Uninterruptible Power Supply

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 12th, 2014

Technology 101

The Battery in a Laptop is basically an Uninterruptible Power Supply (UPS)

When working on a personal computer (PC) you’ve probably learned to save your work.  Often.  So if something happens you won’t lose your data.  For there is nothing more frustrating than writing a report off the top of your head without notes only to suffer a power interruption.  And if you didn’t save your work often everything you typed after the last time you did save your work will be lost.  Forever.

Of course if you were working on a laptop you wouldn’t have to worry about losing your work.  Even if you didn’t save it.  Why?  Because of the battery.  Laptops are portable.  We use them often times where there are no power outlets.  Running them, instead, on the internal battery.  Some models even let you change a battery with a low charge to a freshly charged battery without shutting down your laptop.  Which extends the time you can work without being plugged in.

The battery in a laptop is basically an uninterruptible power supply (UPS).  You can work on a laptop while plugged into an AC outlet.  But if someone trips over the cord and pulls it out of the outlet the laptop will switch over to the battery.  And the only way you would know there was a power interruption is if it was yanked off your lap when the person tripped on the cord.  Because thanks to that battery the computer itself never knew there was a power interruption.

The Main Components of an Offline/Standby UPS are a Charger, a Battery and an Inverter

A PC doesn’t come with a built in battery like the laptop.  But we can add one externally.  Which a lot of people have done.  Not only to prevent the loss of data.  But to protect the electronics inside their PC and other sensitive electronic equipment.  Like a monitor.  A cable modem.  A router.  Even a big screen television.  As sensitive electronic equipment can only operate safely in a narrow band of voltages.  And really don’t like things like surges and spikes coming in on the electrical utility line from a lightning strike.  Or under-voltages on hot summer days when everyone in the neighborhood is running their air conditioners.

A UPS can provide a battery backup.  And it can protect your sensitive electronic equipment from surges, spikes and under-voltages.  Which can cause great harm.  Something those surge protected plug-strips can’t protect you from.  They may take a spike or two.  But they are passive devices.  And can do nothing to protect you from an under-voltage (i.e., a brownout).  Only a UPS can.  Of which there are three major types.  Offline/standby.  Line-interactive.  And Online/double-conversion.

An offline/standby UPS is the least expensive and simplest.  The main components inside the UPS are a charger, a battery and an inverter.  It plugs into an AC outlet.  And the devices you want to protect with it plug into the UPS.  If the input voltage (the voltage at the AC outlet) is within a safe range the AC outlet powers your devices.  Also, the UPS controls circuit will monitor the battery voltage.  If it is too low the controls will turn on the charger and it will charge the battery.  When the voltage on the battery is at the level it should be the controls disconnect the charger.  If the UPS controls detect an over-voltage, an under-voltage or a power loss an internal switch disconnects the AC outlet from your devices.  And connects them to the inverter.  A device that converts the DC voltage from the battery into an AC voltage for your equipment.  It will power your devices from a few minutes to up to a half hour (or more) depending on the power requirements of your devices and the battery size.  If the voltage at the AC outlet returns to normal the internal switch will disconnect the devices from the inverter.  And reconnect them to the AC outlet.  If there is a complete power loss you will have time to save your work and safely power down.

The Online/Double-Conversion provides the Best Power Protection for your most Sensitive Electronics

An offline/standby UPS is an efficient unit as it only consumes power when it charges or switches to the battery.  However, switching to the battery every time there is an over-voltage or under-voltage can shorten the battery life.  A problem the line-interactive UPS doesn’t have.  Because it doesn’t switch to the battery every time there is a power fluctuation in the input power.  The line-interactive UPS is basically an offline/standby UPS with an additional component.  An autotransformer.  Which is basically a transformer with a single winding and multiple secondary taps.  If the input power is within the safe range the voltage in equals the voltage out of the autotransformer.  If the input voltage is too high the controls will switch the output to a different secondary tap that will lower the voltage back to the safe range.  If there is an under-voltage the controls will switch the output to a tap that will raise the voltage back to a safe range.  So that these over and under voltages will be corrected by the autotransformer and not the battery.  Which will remain disconnect from the load devices during these autotransformer corrections.  Thus increasing battery life.

The offline/standby UPS is a little more costly but it will have a longer battery life.  And it will also be efficient as it will take minimum power for the controls to switch the taps on the autotransformer.  But if you want the best power protection for your most sensitive electronic equipment you will get that with the more costly and less efficient online/double-conversion UPS.  This UPS is different.  It takes the power from the AC outlet and converts it into DC voltage.  It then takes this DC voltage and produces a pure AC voltage from it.  Free from any voltage irregularities.  Completely isolating your sensitive electronic equipment from the dangers on the electric grid.  For the electrical loads are not normally connected directly to the AC outlet.  They are always connected to the AC output of the inverter.  Which makes this unit the least efficient of the three as it is always consuming power to power the connected loads.

