Thomas Jefferson wanted to keep the New Federal Government and Money Apart
Thomas Jefferson did not trust government. And he didn’t trust moneyed men. Because when the two come together they cause nothing but trouble. That’s why he hated and distrusted Alexander Hamilton. Hamilton wanted a strong central government. A central bank. And an economic system favoring merchants and bankers. With big city moneyed men financing the government in return for special favors.
This is why the nation’s capital isn’t in New York City. It once was. But one of the first deals the Hamilton and Jefferson camps made was the relocation of the nation’s capital to a mosquito-infested swamp on the Potomac River. A long, long way from the moneyed men in New York City. To try to keep the new federal government and money apart. To restrict the influence of the moneyed men on the government. And to prevent the government from having easy access to big money.
Why did Jefferson want to do this? Well, they fought for their independence from Great Britain. Which was a constitutional monarchy. Where some in Parliament were no friends of British America. And got the king to agree with them rather than the pro-British America faction in Parliament. Ironically, the Americans got help in their War of Independence from France. Which had an absolute monarchy. Whose king ruled with no check on his power. Both governments were in the big cities. London. And Paris. Where the moneyed men were. In the big cities. Allowing these monarchies to do a whole lot of mischief all around the world. And a fair amount of mischief inside their own countries. Because the money and the government were in the same city.
Government + Money = Corruption
Great Britain and France were forever at war with each other. And with other countries. Requiring a lot of money. Which they got from the moneyed men. In return for special privileges that allowed them to get ever richer. Of course the mischief grew greater as they fought a world war or two. Requiring ever more money. Which they got from, of course, taxing the rest of the people. Even those who could little afford it. And once this starts, once the government starts accumulating debt, that taxation will only get greater.
This is what Jefferson was worried about. And why he so distrusted Hamilton. The Founding Fathers were all gentlemen of the Enlightenment. Disinterested public servants. Honorable men who would never take advantage of their position in government for personal gain. Because for these men honor was everything. Some even fought duels to protect their honor. As Hamilton did. And died. Washington, Adams, Hamilton, Jefferson, Madison, Jay and Franklin were men of exceptional integrity. Men who could be trusted. But here is where Hamilton and Jefferson differed. Hamilton believed only men like them would ever enter government. While Jefferson believed that government service would one day attract mostly scoundrels and knaves.
Of course, Jefferson was right. For as the nation grew so did the size of government. And the need for great big piles of money. Which the moneyed men provided. In exchange for special privileges. Patronage. Lucrative government contracts. Etc. Big piles of money flowed into Washington. And favors flowed out from Washington. With many a politician getting rich in the process of getting rich moneyed men richer. Politicians who used their position in government for personal gain. Corrupted politicians. As government + money = corruption. Which is why politicians always leave office richer than when they entered office.
Power + Corruption = Tyranny
This is how it started. As the size of government grew corruption grew. Just as Jefferson feared. All that money flowing into Washington corrupted ever more politicians. Who were not gentlemen of the Enlightenment. But the scoundrels and knaves Jefferson knew would come. Who used their position in government for personal gain. Whose corruption grew so great it exploded federal spending. So great that taxes from the moneyed men AND the middle class were unable to fund it. So the taxation grew more aggressive.
The government created by the Founding Fathers had no income taxes. They funded the few things the new national government did with tariffs for the most part. People lived from day to day without any fear of the taxman. The United States even did away with debtors’ prison. Prison where people were sent who could not pay their debts. A relic of the 19th century. Sort of. For there is one debt people can still go to prison for not paying. Past-due taxes. For the IRS can take everything you have and imprison you if you don’t pay your taxes. And those taxes have grown great as of late. As the tax code has grown convoluted. Requiring businesses to hire armies of accountants and lawyers to comply with. So the government can help the moneyed men who help the government. In return for special privileges, of course. Leaving the masses dreading April 15. As they dread opening any letter from the IRS.
If you want to know what it was like living under an absolute monarchy just think of the IRS. People fear the IRS. Just as people feared the arbitrary power of an absolute monarchy. A king could take your property and lock you away. Just like the IRS. And if you spoke out against the monarchy the king could make your life really unpleasant. Just like the IRS. During the 2012 election the IRS targeted conservative political groups to stifle their free speech. Delayed their tax-exempt status approval. And harassed them with costly tax audits. And now their tyranny has extended to people in the middle class. Who unbeknownst to them had a family member owe the federal government. Years earlier. Even a generation earlier. And the IRS is arbitrarily seizing the tax refunds from these debtors’ distant relatives to pay these debts. Even though they are in no way responsible for these debts. And the government has no documentation for this debt. Doesn’t matter. Because they have the power to do this. And these people are powerless to stop them. Just like people living under an absolute monarchy were powerless to stop their king from doing anything to them. And this is what Jefferson feared. For after corruption comes tyranny. For power + corruption = tyranny. (Just look at every tin-pot dictator that has oppressed his people). Which is why people fear the IRS. And the federal government the IRS is beholden to. Because they have become everything Jefferson feared they would.
Tags: absolute monarchy, Alexander Hamilton, British America, central government, corruption, debt, Enlightenment, favors, federal government, Founding Fathers, France, gentlemen, Great Britain, Hamilton, honor, IRS, Jefferson, king, knaves, middle class, monarchy, money, moneyed men, Parliament, personal gain, politician, power, privileges, scoundrels, special favors, special privileges, tax refund, taxation, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, tyranny, Washington
King Louis XVI of France enjoyed all the Benefits that came with being King until his Arrest and Execution
In Mel Brooks’ The History of the World Part: I we see a satirical look at a broad swath of history. It’s funny. And often crude. Such as the first art critic. Who is a caveman reviewing a cave painting. Everyone waits with bated breath for his critique. After a long and serious consideration of the work of art the critic picks up the front of his animal skin clothing. And urinates on the artwork. To the displeasure of the artist.
Then Brooks looked at Rome and the excesses of Caesar. Roman Emperor. Absolute ruler of much of the known world. Who lived in the lap of luxury. And enjoyed arbitrary power. Who could do pretty much whatever he wanted to do. And did. In the movie we see his legions bringing him treasures from conquered lands. Which they poured over him in an alabaster bathtub. Later, when a stand-up philosopher accidentally called the emperor fat and corrupt he sentenced him to death. As he did to the wine steward who spilled wine on him. Brooks made this funny in the movie. But the best comedy is based in truth. Suffice it to say you wouldn’t insult Caesar if you knew what was good for you.
Then we see Brooks have fun with King Louis XVI of France. Who ruled just before the American Revolutionary War. Until his arrest and subsequent execution in the French Revolution. The French monarchy was an absolute monarchy. The king could do whatever he wanted. During his reign France was going broke thanks to his predecessor’s numerous wars. And Louis’ support and financing of the American Revolution. Which he paid for mostly with borrowed funds. Leaving French finances in a mess. Some bad harvests led to a famine or two. So the common people were suffering during his reign. While Brooks showed Louis enjoying his luxurious life at the Palace at Versailles. With little regard for his people. Enjoying all the benefits that come with being king. As he groped the pretty ladies that caught his eye. And said into the camera, “It’s good to be king.”
A King needs an Aristocracy so he can trade Privilege for Wealth to Secure his Power
The portrayal of Louis the XVI is not exactly accurate. Or fair. For he was a decent man. Who tried to get his people to love him. He’s greatest fault was probably being a weak and indecisive king. Something most tyrants aren’t. And there wouldn’t have been a United States of America without him. Something else in Louis’ favor. But the life of luxury he enjoyed at Versailles wasn’t that far off the mark. For kings lived like kings. And if you had the right dad that exceptional life could be yours. Something a lot of people wanted. Even killing off some heirs to the throne to put themselves next in the line of succession. For the words of Mel Brooks ring true. “It’s good to be king.”
