Saint-Domingue Slave Rebellion, Great Migration and 1967 Detroit Race Riot

Posted by PITHOCRATES - July 23rd, 2013

History 101

The Brutal Slave Rebellion on Saint-Domingue created Haiti and opened the Door to the American West

Haiti was born from a slave rebellion.  Inspired by the French Revolution, which was inspired by the American Revolution, the slaves on Saint-Domingue could taste the liberty in the air.  The slaves outnumbered the whites on the island.  And when they rose in rebellion in 1791 their white overlords were powerless to stop them.  The slaves massacred the white planters.  Those lucky enough to survive fled the island.  The French tried to reestablish control.  Then they went to war again against the British.  Which complicated matters.  And led to a British invasion of Saint-Domingue.

Toussaint Louverture, a former slave, and educated, eventually led the now former slaves to victory.  And won the peace.  He invited the planters back.  Replaced slave-labor with paid-labor.  Reestablished trade with Great Britain.  And the new United States.  While the French did away with slavery in their colonial possessions.  For a while.  During the convulsions going on in France following the French Revolution there were many changes in government.  And the government in 1802 lent a sympathetic ear to the former white planters who wanted their plantations back.  And their slaves.  Napoléon Bonaparte, interested in reestablishing New France in North America, sent a military force to take back Saint-Domingue.  Who captured and sent Toussaint Louverture back to France.  But things did not go well for the French.

Jean-Jacques Dessalines continued the fight in Louverture’s place.  A determined enemy, and Yellow Fever, were too much for the French.  They pulled out their remaining soldiers.  Gave up on Saint-Domingue.  And on New France in North America.  Causing another exodus from the island.  And if you ever wonder why New Orleans is so French this is why.  A lot of those fleeing Haiti settled in New Orleans.  Doubling the city’s population.  Needing money to continue the war against Great Britain Napoléon offered to sell the Louisiana Territory, the thick center part of the United States between Texas and Canada, to Thomas Jefferson.  And did.  So the brutal slave rebellion on Saint-Domingue not only created Haiti.  It gave the Americans the Mississippi River and its tributaries.  The Mississippi Valley.  The Great Plains.  And opened the door to the West.

The Great Migration brought some 6 Million Blacks from the Rural South to Northern Factories

But that brutal slave rebellion did something else.  It made the southern planters nervous.  Over half of the 40,000 white colonists were killed during that slave rebellion.  A fact that weighed heavily on the minds of the highly outnumbered white planter class in the South.  Who lived in fear of a similar slave rebellion happening in the United States.  Which lead to a more oppressive control over their slaves.  So they could snuff out any rebellion at the first sign of trouble.  And there was a reversal of policy.  The Founding Fathers had shelved the issue of slavery for 20 years to get the South to join the new nation.  Believing that the institution of slavery would die out on its own.  And in the following two decades some slave owners were freeing a slave or two.  But that all stopped following the revolution in Saint-Domingue.  When the life of a slave went from bad to worse.  For the last thing the white planter class needed was a Toussaint Louverture in their midst.

By the time of the American Civil War the slave population had grown much larger.  Which added another element to the Civil War.  Especially for the South.  The North was fighting for a noble purpose.  To free the slaves.  And fulfilling the declaration that all men were created equal in the Declaration of Independence.  But what then?  What happens after the North wins the Civil War?  And they free the slaves?  Where are the slaves going to go?  Back to Africa?  Even the ones who have no idea what or where Africa was?  Having been born and raised in the United States?  No.  They weren’t.  They were going to remain in the South.  Nothing would change in the North.  But life in the South would be changed into something that just didn’t exist.  A biracial society.  Worse, this was going to be a biracial society where the majority was once brutally oppressed by the minority.  Thanks in large part to the slave rebellion on Saint-Domingue.

With this backdrop the odds for a peaceful reconstruction were slim.  The South did not adjust well to the new reality.  There were fears.  Anger.  And the old prejudices.  While in the North life went on as it always did.  Predominantly white.  And industrializing.  Creating more and more factory jobs.  That drew immigrants to the industrial north.  As it drew southern blacks.  Leading up to the Great Migration.  From 1910-1930.  Pausing during the Great Depression and World War II.  And picking up again from 1940-1970.  When some 6 million blacks left the rural south.  And headed to the jobs in the big cities in the Northeast.  The Midwest.  And the West.  Working and living in the big cities.  Like Detroit.

