The Lateen-Rigged Sail allows Ships to Maneuver onto the Prevailing Winds Superhighways
Oceans are deep. Allowing ships to cross them without fear of striking bottom. Which helped the age of sail. As sailors could use the prevailing winds to fill large masts of square-rigged sails to blow them across oceans. Sailing to the New World with the trade winds (near the equator) and polar easterlies (near the poles) filling their sails. And sailing from the New World with the westerlies (in the middle latitudes in both hemispheres) filling their sails. The deep oceans let these sailing vessels move unrestricted to find the best wind.
That is, once these sailing vessels got to the proper latitude. Getting there they had to use another kind of sail. A lateen-rigged sail. A triangular sail with a leading edge that cut into the wind. Splitting the wind so part of it filled the sail. The sail blew out and redirected the wind to the stern of the ship. While the wind passing over the top of the curved sail created lift. Like on an aircraft wing. Pulling the ship forward. This allows a wind blowing in from the side of a ship to propel it forward. Which allows a sailing vessel to sail into the wind. By sailing in a zigzag path. Or beating. After sailing in one direction they come about. Or tack. Turning the bow through the wind so it blows in from the other side of the ship.
The wide open and deep oceans let these sailing vessels maneuver at will to catch the wind. Propelling them forward at speed. Without fear of grounding out on the bottom. Taking them to the great superhighways across the oceans. To the trade winds and polar easterlies to sail west. And to the westerlies to sail east. Where these winds could fill multiple squared-rigged sails on a single mast. On ships with multiple masts. Allowing them to catch a lot of wind. And to drive them forward to their destination.
Channel Markers and Buoys are Color-Coded telling Ship Captains ‘Red Right Returning’
Of course it’s these destinations that really matter. For sailing around in the middle of the ocean is worthless unless you can load and unload cargo somewhere. Getting to these ports was a little trickier. Because it required sailing closer to land. Where the ocean floor rises up quickly from great depths. Making sailing near shores hazardous. As hidden shoals and reefs hide just below the surface. Threatening to cut a deep gash in a ship’s hull. Or a ship could run aground in the shallows. Where they may have to wait for a rising tide to free them. All the while risking being damaged by any storm that blew in.
The first sailors who arrived in the New World had no navigational aids like we do today. Often having to rely on the experience of a grizzled captain who could see and smell dangers in the water. Or they dropped anchor away from the shore and explored the coast in smaller boats to sound out sea approaches to a deep-water harbor. As time passed lighthouses dotted the shoreline. And other navigational aids guided ship captains. To warn them of dangerous waters. And show safe channels to navigate. Channel markers and buoys are color-coded. With paint for day navigation. And lights for night navigation. In the New World (and Japan, South Korea and the Philippines) the colors are red and green. When entering a harbor or river from the sea the red is kept on the right of a ship. Mariners learn this with the memory device ‘red right returning’.
When the French sailed up the Saint Lawrence River they founded the oldest walled-city in North America. Quebec City. They then sailed as far upstream as they could. Founding the city of Montreal. Going beyond Montreal required portaging around the rapids at Montreal. And a few others until they got to Lake Ontario. Where they could re-embark ships and sail across Lake Ontario and into the Niagara River. Where they had to portage around the rapids. And Niagara Falls. Where they once again could re-embark ships and enter Lake Erie. Then sail up the Detroit River. Across Lake St. Clair. Up the St. Clair River. And into Lake Huron. Where they could sail through the Straits of Mackinac and into Lake Michigan. Or up the St. Marys River. Where they could portage around the rapids in the St. Marys River. Reentering the river upstream of the rapids to let them sail into Lake Superior. Where they could sail all the way to Minnesota. And take on iron ore. Mined from the great iron ore deposits beyond Lake Superior. To feed the blast furnaces of America’s steel industry.
A Lock consists of a Chamber with Watertight Gates at each end and some Valves
Of course, iron ore is heavy. As is a lot of the bulk freight shipping on the Great Lakes. Making those portages around rapids and falls difficult and costly. They needed to find a better way. And they have. Which is why Great Lakes freighters can travel from the western end of Lake Superior to the Saint Lawrence River. And ocean-going freighters can enter the Saint Lawrence River and travel to the western end of Lake Superior. Without a single portage. Thanks to canals. And locks.