But the interesting thing about kings is that they can’t be king alone. They need an aristocracy. Rich people who the king allows to get rich. As long as they share some of their riches with the king. In the days of kings that meant landowners. So those in the king’s court who ran the government were wealthy landowners. They used their positions of power to secure their wealth. And they used their power to amass more wealth. Which they shared with the king. And because they did the king maintained their privilege. Which secured his power. So it was not only good to be king. But it was good to be in the upper echelons of the aristocracy. Who lived almost as good as a king.
Meanwhile the poor masses toiled on the land. Enriching the landowners. And the king. Who worked hard and got little in return. For their life was often “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.” As Thomas Hobbes wrote in Leviathan. For the times of kings was the age of feudalism. Where the masses were attached to the land. Bonded to it. And forbidden to leave it. They were born on it. They lived on it. They worked on it. And they died on it. As their children would, too. With no hope of ever doing something different than your father did. Because in feudalism there was the king. The aristocracy. And everyone else. Those whose lives were “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short.”
There is no way the President can live like a King without the Privilege he gets with his Position of Power
This is what bothered Thomas Jefferson. The connection between money and government power. For it was only when they came together could they oppress the masses. He wanted to keep the money as far away from those in government as possible. He didn’t want to see only a few rich landowners. He opposed the expansion of government. And when he was president he cut government spending. Not cuts in the growth rate of future spending. But actual cuts in spending. Unlike today. Where government spending only increases. Even when they cut it.
The country continues to struggle in the worst recovery since the recovery following the Great Depression. If you look at the labor force participation rate (LFPR) you’d conclude we’re still in the worst recession since the Great Depression. Yes, the official unemployment rate has fallen some. But the LFPR has fallen off a cliff. The only reason why the unemployment rate has fallen is that they have stopped counting hundreds of thousands of people who can’t find full-time work. People are hurting. There are fewer jobs now than when President Obama took office. People are underwater in their mortgage. The median income has fallen. While gasoline and food prices soar. But the stock market is doing well. Thanks to the quantitative easing. As rich investors can borrow large sums of cheap money to invest in the stock market. Especially those with friends in the federal government. Who don’t even have to risk their own money to get rich. No. Like aristocracies of old, they get large sums of taxpayer funds. In return they collect and bundle money from campaign donors to give back to their friends in power. To help keep them in power. So they can continue to get large sums of taxpayer funds.
Meanwhile President Obama and the First Lady have been living it up. There was the lavish vacation to Spain for the First Lady and her friends. The Christmas vacations in Hawaii. The summer vacations on Martha’s Vineyard. Ski trips to Vail. Golfing with Tiger Woods. Zipping back and forth across the U.S for fundraisers in Air Force One. Often hobnobbing with the Hollywood Elite and music royalty. The National Review Online reports the Obama White House annual household expenses are $1.4 billion. For these traveling costs add up. As the president enjoys the trappings of his high office. And who wouldn’t want to spend $1.4 billion on their household expenses? With that kind of money we wouldn’t be spending summer vacation in our backyards anymore. But we don’t get to live like a king. No. Our lives are more “solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short” these days. As jobs continue to disappear from the economy. And median income falls. So why does the president continue to live like a king when so many of the people are suffering? Because it’s good to be king. It’s good to be in the upper echelons of the aristocracy. And especially good to be in the federal government. For there is no way the president can live like a king without the privilege he gets with his position of power.
Tags: aristocracy, federal government, feudalism, government spending, It's good to be king, king, King Louis XVI, landowners, Louis XVI, monarchy, money, position of power, power, President Obama, privilege, Versailles, wealth
Excessive Federal Taxes reduce Disposable Income which reduces New Economic Activity
The key to economic growth is disposable income. The more disposable income people have the more economic activity they will create. So the key to a healthy economy is maximizing disposable income. And we can do that in a few ways. First of all we need jobs. And we can create more jobs with fewer costly regulations. And lower taxes. If we make it less costly to hire people businesses will hire more people. Which they aren’t doing right now. Primarily because of Obamacare. Which is so costly to businesses that they’ve frozen new hiring. And are pushing some full time employees to part-time. As well as investing in capital equipment wherever they can. Replacing people with machines. Because machines don’t incur Obamacare costs, taxes or penalties.
For those lucky few who haven’t been replaced by machines they can earn some disposable income. Depending on their skill level. A low-skilled person who never graduated from high school cannot earn as much disposable income as a thoracic surgeon. So if you want stuff. And you want to stimulate the economy. Become a thoracic surgeon. Or something else that takes years of college and years of on the job training. And hundreds of thousands of dollars of student loan debt.
But earning a good income isn’t enough. Because from that income we must pay an enormous amount of taxes. Greatly reducing our disposable income. Some of the taxes we can see. Such as those itemized on our paycheck stubs. Federal and state income taxes. And Social Security and Medicare taxes. But there are a lot of taxes we don’t see. Such as excise taxes on the things we buy from gasoline to liquor to cigarettes. And then there are property taxes. Sales taxes. And the list goes on. All of which take a bite out of our disposable income. Siphoning away real economic activity over the years as the federal government added new taxes. And increased the tax rates of the old taxes.
The Federal Government came up with the Withholding Tax to Prevent an all out Tax Revolt
When the Founding Fathers ratified the Constitution there weren’t many taxes. Mostly custom duties and tariffs. Which was enough to fund the limited government they created. But ever since the Founding some in the federal government have been trying to destroy what the Founding Fathers created. And replace it with what they fought so long to get rid of. A very large government that reaches into all parts of our life. Like a monarchy. Where those in the federal government belong to a new aristocracy. Who are more equal than everyone else. And live a far, far better life. If you don’t believe this just check out property values around Washington DC.
With the American Civil War killing a generation of fathers a lot of boys grew up with over protective and doting mothers. When these boys came of age and entered politics they weren’t as manly as their father’s generation was. Because they grew up without fathers to teach them to hunt and fight. Instead, they grew up with mothers who taught them to be more nurturing. Giving us the progressive movement. Woodrow Wilson gave us a permanent federal income tax. And tried to expand the federal government to be more of a monarchy with a powerful executive that can govern against the will of Congress. And the people. After World War I we returned to normalcy. And Warren Harding and Calvin Coolidge gave us the Roaring Twenties. And the modern world. Then Herbert Hoover and other progressives caused the Great Depression. With a crisis too good to let go to waste FDR picked up where Woodrow Wilson left off. Exploding the size and reach of the federal government. And the great surge in federal taxes began. Over the years they added more and more. Such as these (see Table 2.1—RECEIPTS BY SOURCE: 1934–2017).
Some of these you are no doubt familiar with. The biggest bite is the individual income tax. Something most of us have received our W-2s for and have just prepared our federal income tax returns. Or are about to. Dreading it. Unless we’re getting a refund. Those who owe money will probably take their sweet time. As they hate writing a check to the federal government. Which is why the federal government came up with the withholding tax. For if people had to write a check for the full amount of their federal income taxes each year there would be an all out tax revolt. And probably a lot more imprisonment for people not paying their federal taxes. For no one has that kind of money sitting around. Which is why the government takes it from you before you can spend it yourself.
Excessive Federal Spending requires ever Higher Taxation and ever more Borrowing to Feed
The big debate in Washington now is the sequester. And the automatic cuts of the sequester. Which were proposed by President Obama. Which Congress wrote into a bill. And the president signed into law. In hopes that Republicans and Democrats would come together and find a way to reduce the record high deficit. The Republicans want to do the obvious. Cut the spending that caused the record deficit. Democrats want to do what they always want to do. Raise taxes. Saying that we don’t have a spending problem. That the four years of trillion dollar deficits isn’t because we’re spending too much. It’s because we’re not taxing enough to pay for that spending. That rich people aren’t paying their fair share. But that’s not what you see when you look at the numbers.