The 1967 Detroit Race Riot accelerated the White Flight from the City which decimated the Tax Base

Detroit dominated following the post-war period.  It was an economic powerhouse.  Thanks to a booming automotive industry.  And a war-torn Europe and Asia.  Whose industrial capacity suffered greatly from Allied bombing.  Leaving the motor city the auto capital of the world.  And making Detroit one of the richest cities in the nation.  With their population peaking in 1950.  As people came to the city for those manufacturing jobs.  But the housing did not keep up with the growth in population.  Blacks and immigrants often faced discrimination.  Getting the worst jobs.  And the worst housing.  Things that changed in the Sixties.  Thanks in large part to a shift of the auto industry out of Detroit.

Following World War II Packard, Hudson, and Studebaker went out of business.  And the Big Three went on a building spree.  In the suburbs.  And a lot of white Detroiters followed them.  Relieving the housing pressure a little.  Allowing a black middle class to grow.  But the suburbs kept growing.  As businesses moved their jobs to the suburbs that were a little more business friendly.  With sprawling spaces for new factories.  And a brand new interstate highway system to easily ship material and parts from one to another.  The same interstate highway system that converged four expressways in the city of Detroit.  Destroying a lot of neighborhoods.  Which were predominantly black.

Many of those displaced people moved to the 12th Street area.  An area that become twice as crowded as the city average.  Unemployment was rising.  As was crime.  Including prostitution.  Where white johns were coming to the neighborhood to solicit black prostitutes.  A big complaint of the black community.  So the police cracked down on prostitution.  And a black prostitute ended up dead.  The people blamed the cops.  The cops blamed a pimp.  Tensions were rising.  Then on July 23, 1967, the police raided a blind pig.  An unlicensed after-hours bar.  On the corner of 12th Street and Clairmount.  Where a party of some 80 people were celebrating the return of two soldiers just back home from the Vietnam War.  The cops arrested them all.  While they were waiting for the paddy wagon to take them away a crowd formed outside.  Someone threw a bottle at a cop.  And thus began the 1967 Detroit race riot.  Which only accelerated the white flight from Detroit.  Caused an exodus of jobs, too.  As businesses fled the city.  Which just decimated the tax base.  Accelerating the urban decay.  Soon the black middle class followed the whites.  In pursuit of those jobs.  And to escape the dying city.  Which it did in 2013.  Die.  Figuratively.  By filing the largest municipal bankruptcy in U.S. history.

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FT120: “Give a man a fish and he can eat for a day; give him a job and he can have an obesity problem.” -Old Pithy

Posted by PITHOCRATES - June 1st, 2012

Fundamental Truth

In Warfare Starvation and Famine are the most Potent of Weapons

Starvation and famine has plagued mankind since the dawn of time.  It was the driving force in evolution.  Those who took control of their food supply lived.  Those who didn’t disappeared from the evolutionary path.  Like Neanderthal.  And those who came before him.  Our earliest civilizations massed their populations to farm.  And the masses lived in cities.  Setting down roots and saying goodbye to their hunting and gathering ways.  In the Wei River valley.  In the Indus River valley.  The valleys of the Euphrates and Tigris.  In the Nile River valley.  Where modern life took root.  Produced our first food surpluses.  And gave birth to urban life.  And the middle class.

The rise of the middle class allowed civilization to flourish.  For every person that didn’t have to produce food could do something else.  Build better tools.  Create a better government.  Create art.  In general, think about other things.  Those other things that made humans different.  By giving us a more interesting life.  And more sophisticated ways to express ourselves.

