Ukraine

Posted by PITHOCRATES - March 4th, 2014

History 101

Ukraine is a Nation with Farmland so Fertile it earned the Moniker the ‘Breadbasket of Europe’

All roads may have led to Rome.  But all rivers led to Byzantium.  The city Constantine the Great of the Roman Empire turned into Constantinople.  Modern day Istanbul.  The great city on the Bosporus.  One-time trade crossroads of the world.  Where East met West.  And Europe met Asia.  Where goods from the Far East traveling on the Silk Road passed through on their way to Europe.  And where grain grown in the fertile river valleys of Eastern Europe passed through to feed the great empires.

Rivers created civilizations.  For they provided fertile farmland in their valleys.  And the rivers provided avenues for trade.  Which is why our great cities first appeared on rivers.  Like Kiev.  The Ukrainian capital.  On the Dnieper River.  Which flows from Smolensk through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine.  Emptying into the Black Sea.  Along with the Danube.  The Don.  And via a short portage from the Don, trade flowed to the Black Sea on the Volga, too.  (But the waters flowed into the Caspian Sea.)  And across the Black Sea lay Constantinople.  One-time trade crossroads of the world.

Ukraine is a nation with a lot of fertile farmland.  It is so fertile that it earned the moniker the ‘breadbasket of Europe’.  Making Ukraine some very valuable real estate.  Because of their grain production.  And the access the Dnieper River provided.  Opening trade between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople.  Providing Ukraine with a lot of north-south movement via the Dnieper.  As well as a lot of east-west movement via land between the Germanic tribes to the west.  And the Turkic people to the east.

To improve Relations with the Rus’ the Byzantine Patriarch converted the Rus’ and the Slavs to Christianity

Kiev was a crossroads.  Varangians (i.e., Vikings) moved south from Scandinavia.  The Greeks from Byzantine moved north.  As they did they bumped into the indigenous Slavs.  And the Khazars (one of those Turkic people).  Kiev was geographically in the Khazar Empire.  But the Varangians ruled Kiev.  As it was on their trade route with the Greeks in Constantinople.  It was the Varangians who ruled Kiev during the Golden Age (11th to early 12th centuries).  Which saw the rise of Kievan Rus’.  Which in time and much change gave us modern day Russia.

As the Rus’ expanded south they encroached on Khazar territory.  The Khazars allied with the Byzantine Empire and fought against the Persians and Arabs.  Who wanted that rich crossroads.  Constantinople.  As did the Rus’.  So there were all kinds of war with all kinds of people.  Which wasn’t good for trade.  So the Byzantines established a division of their empire on the Crimean peninsula on the northern shore of the Black Sea.  Near the mouth of the Dnieper.  The Theme of Cherson.  To ward off those raids by the Rus’.  And to protect the grain coming to Constantinople from the breadbasket of Europe.  The Theme of Cherson became the center of Black Sea commerce.

But to improve relations with the Rus’ the Byzantine Patriarch Photius sent emissaries to convert the Rus’ and the Slavs to Christianity.  In 863 brothers Cyril and Methodius headed north.  They could speak the Slavonic language.  Which was then only a spoken language.  They created an alphabet for them.  The Glagolitic alphabet.  Which became the Cyrillic alphabet.  And gave them a written language.  Translated scripture so they could read it.  And extended the Greek culture of the Byzantine Empire to these lands.  As well as Orthodox Christianity.  Which is why today many of the lands radiating out from the rivers flowing to the Black Sea are Orthodox Christian (Russian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, etc.).

Russian Migration into Ukraine helped make her less Ukrainian and more Russian

Kiev was one of the largest cities in the world.  Then came the invasions.  First from the Asian steppes to the east.  The Pechenegs in 968.  And then the Mongols in 1240.  Who completely destroyed Kiev.  Then the Lithuanians from the north (1320s).  Then the Crimean Tatars sacked and burned Kiev (1482).  Then Kiev passed to Poland (1569).  Then the Russians took it over.  In the 18th and 19th centuries the city was full of Russian soldiers.  And ecclesiastical authorities.  From the Russian Orthodox Church.  Making the Ukrainian people more Russian.  Some Ukrainians tried to change that in the 1840s but Russia put a stop to that.

