin said it was not up to Parliament to recognize their independence. It was up to the Americans. And they already did.
The British even tried bribing prominent Americans. Such as Franklin and Washington. In exchange for their help in convincing the American people to end their rebellion they would bestow upon them titles and rank. And privilege. Including generous pensions. But Franklin and Washington weren’t for sale. Parliament held heated debate about the American problem. And the Americans and the French entering into any treaties. Lord Rockingham led the Whig opposition who favored American independence. While Lord Chatham vehemently disagreed with giving up sovereignty over America. As it would be an insult to the Crown. He was making his case passionately in Parliament when he collapsed. This became his last speech as he died shortly thereafter. His last breaths in Parliament were for naught, though. As they agreed to send a peace commission to America. To try to end the war before the French could affect the outcome.
The Carlisle Commission arrived in Philadelphia as General Clinton (who replaced General Howe) was moving his army back to New York. Which did not give the British a strong negotiating position. For it is usually easier to get someone to accept your generous terms when you have the world’s most powerful military behind you. Giving people something to think about if they don’t accept your generous terms. The Americans refused to negotiate with them, though. The British then tried bribing some prominent Americans. Even tried to appeal directly to the American people. Who just suffered a British army occupying their city. So the British made no progress towards a negotiated peace. Even though the terms were generous. And had the British offered them a few years earlier the Americans would have accepted them. For they gave them most of what they wanted then. But after three years of war things changed. The British had done things they couldn’t undo. Certain unrestricted warfare things. And the Americans weren’t desperate to make peace. For they had survived 3 years of war against the greatest military power in the world. Recently defeating one of their armies in the field of battle. And now had the French as allies. No, the Americans weren’t interested in making a British peace. What they had in mind was an American win.
After Surviving 3 Years of War and 6 Months at Valley Forge the Americans had Reason to Believe they could Win this War
As General Washington entered winter quarters in the barren land of Valley Forge the British were settling in for a comfortable winter in the city of Philadelphia. The British moved into comfortable homes while the Americans raced the calendar to build some barracks before the snow fell. They had little food. No meat whatsoever. Many were barefoot. Few had a decent shirt to wear. And blankets were few. To stay warm soldiers huddled around fires. Or shivered under shared blankets.
Some 2,500 men would die in all during the 6 months of Valley Forge. But the army emerged intact. And with confidence. They now had an ally. France. And during that awful winter they also trained. Under the Prussian Baron Friedrich von Steuben. Who may have lied on his resume. But he knew how to drill an army into shape. And that’s what emerged from Valley Forge. A professional army. As good as any in Europe. Even European officers led some of their units. Who came over to fight for the cause. Combat engineers like Louis Duportail from France. And Thaddeus Kosciusko from Poland. Also from Poland was cavalry commander Count Casimir Pulaski. And, of course, Marquis de Lafayette from France. The one foreign officer that never caused Washington any grief over persistent demands for promotion and rank. Not Lafayette. Who proved himself in battle. And even changed his political persuasion during the war. From monarchy to the liberty of republicanism. Washington looked upon Lafayette as a son.
After surviving 3 years of war and 6 months at Valley Forge the Americans had reason to believe they could win this war. For the army that emerged from Valley Forge was a better army than the one that defeated General Burgoyne at Saratoga. And they were less alone. Thanks to France. And these foreign officers. Making it more difficult for Britain. For with France (and her ally Spain joining in) the American Revolutionary War became a world war. Diverting British resources elsewhere as their new enemies looked to take advantage of Britain’s American problem. Which the Americans knew when rejecting the Carlisle Commission. Namely that a quick peace didn’t favor the Americans. It favored the British.
Tags: American problem, Americans, Britain, British, Carlisle Commission, Chatham, Franklin, French, General Gates, General Howe, greatest military power in the world, Hessians, independence, Lafayette, lenient terms of surrender, negotiated peace, North America, Parliament, Patriots, Philadelphia, Poland, Rockingham, Saratoga, terms of surrender, Trenton, Valley Forge, Washington, winter quarters, world war
When the American Colonists rebelled against their British Overlords it created a Complex Political Landscape
For about a hundred years the nations of Europe had been at war. Over religion (Protestantism versus Catholicism). Oversea colonies to build trade networks. And the balance of power of the European nations. Often tilted by the acquisitions of their overseas possessions. These nations have been at war with each other off and on from the late 17th century to the late 18th century. Alliances formed and shifted during this century of war. But one thing was constant. The Protestant British and the Catholic French were always on opposing sides.