These taxes are identified in the above table. As government spending grew so did taxes. In particular personal income taxes which provide the majority of federal tax revenues. Which exploded after LBJ’s Great Society added a lot of new federal spending. And after President Nixon decoupled the dollar from gold in 1971. Unleashing inflation. Note that personal income taxes are greater than corporate income taxes. That’s because there are more people than corporations. For example, Siemens AG is an international corporation that employs about 360,000 people. Who all pay personal income taxes. After personal income taxes comes old-age and survivors insurance. Otherwise known as Social Security. And all of these taxes have continued to grow. Taking a bigger and bigger bite out of disposable incomes. Putting a drag on new economic activity. Note that the only falls in federal tax revenue were due to two Democrat-caused recessions. Bill Clinton’s dot-com bubble burst causing a bad recession in 2000. And his subprime mortgage lending bubble he started with his Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending burst causing a bad recession in 2007. Apart from these, though, the pattern has been more spending. Not less. Which would suggest that we do have a spending problem.
Also included on this chart is the federal debt. Note how it spiked up during World War II. Then settled down at a constant rate for about 30 years. Until LBJ’s Great Society spending increased federal spending. But these massive new taxes weren’t enough. For that’s when the big deficits started. Adding on to a growing federal debt. With the only decline in this growth coming during President Clinton’s presidency. President Clinton’s dot-com boom (before the bubble burst), the peace dividend from President Reagan winning the Cold War, the Asian financial crisis and Japan’s Lost Decade all helped the American economy shower the treasury with cash. Putting the nation into a surplus for a year or so. But that didn’t last. As federal spending continued to outpace tax revenue. Culminating with President Obama’s trillion dollar deficits. With federal tax revenue at the highest since President Bush’s record high just before Clinton’s subprime mortgage bubble burst into the subprime mortgage crisis. And the Great Recession.
So yes, Virginia, we have a spending problem. A spending that requires ever higher taxation and ever more borrowing to feed. Taking an ever bigger chunk out of disposable incomes. Leaving less and less for new economic growth. Explaining why the economy has never recovered from the Great Recession. For President Obama’s policies only increase taxes and the cost of doing business. And do nothing to create disposable income.
Tags: Bill Clinton, bubble, debt, deficit, disposable income, excise taxes, FDR, federal debt, federal government, federal spending, Founding Fathers, Great Recession, Great Society, income, income taxes, jobs, LBJ, monarchy, Obamacare, personal income taxes, Progressive, recession, regulations, sequester, Social Security, spending, spending problem, subprime mortgage, tax revenue, tax revolt, taxes, withholding tax, Woodrow Wilson
The History of Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army and the English Civil War were not that Distant
Benjamin Franklin said the first responsibility of every citizen is to question authority. That was kind of America’s thing. Giving the finger to the governing authority. Figuratively. And sometimes literally. Starting with King George III. One of our earliest flags said, “Don’t tread on me.” This flag had a coiled rattle snake on it. Franklin thought the rattle snake was a good symbol of the American people. If the British left us alone this snake would cause no harm. If you get too close this snake will warn you to back off by shaking its rattle. If you don’t heed this warning and threaten this snake it will strike you with lethal force.
This problem with authority almost lost the Revolutionary War for us. At first American soldiers didn’t like following orders. For if they could rebel against their king they could just as easily rebel against a commanding officer. George Washington stopped that. But this mistrust of authority was systemic. The state governments did not trust the Continental Congress. That distant central power. Anymore than they trusted that other distant central power. The British monarchy.
So the Continental Congress was woefully underfunded throughout the Revolutionary War. Finding it very difficult to supply the Continental Army. Or pay her soldiers. Something else the states didn’t trust. A standing army. For the history of Oliver Cromwell’s New Model Army and the English Civil War were not that distant. Or the peace that followed. Where that army helped keep the new government in power. And unleashed great woe and suffering to the Catholics in Ireland and Scotland.
Kings don’t suffer Personal Attacks in the Newspapers like an Elected President Does
So the Americans stood up to that distant power. And to her ministers in the American colonies. Not afraid to speak truth to power. To speak out about the abuses of King George in the colonies. Which Thomas Jefferson summarized in the Declaration of Independence. They spoke contemptuously of the ruling British authorities. When they won their independence they transferred this contempt to the new federal government. The states trusted the new central authority in the United States little more than they trusted the one on the far side of the Atlantic. And many fought as passionately against it as they fought against King George.
Even those in the new central government didn’t trust each other. Political parties formed. Alexander Hamilton led the Federalists. Who wanted a strong central government. And Thomas Jefferson led the Republicans. Who wanted a weak central government. Keeping the power in the states. Hamilton and Jefferson hated each other. Despised each other. Believed that the other was everything that was wrong in the new nation. And they attacked each other viciously in the newspapers through their surrogates. Which were extensions of these political parties. So if you wanted fair and balanced news all you had to do was read at least two newspapers. Weigh the vitriol and lies in each to arrive at the truth. Which was somewhere in between.
And these papers were pretty nasty. Even attacking the most beloved man in the country. George Washington. Calling him old and senile. Secretly British. A mere puppet controlled by that evil puppet master Alexander Hamilton. George Washington could have been king with the blessings of the American people. Instead he chose to keep the United States a republic. And suffered horribly for it. For kings don’t suffer the personal attacks in the newspapers like an elected president does. This was representative government. Where the people are sovereign. And the president is a servant of the people. Not the other way around. Like in a monarchy.
You can call LBJ and George W. Bush Murderers but you can’t ask President Obama Questions he doesn’t want to Answer
People marveled at how George Washington stepped down from power after his second term as president. Even King George said that if he did that he would be the greatest man in the world. And he did. Proving the American system. But while others marveled about how he could give up power after so short a time in office Washington more likely marveled about how long he was able to stay in office. For he hated the politics. And the newspaper attacks. He was anxious to step down. He was giddy during the transfer of power. Happy to be going home. While poor John Adams had to deal with all the politics. The newspaper attacks. And the lies.
Contrast this to President Obama. Who gets treated by the media with kid gloves. Who don’t question him at all. Or his administration. It being more like a monarchy than a republic. After 4 Americans died in Benghazi the president offered no explanation. And the media did not pressure him for one. When Congress finally got to question the Secretary of State, Hillary Clinton, they asked her who was responsible for the failure to provide for the security for our diplomats in Benghazi? Who was responsible for not coming to their aid while they were under attack? And who was responsible for the lie about it being a spontaneous uprising in response to a YouTube video? She only yelled “what difference does it make?” And that was that. The media reported that the Republicans were mean to her. And never pressed her for answers. Or President Obama.
Even the people aren’t demanding answers. Which is sad. For once upon a time the people chanted, “Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?” Making the political pressure of the Vietnam War so unbearable that he refused to run for a second term. But where is this outrage over President Obama’s use of drones to kill terrorists as well as the innocent civilians and children around them? Or the targeting of American citizens without any due process? We hear nothing from the people. Or the media. The same people and media who wanted to try the 9/11 mastermind, Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, in a U.S. court not far from Ground Zero during the Bush Administration.
Why the double standard? Why was it okay to question authority in the Sixties and Seventies? No matter who was in power. But after that it was only permissible to question authority when Republicans were in power? Why is it you can call LBJ and George W. Bush murderers but you can’t ask President Obama questions he doesn’t want to answer? When Dr. Benjamin Carson spoke truth to power at the National Prayer Breakfast criticizing Obamacare and the president’s economic policies the Left attacked him for not showing deference to the president. How dare he exercise free speech in a public setting they asked? A far cry from “Hey, hey, LBJ, how many kids did you kill today?” No. This president we’re supposed to show deference to. As if he was a king. Why? Apparently now that the anti-establishment types are running government we are no longer to question authority but embrace it. So they can do whatever they want to do. And change the country however they want to change it. While that whole questioning authority thing was okay when they were on the outside looking in. But now that they are on the inside looking out we need to question less and obey more.