The Russian Empire kept pushing south.  For they wanted a warm-water port.  Which they could have on the Black Sea.  All they had to do was fight through the Ukrainians.  Which they did.  By this time the Muslim Ottoman Turks had long conquered the Christian Byzantine Empire.  Which left the Ottomans open to Russian aggression once the Russians took Ukraine.  Of course, if the Russians conquered the Ottoman Empire that would give Russia open access to the Mediterranean Sea.  Where they could threaten the British Empire holdings.  Also, the Russians could free their fellow Orthodox Christians from Muslim rule.

This aggression exploded into one of the bloodiest wars in history.  The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856).  Much like the American Civil War the technology was well ahead of the tactics.  The Russian Empire took on the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia.  Russia lost.  And she lost what she most coveted.  That warm-water port.  But that didn’t last for long.  Changes elsewhere allowed Russia to reject portions of the peace treaty that ended that war.  And built a navy she operated out of the Black Sea port of Sevastopol (first founded in 1783 by Rear Admiral Thomas Mackenzie then fortified by Catherine the Great in 1784).  On the Crimea peninsula.  And the Russians have been there ever since.

But the beating the Russians took led Tsar Alexander II to free the serfs.  And try to advance the backward Russia to be more like the advanced nations that had beaten her.  But it was too late.  For this marked the beginning of the end for Tsarist Russia.  The war left her in great debt.  So much debt that Russia sold Alaska to the United States.  While creating social unrest that would eventually lead to the October Revolution.  And the Soviet Union.  All the while Russian migration into Ukraine continued.  Making Ukraine less Ukrainian and more Russian.  With the Russian language taking over in Kiev and other large Ukrainian cities.  Pushing the Ukrainian language and culture to the country.  Leading to a divided Ukraine.  Under the boot of the Soviet regime.  Until the collapse of the Soviet Union.  When Ukraine finally got her independence.  Which Russian president and former KGB officer of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Putin, is now currently taking away.

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Greeks must now pay for their own Medications because the National Health Care System is Broke

Posted by PITHOCRATES - June 17th, 2012

Week in Review

As businesses wait with fear and trepidation for Obamacare to go into full effect we should consider what this will mean for the country at large.  More government benefits.  More government spending.  And higher taxation to pay for it.  Then we should look around the world for an example of large government spending and generous benefits.  To see if we can get an idea of how well something like a national health care system will work.  Let’s just pick a country at random.  Like this one (see Greek crisis hits hard at the pharmacy by Michael Birnbaum posted 6/13/2012 on The Washington Post).

From road-builders to priests to military suppliers, most walks of life have been affected by the government’s desperate bid to stanch the drain of euros from its coffers. Now health care is on the line, with pharmacists who are owed millions of euros by the government insurance system demanding in recent weeks that their clients pay the full sticker price for medicine. With unemployment at 22 percent and loans almost nonexistent, many people are doing without their drugs…

Under ordinary circumstances, the state health insurance system paid her pharmacist directly. Now pharmacists, fed up by delayed payments that they worry may never come, have told their customers that they need to pay cash and try their own luck at getting reimbursement from their health insurance.

Nothing is free in life.  Not even free health care.  Because government doesn’t make life-saving drugs.  Pharmaceutical companies who specialize in making life-saving drugs make life-saving drugs.  But even for them they are not free.  For they have to pay employees to make these drugs.  And they have to buy the chemicals to make these drugs.  And their chemical suppliers have their own employees to pay.  All of these costs are passed down the purchasing pipeline.  Right to the pharmacists.  Who must buy these drugs before they can sell them.  And when the government stops paying their bills someone has to pay them.  Or these pharmacists will just go out of business.  Because they’re not independently wealthy.  They run a pharmacy for living.  And simply can’t afford to buy drugs and give them away for free.