A canal provides a passage around rapids or falls. And locks in the canal can raise or lower a ship to the water level at either side of the rapids or falls. Getting around the rapids between Montreal and Lake Ontario and in the St. Marys River didn’t require long canals. Just enough to provide a passage around the rapids. The Niagara River posed a bigger problem. For there were both rapids. And Niagara Falls. As well as a great change in water levels. The level in Lake Erie is 326.5 feet above the level in Lake Ontario. As the typical lock doesn’t raise and lower water 326.5 feet one lock just wasn’t a solution. So they used 8 (7 for raising and lowering ships and the 8th as a control lock). And dug a canal across the Niagara peninsula. The Welland Canal. From Port Weller on Lake Ontario to Port Colborne on Lake Erie. Interconnected by 26 miles of canal. Allowing fully loaded bulk freighters to travel between Lakes Erie and Ontario. And ocean-going freighters to travel from the Atlantic ocean (and the world beyond) to the western end of Lake Superior.
So how does a lock work? Are there massive pumps to pump in water to raise a ship? No. There are no pumps. Just a couple of valves. A lock consists of a chamber with watertight gates at each end. The gates swing open towards the upstream side. When they close they form an 18-degree angle that points upstream. So when the water level is higher on the upstream side the force of the water presses the gates closed and makes a watertight seal. When the water level is equal on both sides of the gate they can easily open the gates. When a ship enters a lock both gates seal. If they are lowering a ship they open valves between the chamber and the canal on the downstream side. The high water level inside the chamber drains until the water levels equalize. If they are raising a ship they open valves between the chamber and the canal on the upstream side. Water from the canal enters the chamber until the water levels equalize. Then the appropriate gate opens and the ship goes on its way. A very simple and low-tech process. Allowing ships with deep drafts to travel the oceans. Rivers. And inland lakes. Thanks to navigational aids. Canals. And locks.
Tags: bulk freighters, buoys, canal, canals, chamber, channel markers, Gates, Great Lakes, Lake Superior, lateen-rigged sail, lock, locks, navigational aids, New World, Niagara Falls, Niagara River, ocean, polar easterlies, prevailing winds, red right returning, sailing vessels, sails, Saint Lawrence River, squared-rigged sail, trade winds, valves, watertight gates, Welland Canal, westerlies
Rent-Seeking Captains of Industry and Commerce give Capitalism a Bad Name
Once upon a time you lived, worked and died all within a short walk from each other. In feudalism people owned land and lived well. The landed aristocracy. And other people (the peasants) worked the land. But did not live as well as those who owned it. For it was back-breaking work for long hours with no respite except in death. For those who worked the land belonged to the land. Just as the trees and fields and rivers did. Peasants belonged to the land and the land belonged to the landowner. The peasants couldn’t leave. And they couldn’t work hard to provide a better life for their children. For they were bond to the land as their patents were. With no choice but to work the land like their parents did.
This was how life was before we started to use power to make our work easier. We had long been using animal power to do things we didn’t have the strength or the endurance to do. Such as pulling a plow. Or a wagon full of goods. Or to travel great distances more quickly than we could by walking. Harnessing the power of moving water changed all of that. For a river moves constantly. And when you place a waterwheel in moving water you can convert the linear motion of the water into rotational motion. This rotational motion could turn a main shaft running though a factory. Belts and pulleys could transfer this power to workstations throughout the factory floor. And these powered workstations could do far more work than a person could. Lumberjacks could transport logs down a river to a lumber mill. Where a waterwheel could spin a saw that made lumber out of those logs at such a rate that great cities could arise around these mills. Cities with other factories powered by waterwheels. And homes.
So it’s no surprise that our early cities grew up on rivers. Both for water power. And the ability to use them to ship bulk goods. Ship transport. Something even animals weren’t good at. It is in these cities that wealth and political power grew. Centers of industry and commerce. Creating great wealth for those who controlled the resources that made all of that possible. So another aristocracy grew. Rent-seeking captains of industry and commerce. Who give capitalism a bad name. Who use their political power to maximize their profits. And buy favors from those in power to protect their particular interests. Such as using the power of government to create monopolies for themselves. But advancing technology made that harder to do. Especially the steam engine. And the railroad.