Tags: Alexander Hamilton, anti-establishment, Benghazi, Benjamin Franklin, central authority, central government, central power, Continental Congress, English Civil War, federal government, Federalists, George W. Bush, George Washington, Jefferson, King George III, LBJ, media, monarchy, New Model Army, newspaper, Oliver Cromwell, President Obama, problem with authority, question authority, Republicans, Revolutionary War, speak truth to power, Thomas Jefferson
(Originally published December 8th, 2011)
The French Left wanted Radical Change and Launched the French Revolution
The terms Right, Left and Center go back to the French Revolution. To the National Assembly. Where people sat according to their political preferences. Those who wanted to kill the king, the queen, the nobility, the clergy and pretty much anyone rich sat to the left of the president. Those who wanted to maintain the monarchy and the established institutions sat to the president’s right. Those who fell between these views sat in the center.
Why did the French Revolution erupt? The people were starving. Taxes were high. And the government was trying to raise taxes again. Because the government was drowning in debt. From decades of war with their archenemy. Great Britain. And their financing of the American Revolution. Where the British Americans were rebelling against the French’s archenemy. Great Britain.
So France was a tinderbox. To make matters worse for the monarchy was all that liberty talk of the Americans. It was like a disease. And it infected the French. Who looked at the wealthy few. The king. The queen. The nobility. The clergy. And then listened to their empty tummies rumbling. The French Left wanted radical change. And revolution. The French Right said whoa now, let’s not act hasty here. Yes we have some problems but our glorious French institutions have been around for centuries. It’s in large part to them that France is great.
The Revolution to Topple a King ended with the Coronation of an Emperor – Napoleon
Well despite France’s great and glorious past the radicals got their way. And blood ran in the streets of Paris. Starting with the Storming of the Bastille. The great medieval fortress housing prisoners of the realm. The revolutionaries threw open the gates. And freed all seven prisoners. Being more a symbolic act than one of substance. But this led eventually to a number of legislative assemblies. A lot of blood. Carnage. And the beheading of King Louis XVI. And his queen. Marie Antoinette. Eventually the seats on the right side of the National Assembly emptied. As everyone moved to the president’s left. Lest they be killed, too.
The revolutionaries aimed their wrath at anyone who was not supportive of the Revolution. And even those whose support was only lukewarm. They killed these enemies of the Revolution. Or any other enemies that they conveniently identified as enemies of the Revolution. Leaders rose. And leaders fell. Jean-Paul Marat. Georges-Jacques Danton. And Maximillien Robespierre. All three were killed. Charlotte Corday, a supporter of the Right, stabbed Marat in his bath tub. Danton and Robespierre were guillotined. Leaders of violence. Victims of violence. These members of the French Left. Who killed and terrorized the people unlike the king they killed. King Louis XVI. Or the queen they killed. Marie Antoinette.
Ultimately the French Revolution gave the world Napoleon. And world war. And the Revolution to topple a king ended with the coronation of an emperor. For this opportunist ultimately had the biggest army. Napoleon could consolidate his power. Unlike Marat. Danton. Or Robespierre. But Napoleon could. And did. Then he set out to create an empire. Much like the kings that came before him did.
Those on the Right are Distrustful of those on the Left when they Talk about Egalitarianism and Fairness
Today the meaning of Left, Right and Center vary. But, in general, those on the Right prefer the way things are. Proven by time to work. And those on the Left are never happy with how things are and want to change them to some new theoretical ideal that time hasn’t proven as a viable workable system. Such as socialism. And communism. Generally referred to as ‘leftist’ systems. And both are systems that have never worked.
Fascist Italy, Communist Russia and Nazi Germany were all new experimental systems to right all the wrongs of past governments. And all three governments made their citizens’ lives worse with harsh police states. With the state summarily executing enemies of the state. Much like Marat, Danton and Robespierre did in France. Many refer to Nazi Germany and Fascist Italy as right-wing states. But both were fascist states. Which was nothing more than a national socialism. Which was a combination of socialism. And nationalism. These were people who wanted radical change. Control over the masses. And empire. If these governments sat in the French National Legislation they all would have taken seats to the left of the president.
Leftists hate the rich and successful. And want to confiscate their wealth for themselves. Instead of trying to achieve wealth on their own merit. Those on the Right are distrustful of those on the Left when they talk about egalitarianism and fairness. Because they know what that means. They are going to take their wealth via the power of government. By a progressive tax system. Inheritance tax. Capital gains tax. Surtaxes to punish success. Regulatory laws and fees that increase the cost of doing business. (As well as increases the prices of goods and services.) Etc.
The Left champions the poor and downtrodden as they ascend to power. But rarely have they helped the poor and downtrodden. Only a select few in the party upper echelons ever live a better life. For example, the Democrat Party launched a war on poverty in the Sixties and yet there is still poverty. Despite a myriad of government programs that has exploded the size of government. All headed by rich bureaucrats living better lives. While the poor and downtrodden are still wallowing in poverty. And we know this because the Left is constantly telling us this. In their never ending quest to expand the size of government.
The center is somewhere between the Left and the Right. It’s not really a group with core political beliefs. But more of a group that that likes a little from column ‘A’. And a little from column ‘B’.
Politics is a Procession – We tend to Start on the Left, Work our Way through the Center and End on the Right
Perhaps another way to look at this is those on the right being parents in a family. Children of these parents who are now raising their own families are in the center. And the young children who are still in college are on the left.
The young know little and have even less responsibility. They like to stay out late, party, do drugs and have consequence-free sex. They don’t like anything that restricts their good times. Hence they are always hostile to authority. Church. Or state. And their vote tends to lean towards anarchy. Where anything goes.
The children starting their own families are slowly giving up the ways of their youth. They are becoming established in their careers. Raising children. Which leaves little time for fun. But they are hesitant to admit that they have become their parents. So they hang on to some of their idealistic ways of their youth. While starting to save for their kids’ college education. And their retirement. They even start going to church. To get their kids started on the right foot. And to try and keep their kids from doing everything they did when they were young.
The parents have worked long and hard. They have a family. And grandchildren. They want the best for their family. And a happy and secure retirement. After playing by the rules all of their lives they don’t want to rock the boat now that they are so close to retirement. So they are very pleased to stay with the proven ways of the past. And prefer to help others at their church. Rather than giving money to a leviathan government.
Politics is a procession. We tend to start on the Left. Work our way through the Center. And end on the Right. For we tend to grow less radical with age. Because as we age we accumulate wealth and have far more to lose with radical change.
Tags: American Revolution, Center, clergy, Communism, Danton, debt, downtrodden, France, French, French Left, French Revolution, French Right, Great Britain, king, King Louis XVI, Left, leftist, liberty, Marat, Marie Antoinette, monarchy, Napoleon, National Assembly, nationalism, nobility, politics, poor, poor and downtrodden, poverty, queen, radical change, radicals, revolution, revolutionaries, Right, Robespierre, socialism, taxes, wealth
When the Radicals attacked Parliament and the King’s Ministers Jefferson’s Summary View attacked King George
When Thomas Jefferson entered politics he was still a quiet and shy awkward young man. He was not the public speaker Patrick Henry was. And did not enjoy being in the spotlight. That said he was incredibly book smart. When he was in college he spent up to 15 hours a day reading. And another 3 hours practicing his violin. Which probably explained why he was quiet and shy. And not a real lady’s man. His first love was and always remained his books. And it was this insatiable thirst to read and learn that made him one of the greatest writers of the Revolutionary era. It was also where he was most comfortable. For it was something a quiet and shy young man could do best in his solitude.