But pharmacists say they have little choice. Their suppliers, wary of extending credit in euros only to be repaid in weaker drachmas if the country gets booted out of the currency union, are demanding cash before they make shipments. And, though the pharmacies are receiving some reimbursements from the government, they are owed $188 million by the main government health insurance program, said Konstantinos Lourantos, president of the Pharmaceutical Association of Athens.

Doing anything on credit in Greece is risky business.  Because it’s not that certain if anyone will be able to pay their bills.  What makes this worse in Greece is who is paying most of the bills.

In Greece, where much of the private sector was sustained on public-sector spending, many business owners have found themselves to be unwitting creditors of the government, as payments have languished for months while their own credit has dried up, forcing them to scale back their businesses. That has made Greece’s recession, now in its fifth year, even harder to escape.

Everything has a cost.  Nothing is truly free.  Even when government provides it.  And the more the government provides the higher the taxes it takes to fund this government spending.  Relying on government spending, though, is risky.  Because tax revenue goes up and down with the economy.  During a recession there are fewer people working to pay income and payroll taxes.  And fewer people buying things to pay sales and value-added taxes.  Business revenues are down so businesses pay fewer income taxes.  During a deep recession tax revenue can fall far below the level needed to meet all government spending obligations.  Like reimbursing pharmacies.  And what do governments do during budget short-falls?  They borrow.  And Greece has.

Greece has borrowed so much that they are now a very poor credit risk.  They just owe so much money that a lot of lenders have grown doubtful that they will ever get their money back.  Which drives up borrowing costs.  Increasing the amount of interest they pay on their outstanding debt.  And as the recession lingers on tax revenues keep falling.  While the interest on the debt keeps rising.  Leaving less and less of those borrowed funds available to pay their massive government spending obligations.  And this is where Greece is.  They can’t pay their obligations without borrowing.  But they have borrowed so much that when they take on massive amounts of new debt much of it just goes to paying the interest on the old debt.  Which means they have to borrow ever more.  Increasing their interest payments on the debt ever more.  And leaving less and less for that massive government spending.

This is where debt crises come from.  Governments spending too much.  In fact it is safe to say that no government ever had a debt crisis from spending too little.  We can learn a lot from the Greeks.  In fact, we already have.  Most of Western Civilization goes back to Athens.  But we can also learn what NOT to do from the Greeks.  And a good place to start would be to repeal Obamacare.  For it’s this kind of spending that got Greece into trouble in the first place.

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Greece, Rome, Western Civilization, Alexandria, Londinium, Enlightenment, Adam Smith, Free Market Capitalism and Gender Equality

Posted by PITHOCRATES - April 17th, 2012

History 101

Greece gave Western Civilization Math, Science, Engineering and Philosophy

History has been a political struggle over power.  Kings and emperors and priests and nobles had it.  While other kings and emperors and priests and nobles wanted it.  They fought wars.  They oppressed their people.  They’ve committed acts of genocide on their enemies.  And on their people.  To get that power.  To keep that power.  And that’s the way it was for a long time.  The ruling class at the top battling it out.  While the people suffer abject poverty, famine and genocide at the bottom.  Until something came along to change that.  An advanced civilization.  That could produce a food surplus.  Freeing up people to become artisans.  Specialists.  Who could invent and make things.  To make life better.  Especially for a large group of people called the middle class.

The Greeks and Romans took civilization to new heights.  When Edgar Allen Poe wrote To Helen (1845) he chose Greece and Rome to describe his most beautiful Helen.  Because Greece and Rome were that beautiful.

On desperate seas long wont to roam,
Thy hyacinth hair, thy classic face,
Thy Naiad airs have brought me home
To the glory that was Greece,
And the grandeur that was Rome.