The battery is always connected in the online/double-conversion UPS.  So in a blackout there is no switching required to transfer the loads to the battery. Making for a seamless transition to battery backup.  Of course, sometimes the electrical components inside the UPS malfunction or fail.  In that case the UPS can switch the loads directly to the AC outlet.  Should imperfect power be better than no power.  They will also have an isolation bypass switch.  So you can switch these units directly to the AC source to service the UPS components.  Which may be necessary due to one drawback of the online/double-conversion UPS.  Because the components are always consuming power they generate more heat than the other two types.  Requiring additional cooling to keep these units operating safely.  But they can overheat and breakdown.  Which makes an isolation bypass switch handy to service these while still powering the connected loads.

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Thieves are Stealing Medical Equipment and Personal Information from the NHS

Posted by PITHOCRATES - September 29th, 2012

Week in Review

Thomas Jefferson did not like having money and government get too close.  Because history is strewn with examples of corruption whenever money and government come together.  From padding the federal payroll to spending money to buying votes to outright graft.  Which is why Thomas Jefferson would have opposed Obamacare.  For he would have thought it was not the federal government’s business to provide health care.  And he definitely would not have wanted the federal government spending that kind of tax money.

We spend a lot on health care.  About $2.6 trillion today.  And another bad thing about spending that kind of money?  Government bureaucrats just aren’t that good at it.  So you know Obamacare won’t be as good as the health care provided by the private sector.  Just look at what’s happening in the UK to see the future of Obamacare when the government takes responsibility for $2.6 trillion in health care spending (see The great hospital robbery: Defibrillators, baby heart monitors, even beds – thieves are walking out of NHS wards with vital equipment by John Naish posted 9/24/2012 on Mail Online).

The great hospital robbery: Defibrillators, baby heart monitors, even beds – thieves are walking out of NHS wards with vital equipment…

Experts suggest they are spiriting it abroad, to Eastern Europe or even as far afield as Iraq and Afghanistan.

And, shockingly, NHS staff are sometimes involved, acting as an ‘inside man’.

But if such thefts are not scandalous enough in themselves, NHS chiefs appear to be so blasé about the losses they don’t even have a national picture of how much equipment is being stolen, let alone a comprehensive anti-theft strategy…

To make matters worse, NHS trusts can’t claim for the stolen property, says Sarah Bailey of the Association of British Insurers.

‘The NHS does not tend to take out commercial insurance policies. Instead, it “self-insures”, which means it absorbs the cost of its losses, rather than taking out policies that could be expensive.’

As she points out: ‘Ultimately, it could be the taxpayer who funds those losses.’

Of course government bureaucrats aren’t going to get excited about theft.  Why should they care?  It’s not their money.  And it’s not their job.  Besides the losses won’t come out of anyone’s pay.  They’ll just pass the losses on to the taxpayers.  Something they can’t do in the private sector.  Which is why they take loss prevention a bit more seriously in the private sector.  Because there is accountability in the private sector.  And profits.  So they put people in places to minimize anything that will reduce those profits.  Like theft.  Something the NHS appears to be not overly concerned about.  Pity.  For they are stealing more than just medical equipment.

Laptops used by hospital staff are the most frequent target of hospital thieves, which could mean millions of people’s personal details and medical records have fallen into the hands of criminals.

In June last year, for example, NHS North Central London admitted that an apparently unencrypted laptop, containing details of more than eight million patients, was one of 20 machines reported stolen from a storeroom.

When computer thefts result in the loss of sensitive information on patients, this has to be reported to the Information Commissioner’s Office (ICO), the independent public authority set up to uphold information rights.

Figures from the ICO show that the NHS is the top sector for such losses, with significantly more incidents than the whole of the private sector put together…

And this is the future under Obamacare.  Greater inefficiencies because of theft.  And greater theft of personal information.  Which there will be a lot of available to steal as Obamacare digitizes all our medical records.  So as we move to national health care it will cost more and we will get less.  As they spend a lot of our tax dollars to replace stolen equipment thanks to the lackadaisical attitude of the government bureaucrats in charge of Obamacare.  While we spend more to replace what others steal from us thanks to their lackadaisical attitude about securing our personal information.

Sure, some say Obamacare will do better than the NHS.  But to them I say the NHS probably does national health care better than most.  And after doing it since 1948 they’ll be able to do it better than the Americans will be able to do it just starting out.  Only it will be a lot harder than it was in 1948.  Thanks to an aging population raising the cost of health care.  And the sophistication of the bad guys in stealing from the system.  No.  Obamacare will be a far cry from the NHS.  So as bad as anything is in the NHS just remember that Obamacare will probably never be that good.

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