After earning a law degree he went into law. Then he won a seat in the Virginian House of Burgesses. And joined the opposition against the taxing efforts of British Parliament. As well as their regulation of trade. Going so far as to join a boycott of British imports. Unless it was something really nice that he really, really wanted. For he was a bit of a dandy who enjoyed the finest fashions, furnishings, wines, pretty much anything French, etc. If it was fashionable in high society Jefferson probably had it. But you wouldn’t believe he was a dandy by his writing. For he wrote some powerful stuff while still in the House of Burgesses. Especially his A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). Published at a time when there was a lot of friction between the colonies and the mother country. As furious debate raged about Parliament’s right to tax and regulate trade in the colonies. To summarize his Summary View Jefferson stated, “The British Parliament has no right to exercise authority over us.” Like many of the Revolutionary generation, Jefferson did not like some distant central power imposing their will on them. But Summary View went even farther.
At the time most British Americans still wanted to be subjects of Great Britain. They just wanted the same rights subjects living in England had. Namely, representation in Parliament. Denied that they attacked the dictatorial powers of Parliament. And the king’s ministers. But they didn’t attack King George. Jefferson did. When the other radicals attacked Parliament and the king’s ministers Summary View attacked King George. While the other radicals wanted fair and equal treatment as subjects of the British Crown Jefferson was already moving beyond that. He was ready for independence from the British Crown. For he had no love of monarchy.
The States drafting their own Constitutions was a de facto Declaration of Independence
Much of the trouble in the colonies began with the Stamp Act of 1765. But in Summary View Jefferson said their problems went further back. To 1066. To the Norman Conquest of England. A time when, according to the Whig interpretation of history that Jefferson had read, things changed. All land belonged to kings after 1066. Not to the people. But before the Norman Conquest there was the Saxony model of government. Tracing its lineage back to Saxony Germania. Along the North Sea. Where once upon a time in a mystical place the good people of Saxony enjoyed representative government. A beautiful system of government under which people lived in harmony and bliss. Until feudalism came along. And kings arose. Who snuffed out these old ways. So Jefferson hated all monarchies. The nobility class. And birthrights. He didn’t believe in the divine rights of kings. To him they were just a bunch of bullies who came along and changed the rules of the game by force for personal gain. And King George III was no different.
When Peyton Randolph left the Continental Congress Jefferson replaced him. At the time he was a very minor player in Virginian politics. But his Summary View created a reputation that preceded his arrival. And he was warmly welcomed. Especially by the more radical elements. The Americans had not yet declared their independence but they were already at war with Great Britain. Blood was spilled at Lexington and Concord. And General Washington was now in command of the Continental Army then laying siege to the British in Boston. More importantly, some states were already drafting their own constitutions. To form new governments to replace the royal government. Which to many (including Jefferson) was the most pressing business. As it was a de facto declaration of independence. Which was even more important than the drafting of the Declaration of Independence. Something the more senior members delegated to the junior member from Virginia. Because they had more important things to do.
In May and June of 1776 Jefferson’s mind was back in Virginia. And he wrote three drafts of a new constitution for Virginia. His constitution was similar to the future U.S. Constitution. It included a separation of powers. A 2-house (i.e., bicameral) legislature. An independent judiciary. And, most importantly of all, a WEAK executive. Leaving political power in the hands of the people via their representatives in the legislature. There would be no royal governors or kings in the new state government. Just pure self-government. Just like in that mystical place where the Saxons lived in harmony and bliss. And so it would be in Virginia. There would be democracy. At least for the people who owned property and paid taxes, that is. For if you wanted to tell government what they could do you had to have skin in the game. And pay taxes. But after taking care of this Virginian business he got around to writing the Declaration of Independence. And that thing that no one wanted to waste their time doing? It became the seminal document of the United States. Making Jefferson a superstar among the Founding Fathers. In posterity John Adams regretted that he didn’t waste his valuable time to write it.
If Jefferson were Alive Today he would likely Endorse the Republican Candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan
After the Americans won their independence Jefferson accepted a diplomatic post in France where he accomplished little. Jefferson championed open markets and free trade. And he worked tirelessly with the French to adopt a free trade agreement. So cheap raw materials (like Virginian tobacco) could flow to France. And cheap manufactured goods could flow to the United States. But the political reality in France stymied him. The French refused to lower tariffs so they could protect their domestic markets. Not to mention that those high custom duties allowed corrupt officials to pocket more for themselves. His only success in France was a Dutch loan John Adams secured while Jefferson was tagging along. Adams understood the complex world of international finance. Jefferson did not. Other than large sums of money tended to corrupt people. Custom agents. And governments. So it was a wise thing to keep the centers of finance apart from the center of government. Which is why the federal capital is in Washington DC and not in New York City.
Jefferson was in France during Shay’s Rebellion. An armed protest against new taxes imposed by Boston. Those in the fledgling government worried about suppressing this uprising (the Continental Congress had few resources other than to ask states for contributions) to prevent the collapse of the new nation. While Jefferson said, “The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions, that I wish it to be always kept alive…I like a little rebellion now and then.” And, “The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.” Later, serving as Secretary of State in the Washington administration, he battled with Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton over the size of government and the meaning of the Constitution. Hamilton wanted to expand the power of the federal government to help jumpstart America into becoming a mighty empire like the British Empire. With the government partnering with the private sector. Pooling great amounts of capital together to build incredible things. While Jefferson wanted all Americans to be yeoman farmers physically working their own land. With as small a federal government as possible. And one that spent as little money as possible and remained debt-free. In fact, when he was president he slashed spending so much that the nation could barely afford the navy to protect its shipping from the Barbary pirates.
So it is pretty clear that Thomas Jefferson hated big government. He spent his entire political life trying to limit the power and scope of government. To make government as impotent as possible. To the point where he even supported a little rebellion every now and then to keep government in its place. What would he think of the federal government today? It would probably make him physically ill. The spending? The debt? The federal register? These would make him long for the responsible governing of King George. And his pro-American policies. If he were able to vote today he would vote for the lesser of two evils. And that would be the party of limited government. To stop the out of control growth of the federal government. And hopefully reduce its size. If Jefferson were alive today he would likely endorse the Republican candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan for president and vice president.
Tags: 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, Alexander Hamilton, British, British Crown, British Parliament, Constitution, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, England, federal government, France, free trade, Great Britain, Hamilton, House of Burgesses, Jefferson, John Adams, King George, limited government, Mitt Romney, monarchy, Norman Conquest, Parliament, Paul Ryan, representative government, Republican, Romney, Ryan, Saxony, self-government, Summary View, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginian, Virginian House of Burgesses
France was Staring at Bankruptcy while her People were Suffering Poverty and Hunger
Shortly after the American Revolution came the French Revolution. Inspired in part by the American Revolution. Whose spirit of liberty was infectious. Some French even joined the Americans in their fight for liberty. Such as Marie-Joseph Paul Yves Roch Gilbert du Motier, marquis de Lafayette. Who was a general in George Washington’s army. And who Washington looked on as a son. America’s war was an expensive war. And only through the generosity of Louis XVI, King of the French, did the Americans win their war. Ironic, really, that an absolute monarch like Louis XVI would help the Americans break free from a monarchy. But he did. And saddled France with a tremendous war debt.
These are two things you don’t want to do if you’re a king. Showing your people that you support the end of monarchy while denying it to your own people. And making the French people pay for another people’s independence. Through higher taxes. And greater privations. Things that tend to piss off a people. It was a gamble for Louis. For he didn’t believe in the American cause. It was just a calculated bet. The British had just recently defeated the French in the Seven Years’ War. And the British took France’s North American territories. Territories the French wanted back. The American Revolution was their chance to rebalance the balance of power. And get back at their hated enemy. Great Britain.
Well that was the plan. But it did not go as planned. The Americans got wind of what the French monarchy was doing behind the scenes. Which was even in discussions with the British to secure a peace that left the Americans subjects of the British Crown. With a much smaller territory in the New World. Leaving room for the French. And their ally. Spain. An outcome that benefited neither the British nor the Americans. So the British and the Americans made a separate peace. One that favored their interests. Not the French or the Spanish. So Louis gambled. He lost. And he lost big. The nation was staring at bankruptcy. While her people were suffering poverty and hunger. And what did these poor and hungry people see? A very comfortable and well fed king, nobility and clergy. This was the kindling just waiting for a match to light.