Western Civilization began in Greece.  Food surpluses freed the great thinkers.  Math, science, engineering and philosophy took roots in Athens and spread through the Greek world.  The Hellenistic civilization.  That Alexander the Great spread east all the way to Iran and the Indus Valley.  And south into Egypt.  Where he founded the great city of Alexandria.  Repository of some of the greatest Greek books of knowledge.  When Rome conquered Greece they spread that great Hellenistic civilization east to Spain.  North to France and Germany.  Even to England.  London itself was once a Roman city.  Londinium.  And everywhere the Romans went they brought with them Greek math, science, engineering and philosophy.  Building engineering marvels.  And creating a very high standard of living.

Where the Romans went they also built roads.  Primarily to move their legions throughout their empire.  But they also used them for trade.  Where they traded the goods made by that rising middle class of artisans.  Economic activity was bustling.  Until the government grew.  To pay for an ever larger government bureaucracy and military they started taxing that economic activity.  And regulating it.  Rather harshly.  Restricting freedoms.  Eventually tying farm workers to the land.  Even their children.  Turning that once bustling economy into feudalism.  Serfdom.  Until the growth of government expenditures made the Western Empire so weak that the Germanic barbarians sacked Rome.

Enlightened Thinking and Adam Smith’s Wealth of Nations helped make Great Britain the Leading European Power

While Europe went through the Dark Ages the Eastern Roman Empire continued on.  Centered on Constantinople (modern day Istanbul) on the Bosporus, she was smack-dab in the middle of the trade crossroads between Europe and Asia.  And continued to prosper economically.  Until the Arabs began attacking her.  And the Christian Crusaders.  Who came down to reclaim the holy land for the Catholic Church.  Where they fought Muslim Arabs.  As well as Orthodox Christians.  While in the area they visited the sights.  Including that great repository of books in Alexandria.  Which they packed up and brought back to Europe.  And changed the world.

As the Christian monks translated these books all of Europe read them.  Math, science, engineering and philosophy.  Kicking off the Enlightenment.  Advanced economies appeared in the Italian city-states as they controlled trade in the Mediterranean.  But with all that Greek knowledge Portugal, Spain and the Netherlands built bigger ships and learned to navigate across the oceans.  Moving the center of trade from the Mediterranean to northern Europe.  The Europeans established colonies in the Old World.  And the New World.  France and England soon followed.  Trade exploded.  And fortunes were made.  But something really special was happening in England. 

Thanks to all that enlightened thinking the English took the lead in Europe.  And the world.  Modern farming practices improved yields and created great food surpluses.  She had representative government in her Parliament.  The rule of law.  Banking institutions.  Joint-stock companies to raise large amounts of capital.  An insurance industry to manage the great risks of transoceanic trade.  And an economist up in Scotland who wrote a book about new ideas in economic thought.  Adam Smith.  Who wrote The Wealth of Nations.  Championing something he called the Invisible Hand in free market capitalism.  Taking away the economic decisions making from the kings and emperors and priests and nobles.  And giving it to the people.  Which Great Britain embraced.  Kicking off the Industrial Revolution.  Other European nations followed her lead.  As did one young upstart nation.  The United States.

Famine has been Rare in Western Civilization since the 18th Century

Western Civilization dominated the world in every measurable way.  Economic output.  Living standards.  Public health standards.  Gender equality.  You name it and the free market capitalism of Western Civilization made it better.  The general path of emigration of great minds traveled in one general direction.  From eastern/southern Europe to Germany, France and Great Britain.  Then on to the United States.  Or directly to the United States.  Where free market capitalism was the freest.  Making the Untied States the new world superpower.  Following the Industrial Revolution with even greater innovation.  Providing ever greater living standards.  And individual liberty.  For everyone.