The most recent war that ended in 1763 (the Seven Year’s War) was a particularly bitter pill for the French to swallow. They lost pretty much all of New France in North America to Great Britain. Including Quebec City. Founded by Samuel de Champlain in 1608. The British occupation defiled 155 years of French history. This was the heart and soul of New France. The French culture was so deep that they still speak French there today, having never accepted their British overlords. And never have forgotten their French heritage. For as Quebec’s official motto says today, “Je me souviens.” Which translates to, “I remember.” Remember what? That they were French. And remain French.
When the American colonists rebelled against their British overlords it created a complex political landscape. In a drawn out war with Great Britain the Americans would more than likely need foreign assistance. Meaning an alliance. However, the reason why they declared their independence from Great Britain had a lot to do with all those European wars that Britain fought. Which were expensive. As was the following peace. For they now had to defend their newly conquered lands. Exhausted from all these wars the British taxpayers felt taxed out. So Parliament turned to their British brethren in America. And taxed them. Which led, of course, to the Americans’ Declaration of Independence. So the Americans were very wary of joining into any European alliances. Fearful that the Europeans would pull them into a future European war. And bankrupt them. Before they even had a chance to become a country.
The European Monarchs weren’t going to help the Americans Rebel against Monarchy out of the Goodness of their Hearts
So the Americans were wary of alliances. But they were thinking about it. Especially with the most likely candidate for an alliance. In September of 1776 John Adams wrote, “our negotiations with France ought, however, to be conducted with great caution, and with all the foresight we could possibly attain; that we ought not to enter into any alliance with her which should entangle us in any future wars in Europe; that we ought to lay it down as a first principle and a maxim never to be forgotten, to maintain an entire neutrality in all future European wars; that it never could be in our interest to unite with France in the destruction of England, or in any measures to break her spirit or reduce her to a situation in which she could not support her independence.” This from one of the most outspoken Founding Fathers for independence. One of the few men Britain was not willing to forgive for the things he said and wrote. A man the British condemned to death even if the Americans reconciled with the British.
At the time of the Revolution The Hague in the Netherlands had diplomats from all the courts of Europe. One of these diplomats was a friend of Benjamin Franklin. Charles William Dumas. Franklin wrote to him to feel out the foreign powers. In September of 1775 he wrote asking if there was any “state or power in Europe who would be willing to enter into an alliance with us for the benefit of our commerce, which amounted, before the war, to near seven millions sterling per annum…” Like Adams, he wanted to avoid any alliance that could draw America into a future European war. Feeling that American commerce would be reason enough to support the Americans. As at that time all American trade went though Great Britain. So treating directly with the Americans would cut out the middle man. Making American goods less costly. Surely a financial incentive for any nation.
Then again, these European powers they were feeling out were all monarchies. Would these monarchies support a rebellion against royal authority? France, their most likely alliance partner due to their history with Great Britain, was an absolute monarchy. Would they support the Americans in their bid for independence with French taxes? Would they take a chance that their oppressed masses wouldn’t rise up in defiance of those high taxes and/or royal authority (which they eventually did)? Then there was a moral element as Robert Morrison noted in a letter to John Jay in September of 1776. “Can this be morally right?” Bringing war to the people of Europe in their bid for independence? Their kings may not care about what they do to the innocents. But a government of the people would. Or should. But if they got any support from these European monarchs the big question would be at what price? For these monarchs weren’t going to help the Americans in their rebellion against monarchy out of the goodness of their hearts. For, as monarchs, they kind of liked the institution of monarchy. So any involvement on their part wasn’t going to be for any moral imperative. It was for personal gain. New territory. Getting back lost territory. Or changing the balance of power in Europe to their favor.
Despite all of their Misgivings the Americans entered into an Entangling Alliance with the French
Monarchies were getting a little nervous about the impoverished masses around this time. For there were a lot more poor people than royals and nobles. Revolution was in the air. They made fun of the noble classes in some of the leading plays of the day. In fact, one play was banned in Vienna. For being less than respectful of the aristocracy. But that didn’t stop a composer from using it to write a new opera from it. That play? The Marriage of Figaro. The composer was, of course, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. Who based his new opera on the play written by a Frenchman. Pierre Beaumarchais. Who plays a prominent role in America’s Revolutionary War.
Beaumarchais had written a play making fun of the aristocracy. And the American rebellion against aristocracy piqued his interest. So he decided to aid the Americans in their cause. He strongly encouraged Louis XVI to support the Americans in their cause. For if they did not they would not only lose in the balance power to Great Britain. But likely the very valuable sugar trade coming from the French West Indies. He also set up a private company to ship war material to America in exchange for tobacco. Silas Deane arrived from America in Paris in July 1776. He, too, worked on obtaining the materials of war as well as skilled officers. America’s greatest diplomat and propagandist was also in Paris. Benjamin Franklin. Who the French adored. For his scientific experiments. And his plain American airs. They really got a kick out of the coonskin hat he wore. Which he wore only for them. Never having worn one back in America.