Montesquieu influenced the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen as well as the U.S. Founding Documents
That match came in 1789. And the lighting of that match began with Jacques Necker. Comptroller-General of Finance for Louis XVI. Who advised the king that the nobility and the clergy needed to pay more taxes. And proposed restricting the power of the parlements. The nobility and the clergy paid little taxes due to their tax exemptions. While the poor were too poor to help with the financial mess France was in. So the only hope of raising new revenue was the nobility and clergy. Alas, the monarchy did not like his recommendations and fired him. Enter Charles Alexandre, vicomte de Calonne. Who advised the king that the nobility and the clergy needed to pay more taxes. Facing opposition from the parlements for proposing unpopular policy Calonne got the king to summon the Assembly of Notables. A group of notables (like Lafayette) who advised the king. But the notables did not endorse Calonne’s plan. So the king called the Estates-General to the Grands Salles des Menus-Plaisirs in Versailles.
The estates were representatives of the people. There were three of them. The clergy. The nobility. And everyone else. The commoners. That is, the Third Estate. Who grew weary with the way things were in France and declared themselves representatives not of the Third Estate but of the people. They called themselves the National Assembly. A radical move. The first of a lot of radicalism to follow. Not liking the look of this movement Louis closed their meeting hall and posted a guard in front of the door. So the National Assembly moved to an indoor tennis court. And took the Tennis Court Oath. Where they promised to write a new constitution before adjourning. Others joined them. From both the clergy. And the nobility.
The weariness grew into agitation. The people grew angry. And everything the king did just inflamed their anger. From the firing of Necker. To the presence of foreign soldiers in Paris. The people feared royal oppression. And began rioting. Paris was out of control. Then the people stormed the Bastille for weapons and ammunition. They released all seven prisoners. And brutally murdered Governor Marquis Bernard de Launay. The guy in charge of the Bastille. Beheaded him. And placed his head on a pike and paraded it through Paris. Then they went to Paris city hall and brutally murdered the mayor. Jacques de Flesselles. Then the National Constituent Assembly (of the National Assembly) went to work on the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen (1789). Sort of a combination of the U.S. Declaration of Independence and the U.S. Bill of Rights. Drawing heavily on the same great French philosopher of the Enlightenment the Americans did. Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu.
The People who Embraced the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen unleashed the Reign of Terror
In America after the U.S. Bill of Rights was ratified by the states the nation went about its business. With some bitter fighting between the Founding Fathers as they argued over what the new nation was going to be. But this bitter fighting was of the verbal kind. It wasn’t quite like that in France. There they attacked the Catholic Church. Seized its property. And sold it to the highest bidder. As France grew more radical. Where the radicals sat to the left in the legislative hall. And those supportive of the old ways and monarchy sat on the right. Giving us the political terms ‘left’ and ‘right’. Then the radicals turned against the monarchy. Created a constitutional monarchy to restrict the king’s power. Like they had in Britain. As the monarchy was assaulted the royal family tried to flee France in 1791. They were caught and returned to Versailles. Where they were put under house arrest.
Then the violence escalated. Food shortages continued. Prices continued to rise. King Louis and Marie Antoinette were guillotined in 1793. Control of France fell to the Committee of Public Safety. And new leaders rose up to take power. Including the radical journalist Jean-Paul Marat. Who was murdered in a bathtub by a woman in the opposition party. Georges Jacques Danton escalated the bloodletting by unleashing the Reign of Terror. Where anyone who was identified as an enemy of the people or was not quite enthusiastic enough about the revolution was sent to the guillotine. He was pretty bad. But then there was Maximilien François Marie Isidore de Robespierre. Who was real bad. In all during the Reign of Terror the Committee of Public Safety guillotined some 20 to 40 thousand people. Including Danton. And Robespierre. Live by the guillotine. Die by the guillotine.
The French overthrew their king quicker than the Americans overthrew their king. But the Americans quickly won their peace. Without killing 20-40 thousand of their people. Or their king. Whereas the French descended into anarchy. Even executed their king. Something that appalled George Washington. For though his motives were wrong and the Americans just rebelled against a monarch of their own, Louis provided the greatest aid to the Americans in their revolution. Which probably made it easier to maintain a policy of neutrality in the new war between France and Great Britain during the French Revolution and the Napoleonic wars that followed. Even favor the British in that policy of neutrality. For the vast majority of American trade was with the British Empire. And all of the agreements the Americans made with France during their Revolution they made with King Louis XVI. A man executed during the Reign of Terror. A period where the rule of law was thrown aside. By the same people who embraced the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.
Tags: American Revolution, anarchy, Assembly of Notables, Bastille, Bill of Rights, Calonne, clergy, Committee of Public Safety, commoners, Danton, Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, Estates-General, France, French, French Revolution, King Louis XVI, Lafayette, Louis XVI, Marat, monarchy, Montesquieu, National Assembly, Necker, nobility, Paris, radical, Reign of Terror, Robespierre, taxes, Tennis Court Oath, Third Estate, Versailles
Washington looked upon Hamilton, Madison and Jefferson as the Sons he Never Had
With the new Constitution ratified it was time to put the grand experiment into action. Beginning with America’s first presidential election. And the system we now call the Electoral College. Each state chose their electors. These electors then voted for the president. Even this first act of the new federal government was a safeguard to keep its power limited. (And independent of the Congress.) By keeping the new republican government from becoming a democracy. The mob-rule that was the ruin of republics. By putting intermediaries between the people and the most powerful person in America. The president. To prevent anyone rising to power simply by promising to shower riches on the people from the federal treasury.
George Washington did something no one has done since. He received 100% of the vote. Every elector voted for him for president. Unanimously. John Adams came in second. Each elector had two votes. One to cast for president. The other to cast for vice president. The one with the greatest number of votes was president. The one with the next most votes became vice president. As this was a time before party politics. There were no political parties yet. But there would be. And that would change the way we voted for president.
Both Washington and Adams were Federalists. They both supported the Constitution. And the federal government. As did the other Federalists. Including Alexander Hamilton. Who Washington selected as secretary of the treasury. And would be a major player in the Federalist camp. His fellow Federalist, James Madison, who coauthored the Federalist Papers with Hamilton (and John Jay) won election to the House of Representative. Where he introduced and fought for passage of the Bill of Rights. Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, was in Europe during the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification process of the Constitution. But he supported it as long as it included a bill of rights. Washington selected Jefferson for his secretary of state. Washington looked upon Hamilton, Madison and Jefferson as the sons he never had. And loved them as sons. But that would change.
Born out of Wedlock Hamilton was Never Accepted by those ‘Better’ than Him
Washington being the first president everything he did set a precedent. And he was very conscious of that. As well as his place in history. For he wanted to be remembered as America’s first president of many to come. Not the man who was at the helm when this experiment in self-government failed. This is why he created a cabinet quickly. Even though the Constitution included nothing about a cabinet. After commanding the Continental Army for 8 years he knew how to give orders and delegate authority. And after battling Congress during those same years he became a good administrator who understood how to compromise. He hated politics. But he understood politics. And knew it meant compromise on the little things. And standing resolute on the bigger things.
Hamilton was Washington’s aide-de-camp during the war. He was smart and understood commerce. During the war he wrote to Congress about the ruinous inflation crippling the economy. And starving the army. Proposing a national bank back then. Washington trusted and respected Hamilton. And valued his counsel. Which is why he made him his secretary of treasury. The country was in a mess. In debt. And it needed a plan to raise revenue. To pay for government. And to service that debt. Even just to understand the debt. For money was owed at every level of government. Which was what prompted the Philadelphia Convention in the first place. To put the nation on a sound footing to move forward. And there wasn’t a better person available than Hamilton. Who remains even today America’s greatest treasury secretary.