But this growth was a double-edged sword.  For large urban populations that made life more enjoyable was also a great threat to the food supply.  A cool and wet summer could destroy crops.  Poor food storage could spoil the food surplus.  A war could see an enemy purposely destroy your crops and your food surplus.  Causing famine.  Where half or your city population could easily die before the next harvest.  Or more.  Especially if the famine resulted from an act of war.   As an act of genocide.  To clear people off land that others want to use for their own food needs.  Which was Hitler’s plan in Russia.  To take the food from the Ukraine.  Kill the indigenous population.  And replace them with Nazis.  Thus creating more living space for the Third Reich.  Or Lebensraum.    Because in warfare starvation and famine are the most potent of weapons.

History has shown that the most Food-Abundant Countries are the most Capitalistic

England led the way in agricultural advances.  Increasing crop yields such that small tracts of land could support greater populations.  As well as produce such huge food surpluses that they had food to export.  As the British Empire spread across the globe so did their advanced agricultural ways.  During the 19th century starvation and famine were becoming rarer in the technologically advanced West.  The 19th century Irish Potato Famine reduced Ireland’s population by up to 25%.  A tragedy of epic proportions.  But it was an exception to the rule.  For food was growing so abundant in the advanced Western World that rarely did people go hungry.  Or feared famine.  And when mechanization and chemistry hit the farm our crop yields exploded.

During the Twentieth Century the Western World produced so much food that food prices plummeted.  Causing the Great Depression.  There was so much food available that farmers couldn’t sell their food at a high enough price to service the debt that they incurred mechanizing their farms.  But not everyone was producing bumper crops in the Twentieth Century.  Both the Soviet Union and the People’s Republic of China set records for death by famine.  As they shunned the ways of the West.  And the state took over their agricultural sectors.  States that were so inept at good farming practices and things economic that crop yields plummeted.  North Korea to this day can’t even grow enough food for her own people.  And has recurring famines.  Because they hold on to the communist ways of Stalin and Mao.  While the Russians and the Chinese have long abandoned them. 

History has shown that the most food-abundant countries are the most capitalistic.  Countries whose agricultural sectors use the latest in technology.  And/or have a rich and vibrant economy that can buy all the food they need if they can’t produce their own.  Like Hong Kong.  Basically a rock off the Chinese mainland.  It has little arable land.  Few natural resources.  But what it does have is low taxation and free trade.  And laissez-faire capitalism.  The Chinese lost Hong Kong to the British Empire (who have since given it back).  And the British used laissez-faire capitalism to make Hong Kong the gem it is today.  Where people are free and in want of little.  And in this island nation that can’t grow enough food to feed their population famine is unheard of.  Why?  Because they have the wealth to trade for all the food they desire.  In fact, while Mao gave the people in the People’s Republic of China famine Hong Kong were doing just fine.  Because they were wealthy and could trade for what they needed.  And they had the Royal Navy protecting her.

In America our Food Supplies are so Abundant and so Cheap that Poor People are becoming Obese

Poverty is the biggest killer.  Famine is prevalent in poor countries.  Like Haiti.  North Korea.  And sub-Saharan Africa.  People suffer in these countries unlike they do in the West.  Despite the amount of aid the West pours into them.  And it’s not because Western nations were blessed with natural resources.  Hong Kong doesn’t have anything other than laissez-faire capitalism.  Protected by the Rule of Law and minimal government interference into the private sector economy.  The very things that are missing from Haiti, North Korea and sub-Saharan Africa.  Where corruption rules supreme.  There is little regard for human rights.  Or property rights.  And no one can protect their people from the abuses of government.  Or from warring neighbors.  Like the Royal Navy protected Hong Kong.  And pretty much the rest of the world during the 19th century.  Just like America’s military might made the world safe for capitalism in the Twentieth Century.

Third world nations are not a victim of first world nations.  They are a victim of themselves.  Where corrupt rulers collect Western aid and live well while their people suffer.  Especially the nations that eschew capitalism.  And embrace socialism.  Like the Soviet Union did.  Like the People’s Republic of China did (the current Chinese regime is enjoying economic growth by allowing some capitalism into their still communist country).  And like North Korea still does.  These socialist utopias were a living hell for their people.  Where they live in fear of their government.  And of famine.