So the Americans were really working their mojo behind the scenes to get French support for the cause. As well as French money and arms. Which they were getting. And after the American win at the Battle of Saratoga, they got a whole lot more. Formal recognition of the United States. And despite all of their misgivings, an alliance. On January 7, 1778 they entered into a treaty of amity and commerce. Followed by (on February 6) the treaty of alliance. And these treaties were rather entangling. But so dictated the necessities of war. And what did the Americans agree to? In exchange for French military support against the British in North America the Americans would support the French militarily in the French West Indies. In any future French war where the Americans were neutral the French and their warships would have access to American ports. While the French adversary would not. Also, the French could bring in any captured ships into American ports to refit and re-provision them. And then leave freely. Which came back to haunt the Washington administration during the next war between the French and the British. Following the French Revolution. A war in which America not only remained neutral. But her neutrality ‘favored’ the British. As the vast majority of her trade was with the British. Causing a lot of animosity in America. For we had a treaty with the French. Who helped win them their independence from the nation they were now currently fighting. Again. A treaty some of the Americans noted, though, that they made with King Louis XVI. Who the French recently executed. Brought about, in part, by the incredible French debt incurred financing the American Revolution. Providing the tinder for the French Revolution.
A complex political landscape indeed. Of course the Americans didn’t know what was awaiting them in the future. All they knew is that when General Washington left winter quarters at Valley Forge they were no longer alone in their struggle. After their win at Saratoga and their new ally things were looking up. Little did they know that there would still be 5 more years of war.
Tags: Adams, alliance, American Colonists, aristocracy, balance of power, Beaumarchais, Benjamin Franklin, Britain, British, British overlords, Catholic, Deane, England, entangling alliances, Europe, European, European alliances, European war, France, Franklin, French, French West Indies, Great Britain, independence, John Adams, King Louis XVI, monarchies, monarchy, New France, nobles, North America, Paris, Pierre Beaumarchais, Protestant, Quebec, Quebec City, revolution, Revolutionary War, Saratoga, Silas Deane, taxes
The Restoration brought Charles II to the Throne and gave him a Standing Army
Before the English Civil War there were no standing armies in England. During Medieval times everyone was a soldier. A ‘citizen’ soldier. Fighting in a part-time militia. You answered your lord’s call “to arms.” Fought. Usually to protect your lord’s land from intruders. Or to join a higher noble or king to fight an opposing noble or king. But mostly you fought near your home. And when you were done fighting you went back to your day job. If you survived. The sooner the better because there was usually a lot of work to do. And family to take care of. But this all changed during the English Civil War. Thanks to Prince Rupert of the Rhine. A dashing cavalier commander and veteran of some European fighting. He brought his professional military skills to England. And fought for his uncle, King Charles I, during the English Civil War.
His skill won a lot of battles for Charles I. And impressed Oliver Cromwell. Who was fighting for Parliament. So impressed him that he copied from Prince Rupert. And created the New Model Army. A professional army. Trained. Well disciplined. And paid. That fought anywhere. Ultimately winning the war for Parliament. Then marching on London for back pay. They held the power. And installed Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector of the new commonwealth (no monarchy or hereditary power). Who used the New Model Army to keep the peace. Rather brutally. Especially in Ireland. Where they had no family. And had no problem in being brutal.
After Cromwell executed his father, Charles I, the Scots crowned Charles II king. For Charles I was a Scott. And they were none too pleased that the English killed him. Charles marched south and tried to restore the monarchy. Failed. And Cromwell chased him all the way to France. Where he lived during the English commonwealth. In Louis XIV’s court. An absolute monarchy. The way it used to be in England. Before Parliament. And King Louis had something new. A standing army. Even in times of peace. And the French people didn’t bitch about the costs. Like Parliament did about every cost the royals incurred. When Cromwell died his son inherited his office of Lord Protector. So much for the elimination of heredity power. But he was weak. Couldn’t control the army. And didn’t last. Without a better option they talked to Charles II. Who said he would offer some pardons if they made him king. He would not seek any retribution for the killing of his dad. And he’d pay the army. And that fast England (and Scotland and Ireland) had a king again. (The Restoration.) And a standing army.