Hamilton was brilliant. And he had grand plans for the United States. He saw the potential in the new nation. And he wanted to use the power of government to hurry it along. He was also aggressive. And combative. Born out of wedlock he was never accepted by those ‘better’ than him. So he spent a lifetime fighting this social stigma. Acquiring a competitive nature. Making him unpopular. And obstinate. He fought long and hard for what he wanted. Knowing that he was right. And others were wrong. Even though this may have been true at times it tended to be off-putting. So Hamilton would spend his political career making political enemies. And it started in the Washington administration.
After Hamilton’s Three Reports James Madison parted ways with Hamilton and became an Anti-Federalist
While the Americans were setting up their first national government France was well along the way to the French Revolution. And Thomas Jefferson was there. Returning to the United States the same year of the Tennis Court Oath and the Storming of the Bastille (1789). The French had a taste of liberty from helping the Americans. And now they wanted it, too. France was drowning in debt. A bad growing season caused some famine. The people were restless. Poor. Angry. And sick of the monarchy. Jefferson felt the spirit of ’76 again. He joined the conversations in the clubs where the radicals met. Enjoying their company. Sharing their hate of monarchy. Despite the French Monarchy having financed most of the American Revolution. And provided much of the material to wage war. Didn’t matter. The people’s spirit inflamed him, too. And he brought that spirit home with him. Upon arrival Washington asked him to join his cabinet. He accepted. And the head butting began.
It started with Hamilton’s three reports. The Report on Public Credit (January 1790). The Report on a National Bank (December 1790). And the Report on Manufactures (December 1791). Taken together they kind of looked like a plan to turn the United States into another Great Britain. At least to Jefferson, Madison and anti-Federalists everywhere. What they saw was a nation with lots of debt, where the rich get a little too cozy with the politicians and the financiers reach deep into the halls of government. That wasn’t Hamilton’s intent. Other than wanting to accelerate the Industrial Revolution in American to the level it was in Britain. The subject of his third report. Which was a bit mercantilist in nature like Britain. But the other two were about establishing good credit. To gain the trust of the credit markets. For a country in debt had to be able to borrow money to service that debt. As well as pay for government. Putting the nation on that sound footing to move forward. Which he did. He lowered the per capita debt. And the nation would go on to enjoy a decade of peace and prosperity thanks to his economic policies.
After Hamilton’s three reports came the great schism. James Madison parted ways with Hamilton. Becoming an anti-Federalist. Along with Thomas Jefferson. While still a member of the Federalist administration of George Washington (though he didn’t label himself a Federalist or join in any partisan action). Cabinet meetings became insufferable. As Hamilton and Jefferson just hated each other. Who could only behave in the presence of their ‘father’. George Washington. But the partisan attacks took to the newspapers. Lies and slander flew with regularity. From both directions. Even attacking Washington. Jefferson eventually left the administration but continued his attacks through his surrogate James Madison. The attacks on Washington got so ugly that he never spoke to Jefferson again. Who turned into a radical partisan. Washington was never happier when his second term ended. The new president was John Adams. Federalist. His vice president was Thomas Jefferson. Leader of the anti-Federalists. Who became the new Democrat-Republicans. Which is why they had to change the election process for president. So the president and the vice president belonged to the same political party. So they worked together instead of leading the attack against each other and their party.
Tags: Adams, Alexander Hamilton, anti-Federalists, Bill of Rights, cabinet, Constitution, credit, debt, federal government, Federalists, France, French, French Revolution, George Washington, Hamilton, Hamilton's three reports, James Madison, Jefferson, John Adams, Madison, monarchy, national bank, Philadelphia Convention, politics, radical, republican government, Secretary of the Treasury, Thomas Jefferson, Washington
Had the Time of Kings Come to an End?
The British people grew weary of the war in America. And the cost. Many felt that the relationship between King George III and Lord North was a little too cozy. And a little too unconstitutional. John Dunning entered a motion in the House of Commons in 1780. Stating that “the power of the Crown has increased, is increasing, and ought to be diminished.” And the surrender of Cornwallis at Yorktown in 1781 didn’t improve the political climate. On March 20, 1782, Lord North resigned as Prime Minister. Even King George penned a letter of abdication. Though he never sent it. He did go mad for awhile. In 1788. But he got better.
They questioned the very idea of monarchy. Whether the time of kings had come to an end. It was done before. They got rid of the king following the English Civil War. Even executed him. King Charles I. And Parliament ruled without a king. Under Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector. After his New Model Army won the English Civil War for Parliament. And the New Model Army was loyal to Cromwell. Giving him a lot of power. As a standing army in peacetime is wont to do. Just like Caesar’s army crossing the Rubicon. Allowing Caesar to declare himself Roman emperor. Cromwell used his army to suppress the enemies of Parliament. And the enemies of the Protestant Church. But the government didn’t survive long after Cromwell’s death. And Britain would soon have a king again. Charles II. The son of the king they beheaded.
But things settled down in Britain. And King George remained king. Until 1820. Even though he lost about half of the British Empire. Giving up his Crown only in death. By natural causes, of course. Unlike that of Charles I. But things would not end well for another European monarch. In particular the one that helped America gain their liberty from the British Crown. The French king. Louis XVI. Whose country imploded under the cost of war. The peasants suffered through famine while the monarchy and the Church lived fairly well. Igniting the French Revolution in 1789. And it didn’t end well for King Louis. Or his wife Josephine. The French Revolutionaries beheaded them both. The time of kings had come to an end in France. Ditto for the Catholic Church. For awhile. Napoleon would rise up and declare himself emperor. Which is just like being a king. Marching to Paris at the head of his army. The source of his power. But it didn’t last. After Napoleon the French would bring back the monarchy.
History has Shown (and Continues to Show) that a Disgruntled Army is a Dangerous Army
So the American Revolution shook things up in Europe. Causing one monarchy to tremble. And another to fall. But it wasn’t smooth sailing in America, either. For winning the war was one thing. But governing the new nation was another. Would a new American nation arise? Or would the states abandon their common interests now that the common enemy was no more? Would Congress be able to keep the promises they made? Or now that the war was over would the states cease funding the Congress? Making it impossible to keep their promises. Like the pensions they promised those who served in the Continental Army. Who sacrificed so much to win America’s independence.
History has shown (and continues to show) that a disgruntled army is a dangerous army. A wronged army with a popular leader could very well seize power. And there was a real fear of this happening following the war. In 1783 some officers began a movement to demand what the Congress had promised them. Alexander Hamilton, then serving in Congress, became alarmed. And wrote General Washington. Asking him to advance these officers demands to prevent it from getting out of control. Washington refused to get involved. Then it escalated. Some were advocating more forceful measures. Calling for a meeting to discuss these measures. And General Horatio Gates supported this meeting. Gates was the general who won at Saratoga (but it was really Benedict Arnold and Daniel Morgan who won the day). Gates was involved in the Conway Cabal, an attempt to smear the reputation of General Washington in order to replace him. And Gates was, of course, a leading candidate to replace Washington. And General Gates suffered one of America’s most humiliating defeats at the Battle of Camden. Which he fled from on horseback. Fleeing until he fled some 60 miles from the battlefield. So Gates’ involvement spelled trouble.
An anonymous driver of the movement was urging the army to retire to the frontier if the war continued. To abandon an ungrateful people. Letting them meet their fate at the hands of the enemy. Or to turn their arms on that ungrateful people. To get what the Congress promised them. And more. Fearing a military coup General Washington issued an order forbidding the meeting Gates supported. Then called a meeting of his officers to discuss their grievances. And at this meeting General Washington once again saved the country. By his presence. His devotion to duty. And his failing eyesight. He pulled out a prepared speech and began to read. Then paused. He pulled out a pair of spectacles. An officer in that meeting recorded what happened. Major Samuel Shaw. Washington “begged the indulgence of his audience while he put them on, observing at the same time that he had grown gray in their service, and found himself growing blind.” There wasn’t a dry eye in the house after this. These guys still loved Washington. And would go to hell and back for him. If he wanted them to support the civilian government they would support the civilian government.