The freedom in free market capitalism brought women into the workforce.  Take the automobile.  When Henry Ford first mass produced the car it was not people-friendly.  Men started our first cars by turning a hand crank.  Sometimes losing a finger or breaking a wrist in the process.  Once started he adjusted his goggles and gloves and took the wheel.  His face being the bug screen.  His muscles being his ‘powered’ steering.  Clutching through the gears.  Gearing down and stomping down on the breaks to stop.  It was man’s work driving our first cars.  Dirty, filthy man’s work.  The automatic starter, automatic transmission, power steering and breaks, though, changed all of that.  All American developments.  Allowing women in heels and a short dress to start and drive a car as well as any man without losing any of her dignity.  And she could sip a latte on her drive to work.  While listening to music.  And on those hot days she didn’t sweat through her clothes before getting to work.  Thanks to air conditioning.  Another American invention for the car.  And she’s able to enjoy this freedom because of some other inventions.  Two in particular that let her pursue a career.  And enjoy any activity whenever she chooses.  The birth control pill.  And the tampon.  Again, products of Western Civilization. 

Women in Western Civilization have it pretty good these days.  Where for the most part their standard of living has caught up to men.  There are some earning disparities.  But a lot of that is due to women leaving the workforce to raise children.  And then reentering at a later time.  Having to play catch-up with those who didn’t leave the workforce to raise a family.  Not too bad when you consider what women are going through where they don’t embrace free market capitalism.  For not only do they have none of these everyday comforts we take for granted but they often go without food.  Up until the 18th century famines were pretty common.  But with the advances we’ve made in farming and our other institutions we have that give us a modern and bustling economy (and our high living standards) there really haven’t been any famines in Western Civilization since the 18th century.  There may have been a few but they were very rare.  Unlike the famines in the 20th century that killed tens of millions in Russia, the Soviet Union, China, North Korea, Southwest Asia, Southeast Asia and Africa.  But famine is not the only thing killing people in these countries.  They have also suffered the greatest acts of genocides.  As rival groups battle each other for political power.  With the innocent masses stuck in the crossfire.  Something a prosperous middle class has put an end to in Western Civilization.

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The Eurozone Debt Crisis gets Ugly as the Greeks call their German Benefactors Nazis

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 18th, 2012

Week in Review

Germany is the strongest nation in the Eurozone.  While they retain their triple-A credit rating other countries face credit rating downgrades.  Or warnings about future downgrades.  Which puts the Germans in the Euro driver seat.  Because they’re shouldering the biggest share of this Eurozone financial burden.  One would almost say they are doing the other Eurozone members a favor.  But the Greeks sure don’t feel this way (see Greeks brand Germans ‘Nazis’ for driving through painful cuts and ‘taking control of their economy’ posted 2/15/2012 on the Daily Mail).

Greek anger with the way they believe Germany has taken over their economy is boiling over on the country’s streets.

In recent days, protesters have burned German flags and defaced the Bank of Greece’s headquarters to make it look like the Bank of Berlin.

German chancellor Angela Merkel has also been depicted in Nazi uniform on the front page of right-wing newspaper Democracy above a headline alluding to Auschwitz.

Granted, Hitler did conquer Greece.  And he did so ruthlessly.  But not because he wanted to.  Mussolini attacked Greece.  And was humiliated.  This blunder threatened Barbarossa.  The Nazi invasion of the Soviet Union.  Hitler had to save Mussolini to keep the British (in and around the Mediterranean) off their southern flank.  While preparing the Greek invasion Yugoslavia threw a wrench into the plans with a military coup.  Shut down his free passage through Yugoslavia.  Threw Hitler in a rage.  So he was going to teach them a lesson.  And did.  He ruthlessly attacked Yugoslavia.  And kept his army rolling all the way through Greece.  But to do this he had to delay Barbarossa by about a month.  Which stalled his armies in the god-awful Russian winter at the gates of Moscow.  The same god-awful winter that destroyed Napoleon’s Grande Armée.  And sent the Nazis in retreat.  For the very first time.  Had it not been for the Greece ‘problem’ Hitler may have conquered the Soviet Union.  And won World War II.  So Hitler had little love for Greece.  Which may have made the Greece occupation a cruel one.