The British Subjects in North America did not have the same Rights as British Subjects in Great Britain
The British put that army to use during the 18th century. Fighting a lot of wars. In Europe. And elsewhere. With lots of soldiers serving garrison duty throughout the world to protect their colonial interests. Costing a pretty penny. The very reason why people don’t like standing armies. They’re very costly. In war. As well as in peace. Especially the peace that followed the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763). Great Britain won a lot of colonial land from the French. Particularly in North America. Where French Quebec became British. Giving the British nearly the entire North American continent. Full of Native Americans none too happy with the outcome of the Seven Years’ War. (Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa nearly threw the British out in 1763.) Or their French Allies. And the job of keeping the peace fell to the British Army. Those infamous Red coats.
During the 18th century Great Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a representative government. The king was still sovereign but he ruled with the consent of Parliament. And their money. During this time William Pitt the Elder, British Secretary of State, had built up a large and prosperous colonial empire. Over this century the balance of power tilted away from Spain and France and towards Great Britain. The Seven Years’ War in particular ended economically favorable for the British at the expense of the French. This meant a lot of money for those in commerce. Which made the taxpayers agreeable to some of these military costs. But at the same time this last war left Great Britain broke and in debt. Worse, she needed a larger military to garrison all that territory she had just won. And those taxpayers, represented in Parliament, weren’t going to say yes to any more taxes. Because they could. In constitutional Great Britain there was no taxation without the consent of those British subjects taxed. Well, for some of those British subjects.
The British subjects in North America did not have the same rights as British subjects in Great Britain. The British Empire needed revenue. And Parliament turned to the American colonies to collect it. Without their consent. Something not allowed by the Bill of Rights. A 1689 act of English Parliament. So the British Americans took some offense. And then the anti-American legislation came. The Sugar Act of 1764 taxing sugar. The Quartering Act of 1765 forcing Americans to provide quarters for and to feed British troops. The Stamp Act of 1765 taxing printed materials. The Declaratory Act of 1766 which repealed the Stamp Act due to fierce opposition but made all laws passed by Parliament legal and binding in the colonies. The Townshend Acts starting in 1767 which tried to make the taxes more palatable by taxing only imports. They didn’t. It also raised revenue for the British to pay judges and custom officials to keep them loyal to the distant Crown rather than the local populace. The Commissioners of Customs Act of 1767 that established an administrative board to enforce these new acts. Headquartered in Boston. America’s leading port. This caused a lot of resentment and open hostility to the Crown’s representatives in Boston. To protect them and to maintain order the British occupied Boston in 1768. Sending in the Red coats.
Parliament sued for Peace after Cornwallis surrendered in Yorktown because the War had grown too Costly to Continue
This was all very un-English. Not since the days of the New Model Army had English subjects lived under the tyranny of a standing army. A very costly standing army. Paid for by all of those revenue acts. So here they were. British subjects. Who lost centuries of hard-earned rights. Some going back to Magna Carta in 1215. While their British brethren were living under a constitutional monarchy in Great Britain. Enjoying all of their rights. Where life in North America was turning into an absolute monarchy. Like their most hated enemy. The French.
This all boiled over in Boston in 1770. Beginning with a British sentry. Some kid forced to stand guard among a hostile populace. It started with a misunderstanding. But the hatred of the British helped to escalate it. Until a mob had gathered. Taunting the sentry to fire his weapon. British reinforcements arrived. Someone struck and knocked down a private. Who grabbed his weapon and fired. Then other shots rang out. Even though the commanding officer did not give the order to fire. Killing 3. And wounding 8. The infamous Boston Massacre. Patriot and future Founding Father John Adams actually represented the British in court. Where they got a fair trial. And the case Adams presented convinced a Boston jury to find most of those on trial not guilty. Including the commanding officer. Which was the last act of civility between these two British peoples.
Hostilities would only grow. And within 5 years there would be a shooting war. That would take 8 years before a peace would finally end it. A war won, interestingly, not by a part-time militia. But by a professional standing army. That thing the Americans so hated. But whose very existence prevented an American defeat. Something General George Washington fully understood. Who may have lost more battles than he won. But he won the most important battle of them all. Keeping that army in the field. Until the point where Parliament said enough was enough. Sinking ever further into debt they sued for peace after Cornwallis surrendered in Yorktown. The war had simply grown too costly to continue. And the taxpayers no longer gave their consent to continue to pay for it.
Tags: absolute monarchy, American, Boston, Boston Massacre, British, British Army, British Empire, British subjects, Charles II, colonial empire, commonwealth, constitutional monarchy, England, English, English Civil War, France, French, Great Britain, king, Lord Protector, militia, New Model Army, North America, Oliver Cromwell, Parliament, Red coats, Seven Years War, standing army, taxes, taxpayers, the Restoration, Townshend Acts
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