General Washington Submitted his Resignation and Returned to Civilian Life like Cincinnatus
Of course, having the army do whatever their leader asked could prove to be a problem, too. If that leader had designs on power. Especially when that leader had more power than any single man in the new nation. Washington may have defused one military coup. But a lot of people worried about his intentions. Especially when a lot of people were asking him to be king. Caesar may have been ancient history to some. But Oliver Cromwell and the New Model Army were not. Washington. A standing army. It made people nervous. Even foreign powers never believed that Washington would give it all up. Even King George. Who said if Washington refused to be king he would be “the greatest man in the world.”
The last of the British troops left New York on December 4, 1783. The war was truly over. It was time to go home. Washington had one last meeting with his officers. On the evening of the 22nd of December there was a ball in his honor. He danced until every lady had a chance to dance with the general. Then he addressed Congress on the 23rd of December. And became the greatest man in the world. By submitting his resignation. And returning to civilian life. A regular Cincinnatus. Called to serve his country. And after serving his country he surrendered all power to return to his farm.
The war was over. And it ended in peace. More the exception than the rule when it came to revolution. Thanks to George Washington. And the other Founding Fathers. Benjamin Franklin. John Adams. Alexander Hamilton. Thomas Jefferson. John Jay. And everyone else of that unique generation. Men of exceptional character. Who never sacrificed their principles. Or their sacred honor.
Tags: a disgruntled army is a dangerous army, Alexander Hamilton, American Revolution, British Crown, Caesar, Charles, Charles I, Church, Cincinnatus, civilian government, emperor, English Civil War, Founding Fathers, General Washington, George, Horatio Gates, John Dunning, king, King George III, King Louis XVI, Lord North, Louis XVI, monarchy, Napoleon, New Model Army, Oliver Cromwell, Parliament, standing army, time of kings
Washington’s Killing of Joseph Coulon de Jumonville Precipitated the Seven Years’ War
In the Revolutionary War the Americans were feeling out the French since hostilities broke out in 1775. For good reason. The French lost most of their North American possessions in their last war with Great Britain. The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763). Where the French were in Canada and in the great river valleys in the interior of North America. And the British were in what is now the U.S. east of the Appalachians. The British and their American colonists won that war. And took the French possessions. In fact, the American commander in the Revolutionary War, George Washington, opened hostilities against the French in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). Which precipitated the subsequent world war. The Seven Years’ War.
As the French and the British expanded their territories in North America they eventually bumped into each other. And it was in the Ohio Country that the name George Washington entered our history books. Then only a major. Governor Dinwiddie of Virginia sent Washington into the Ohio Country to tell the French to kindly vacate their posts in the area. The French refused. Washington returned to Virginia. Governor Dinwiddie sent him back to the Ohio Country to protect a fort the Ohio Company was building at present day Pittsburg. Before he got there a French force had chased out the British. And then began building Fort Duquesne for their own post at present day Pittsburg.
While on the march to what was now going to be Fort Duquesne Washington’s Indian allies discovered a small French force led by Joseph Coulon de Jumonville. Which the Americans and their Indian allies ambushed. The facts are a little hazy about what exactly happened but Jumonville ended up dead. And the French blamed Washington. Said that he killed a diplomat who was doing exactly what Washington had done earlier. Trying to reach a foreign power with a diplomatic message about the Ohio Country. Only the French didn’t kill Washington. As Washington (or someone under his command) had killed Jumonville. Both sides debated the truth for a long time to come. But the French response was to attack the nearby Fort Necessity that Washington built to keep an eye on Fort Duquesne. Captured Washington and his men. But then let them go. And shortly thereafter France and Great Britain declared war on each other. To settle the Ohio Country question. As well as other outstanding issues between the two great powers. Which precipitated the Seven Years’ War. That didn’t end well for the French.
The French hoped to Dictate the Terms of Peace once the Americans won the Revolutionary War
Flash forward some twenty years and here were the Americans feeling out the French to help them in their cause. So they could gain their independence from Great Britain. So they could control the Ohio Country. And other parts of North America. Whose military was led by the guy that killed Joseph Coulon de Jumonville. And started the war that lost France her North American possessions. Which created a very interesting political picture.
The French hated the British. That goes without saying. For they gave the French a humiliating defeat. But the British had help from their British North American colonists to win that fight. Who also helped to take away not only the Ohio Country but New France itself. All of Quebec. And the Surrounding areas of the St. Lawrence Seaway and the Great Lakes. So would they enter into another costly war with Great Britain? To help someone obtain their independence from Britain’s constitutional monarchy? Would the French, an absolute monarchy, help the Americans? Of course they would. If the Americans could just impress them enough that they might win this thing. So the French wouldn’t risk losing anything more to the British.
Well the French were impressed with the American win at Saratoga. And they joined the Americans. Made some treaties with them that were favorable to the French. And hoped that once they won that it would be the French who would dictate the terms of the peace. For one of their conditions of joining the Americans was that there would be no separate peace between the Americans and the British. No. That peace would involve the French. As the French were already going into great debt helping the Americans in every way short of fighting alongside of them, they were going to make sure they got a favorable return on their investment when taking that last step.
When Aid came it was not to Support the Americans but to Gain Something from their Common Enemy, the British Empire
After negotiating this treaty the French turned to the Spanish. Another longtime foe of Great Britain. And who still had sizeable possessions in the New World. From South America all the way up the Pacific coast to California. And up through Mexico all the way through the Mississippi River and surrounding areas. That big chunk of North America between the Mississippi and the Rocky Mountains we called the Louisiana Territory. And parts of southern Florida they ceded to Great Britain in the last war that they wanted back. So unlike the French the Spanish worried more about the Americans than the British. Especially their southern and western boundaries. But the French made their case anyway.
France’s foreign minister, the Comte de Vergennes, said the Spanish had much to lose if the Americans lost. For a strong British presence in North America would eventually threaten California. And her other possessions. Great Britain was the threat. Not the Americans. Who had no Army, Navy or manufacturing base that could threaten Spain’s North American possessions. At least, not in the immediate future. Whereas the British did. So it was in Spanish interests to help the Americans. And weaken the British Empire.
Well, the Spanish were all for weakening the British Empire. But they didn’t trust the ambition of the Americans. They still saw them as the immediate threat to Spanish territory in North America. Besides, the whole idea about rebelling against sovereign authority didn’t sit well with them. Sovereigns had sacred rights to their territory. They may not have liked the British but they believed in those sacred rights. Especially when they were holding a lot of territory in the New World. And the idea about supporting a people in their rebellion against their sovereign was risky business. It just might give their own people ideas. They would enter the war. But not in an American alliance. They made a treaty with the French. Offered little to the Americans in blood or treasure. Then declared war on Great Britain. Her immediate goal being Gibraltar. The southern tip of the Spanish peninsula. That the British had taken in a previous war.
As the Americans approached other European nations the result was pretty much the same. When aid came it was not so much to support the Americans. But to gain something from their common enemy. The British Empire. Most European nations stayed out of the war. At most joining in the League of Armed Neutrality to protect their commercial trade. To protect their ships from the Royal Navy trying to prevent arms and supplies reaching America. Though this didn’t help the Americans in the short run. It did make the war far more costly for the British. Which helped the Americans in the long run.
Tags: Americans, British, British Empire, California, European, Fort Duquesne, Fort Necessity, French, French and Indian War, George Washington, Gibraltar, Governor Dinwiddie, Great Britain, independence, Joseph Coulon de Jumonville, Jumonville, League of Armed Neutrality, Louisiana Territory, monarchy, North America, Ohio Country, Pittsburg, Revolutionary War, sacred rights, Seven Years War, sovereign, sovereign authority, Spanish, Washington
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