The Steel and Heavy Manufacturing Industries required a Massive Infrastructure and Regionally Located Raw Materials
Control of rivers, ports and harbors provided a great opportunity to amass wealth at other people’s expense. For when economic activity centered on water it made land around that water very valuable. Which concentrated wealth and power on the rivers. Until the steam engine replaced the waterwheel. And the railroad provided a way to transport people and goods inland. So not only did cities grow up along the waterways they grew up along the rail lines. Those controlling these resources still had great wealth and power. But they also offered competition. And more economic liberty. For while there can only be one Tennessee River flowing through Chattanooga, Tennessee, there can be more than one railroad running through Chattanooga. Which made Chattanooga an important city to hold during the American Civil War. For there was a great rail junction in that city. Giving anyone who controlled the city access to any part of the Confederacy.
While the steam engine and railroad allowed industries to grow anywhere in the country some industries still clustered in regional areas. Such as the steel industry. It required three ingredients to make steel. Iron ore, coke (coal cooked into hard charcoal briquettes) and limestone. To make steel you use 6 parts iron ore, 2 parts coke and 1 part limestone. Iron ore was plentiful around Lake Superior. Because it takes a lot of iron ore and a lot of iron ore is located around Lake Superior the steel makers built their mills long the Great Lakes. In Milwaukee. Chicago. Gary. Detroit. Toledo. Cleveland. Or in places like Pittsburgh where coal and iron ore deposits surround the city. These cities made up the Manufacturing Belt. Places with access to bulk ore shipping (on Great Lakes freighter or river barge). And where the steel mills arose so did heavy industry that built things from that steel. From structural steel. To automobiles.
For a while these new industries dominated the economic landscape. Big, heavy industries that couldn’t move. Concentrating money and political power. Giving rise to organized labor. Who took advantage of the fact that these heavy industries could not move. Negotiating lucrative union contracts. With generous pay and benefits. Raising the price of steel and the things we made from steel. Like automobiles. Making the rank and file like rent-seekers of old. Looking to personally benefit from their near-monopoly conditions. Like those early captains of industry and commerce. Life was good for awhile for the rank and file. Who lived very well. And better than most American workers. Thanks to those monopoly-like conditions in these steel and heavy manufacturing industries. Allowing them to charge high prices for their goods to pay for those generous pay and benefits. As there was no competition. For the steel and heavy manufacturing industries required a massive infrastructure and an abundant supply of regionally located raw materials, making it very difficult for a new competitor to open for business. At least, in the United States.
High Costs and Low Efficiencies have shuttered most of America’s Steel Making Past
Foreign competition changed all that. And large ocean-going ships. So new industries in other countries with lower labor costs could manufacture these goods and ship them to the United States. And did. Challenging the monopoly-like conditions of the rent-seeking steel and heavy manufacturing industries. So the rent-seekers turned to government for protection. And got it. Import tariffs. Which raised the price of those imported goods to the higher price level of the domestic goods. Which did two things. Insulated the domestic manufacturers from market pressures allowing them to continue with the status quo. And forced the foreign manufacturers to find less costly and more efficient ways to make their goods to counter those import tariffs.
So what happened? Technology advanced in these industries overseas while they stagnated in the US. The US didn’t invest in new technologies like they did in the previous century to find better ways to do things. Because they didn’t have to. While the foreign competitors worked harder to find better ways to do things. Because they had to. As they weren’t insulated from market forces. The Japanese invested in robotics. Transforming their auto industry. Improving quality and lowering costs. Making their cars as good if not better than the Americans did. And selling them at a competitive price even with those import protections. So what did these US actions to protect the domestic manufacturers do? Changed the Manufacturing Belt to the Rust Belt.
The big steel cities in America are no more. High costs and low efficiencies have shuttered most of America’s steel making past. Gone is the era of the sprawling steel mill. Today it’s the minimill and continuous casting. Small and efficient steel mills with small labor forces that can make small batches. Thanks to their electric arc furnaces that are easy to turn on and off. Unlike the big blast furnaces that took a while to reach operating temperatures and when they did they didn’t shut them down for years. Making it difficult to adjust to falling demand. Like the minimills could. Which helped save the steel industry by finally adopted technology that allowed it to sell at market prices. Making it harder for the rent-seekers these days. But better for consumers. Because of this relentless march of technology. That allows us to continuously find better ways to do things.
Tags: animal power, capitalism, captains of industry and commerce, coke, factory, find better ways to do things, generous pay and benefits, Great Lakes, heavy industry, industry and commerce, Iron ore, Lake Superior, Limestone, Manufacturing Belt, monopolies, rail lines, railroad, rent-seeking, rotational motion, Rust Belt, ship transport, steam engine, steel, steel industry, water power, waterwheel, wealth and power