Meanwhile in the Western capitalist nations what do they suffer from?  Especially the poor people in America?  Obesity.  In New York they’re passing laws restricting the size of sugary beverages because they are dangerous to your health.  While they pass out free condoms and birth control as sex is far less risky behavior than a delicious carbonated beverage.  Apparently.  Yes, in America our food supplies are so abundant and so cheap that poor people are becoming obese.  Because capitalism has made those food supplies abundant and cheap.  And capitalism gave people jobs where they could afford to buy so much food that they can give themselves an obesity problem.  A problem they just don’t have in Haiti, North Korea or sub-Saharan Africa.  Because they can’t grow enough food.  Or earn enough money to buy enough food.  For they don’t have an environment conducive to creating jobs.  Which is why these nations are still impoverished and/or suffering famine despite all the aid the West gives them.  Food aid will run out.  And then they’ll just be starving once again.  If they have jobs, though, they’ll be able to buy food whenever they’re hungry.  Because it’s like that old saying.  Give a man a fish and he can eat for a day; give him a job and he can have an obesity problem.

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Energy Absorption and Conversion, Vibration Isolation, Dampening, Oscillation, Advanced Building Technologies, Building Codes and Code Enforcement

Posted by PITHOCRATES - March 7th, 2012

Technology 101

Springs and Shock Absorbers on a Car provides Vibration Isolation from the Shocks of the Road

Roads aren’t perfect.  They have their bumps.  And their potholes.  Especially in the north.  Where they use salt to melt snow and ice.  Which get to the reinforcing steel within the concrete.  Causing it to corrode.  Further stressing and cracking the concrete.  Allowing water to get underneath the concrete.  Where it expands as it freezes, heaving and cracking the road.  Then there’s the normal heating and cooling.  That can buckle and crack blacktop.  Heavy truck traffic that stresses and hammers our roads.  Even sinking slightly into our asphalt roads making tire ruts.  And then there are railroad crossings.  Sewers and manholes that aren’t flush with the surface.  There’s a lot out there to make for a rough ride.  Yet in a new car you barely feel any of this.  And you can drink a cup of coffee while driving without it splashing out of the cup.  Why?

Because the shocks from the rode are isolated from the passenger compartment.  Air-inflated rubber tires smooth out much of that rough ride.  By compressing to absorb some bumps.  Then expanding back to their original shape.  Springs handle the larger bumps.  Which compress underneath the car as the tires hit a large bump.  Absorbing the energy from that impact before it reaches the passenger compartment.  By using it to compress a spring.  Then the energy in that compressed spring releases and the spring expands until it can expand no longer.  Placing the stretched spring into tension.  The stored energy in the tensioned spring compresses it again.  And this continues back and forth until the energy fully dissipates.  Or is absorbed in a shock absorber.  That dampens the oscillation of the spring.  Bringing it back to a steady-state quickly.  Further smoothing out the ride.

A car is a magnificent piece of engineering.  From converting a fuel into motive power.  To brakes slowing a car down by converting kinetic energy into heat via the friction of brake pads or shoes on rotors or drums.  To the isolation and dampening of the road forces imparted to the car.  It’s a remarkable control and conversion of energy.  That provides for a comfortable ride.  And a smooth ride.  Smooth enough to enjoy a cup of coffee while driving.  Without being too distracted from the business of driving.

Tuned Mass Dampers prevent Dangerous Oscillations in Buildings that can lead to Structural Failures

But a car moving over a road is not the only way energy transfers between the earth and something manmade.  Sometimes the earth moves.  And energy is transferred into something stationary.  Manmade structures like buildings and bridges.  During earthquakes.  And some of these stationary things get damaged.  Some even collapse.  Depending on how we constructed them.  And how similar they are to a car.

Tectonic plates are trying to move.  But the friction between these plates as they jam into each other holds them in place.  Until the pressure builds so much that the plates shift.  Causing an earthquake.  Sending seismic waves through the earth.  In active seismic regions structures need to be like cars.  They need isolation and dampening from the shockwaves caused by shifting tectonic plates.  For during a seismic event these shockwaves ‘grab’ these structures by their foundations and shake them.  This energy applying great forces on these buildings.  Energy that needs to go somewhere.  Because of the conservation of energy principle.  We can’t create it.  Nor we can destroy it.  At best we can redirect it.  Absorb it.  Or convert it.  Like converting the forward movement of a car (kinetic energy) into heat (created during braking).  Or the conversion of kinetic and potential energy of moving springs into heat (via shock absorbers). 

Waves have an amplitude and a frequency.  They oscillate.  That is, they vibrate.  And have energy.  Which is why we build buildings and bridges to move.  To bend and sway.  To dissipate this energy.  For if they were too rigid the forces could instead lead to a structural failure.  However, if they move too much and the external force is in ‘resonance’ with the building’s natural frequency of movement, this oscillation can grow.  Producing great vibrations.  (Like a car driving without any shock absorbers.)  And great forces on the structural integrity of the building.  Itself leading to a structural failure.  That’s why high rises include dampening systems.  Such as tuned mass dampers.  A great mass suspended within a building and restrained by hydraulic cylinders.  Such as the tuned mass damper atop Taipei 101 in Taiwan.  So when the building sways in one direction the mass swings in the opposite direction.  Thus dampening the oscillation of the building.

Free Market Capitalism allows a Higher Standard of Living and Creates the Kind of Wealth that can build Safe Houses and Buildings

Smaller buildings may use springs-with-damper base isolators.  Which does the same thing springs and shocks do for a car.  Isolates the structure from vibrations.  But using the proper building materials to allow a building to move or withstand destructive forces without structural failure provides most seismic protection.  And this is nothing new.  The Machu Picchu Temple of the Sun in Peru is an early example of good seismic engineering.  Peru sits on the Ring of Fire.  A highly seismic region that circles the Pacific Ocean.  The Inca were highly skilled stone cutters.  They built the Machu Picchu Temple of the Sun without mortar.  Because of this the stone can move during seismic events.  Which has let it stand through the millennia.  Today we use mortar.  And reinforcing steel to strengthen our masonry construction (these blocks can’t move but when the walls they make crack the steel inside keeps them from collapsing).  As well as other advanced building technologies.  And ever evolving building codes and code enforcement to make sure builders meet the exacting standards of these technologies.  To keep these buildings from collapsing and killing hundreds of thousands of people.  Which is why in the most modern and advanced cities in seismic regions survive some of the worst seismic events with minimal loss of life.  Where they count deaths in the hundreds instead of the hundreds of thousands.  As they did before we used these advanced building technologies.

The countries and regions sitting on the Ring of Fire (New Zealand, Indonesia, the Philippines, Japan, Alaska, California, Mexico, Peru and Chile) use some of the most advanced building technologies.  And can withstand some of the most severe earthquakes.  With little loss of life.  Now compare that to the impoverished country of Haiti.  Their 2010 earthquake was devastating, claiming 230,000 lives.  Because they have no such building codes or code enforcement.  Or advanced building technology.  Because Haiti is not a nation of free market capitalism.  Or the rule of law.  But one of political corruption.  And abject poverty.  Are they predisposed to be impoverished?  No.  Because countries can change.  If they embrace free market capitalism.  And the rule of law.

Chile was one such country at one time.  Corrupt.  And anti-capitalistic.  During the heyday of Keynesian economics.  Where nations said goodbye to the gold standard.  And ramped up their printing presses.  Igniting hyperinflation.  Including the Chileans.  But they changed.  Thanks to the Chicago Boys.  Chilean economists schooled in the Chicago school of economics.  With a little help from Milton Friedman.  Perhaps the most esteemed member of the Chicago school. Economic reforms produced solid economic growth.  A prosperous middle class.  And advanced building technologies, building codes and code enforcement.  So when Chile suffered a more powerful earthquake than Haiti did that same year Chile measured their death toll in the hundreds.  Not the hundreds of thousands as they did in Haiti.  And the major difference between these two nations?  Chile has a higher standard of living than Haiti.  And has less poverty.  Because Chile embraces free market capitalism.  Which creates the kind of wealth that can build safe houses.  And safe buildings.  For everyone.  Not just the ruling elite.

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