High levels of government spending in Greece to support a very comfortable and growing public sector created large deficits.  They had to finance these growing deficits with growing government debt.  Soon their debt grew so large they could no longer sell new debt to retire old debt.  Because few believed that they would be able to repay this new debt.  Which brought them to this crisis where they needed help from others to finance their debt.  Because they could no longer take care of themselves.

So there’s a bit of difference between the current debt crisis and 1941 Greece.  In 1941 the Greeks were victims of Nazi oppression.  In the current debt crisis Greece’s troubles are self-inflicted.  So comparing Merkel’s Germany to Nazi Germany is a bit unfair to say the least.  And unjust. 

The Eurozone was an ill-conceived plan to begin with.  A currency unity with no political unity?  What did they expect?  No nation wants to take orders from another nation.  Any who tries may be called, well, a Nazi.  And this is why the Eurozone was ill-conceived.  Because no nation wants to take orders from another nation.  They just want to keep on doing their own thing.  Like the Greeks did.  And now Greece’s problem is everyone’s problem in the Eurozone.  Because of that common currency.

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The Greeks give their Answer to the Latest Bailout Package – Violent Protest

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 12th, 2012

Week in Review

And the saga continues.  The ever elusive solution to the Greek debt crisis grows ever more elusive (see Greece reels after leaders agree to harsh spending cuts by Michael Birnbaum posted 2/10/2012 on The Washington Post).

Greeks clashed on the streets of Athens and in the halls of government Friday, as protesters grew violent and one after another cabinet minister resigned, a day after the nation’s leaders accepted foreign lenders’ demands for tough austerity cuts to try to stave off bankruptcy.

By late evening, six cabinet members had resigned and Prime Minister Lucas Papademos went on state television to threaten members of his shaky coalition government with expulsion if they opposed making sweeping spending cuts in exchange for a bailout that would keep Greece from defaulting on its debts by mid-March. A Greek bankruptcy could shake the euro zone and potentially wreak havoc throughout the global financial system…

But protests over the austerity plans were already paralyzing the capital, as thousands marched during a demonstration led by the country’s two largest unions. The new mandates will reduce the minimum wage to $780 a month from $1,000 a month, slash social entitlements, freeze salaries for years and cut 150,000 workers from government payrolls by the end of 2015. Greek unemployment already stands at 20.9 percent.

Some protesters threw gasoline bombs and stones at riot police, who responded with tear gas, the Associated Press reported. Police said that eight officers and two protesters were injured. The unions called for a 48-hour general strike, the second this week, and much of Athens was shut down…

“Of course we do not want to be outside the E.U., but we can get by without being under the German jackboot,” Karatzaferis [head of a junior partner in Greece’s coalition government] said at a news conference. “I would rather starve.”

This is the problem with the Eurozone.  There’s a currency union.  But no political union.  While the Germans were being responsible (for they have a history of hyperinflation they don’t want to repeat seeing that it gave the world Adolf Hitler) the Greeks were spending beyond their means.  And may have fudged their numbers to join the monetary union.  And now the Greeks are broke.  And they need someone to bail them out.  And guess who is the richest in the Eurozone?  That’s right.  Those responsible Germans.  And what do some Greeks call the only people who can bail them out?  Jackboots.  A not so veiled Nazi slur.  With love like that they’ll never be a political union in the Eurozone.  And perhaps no Eurozone when countries start going bankrupt.  Starting with Greece this March.

The Greeks are well on their way on the Road to Serfdom.  The public sector has grown so large that those left in the private sector can no longer pay for them.  Which gives them a very unfortunate choice.  Either shrink the public sector by slashing costs.  Or kill the private sector entirely.  And make all Greeks serfs in a new state economy of subsistence.  Where everyone will be equal in their suffering.  Except, of course, those in the ruling class.  Who will be more equal than others.  And will be able to enjoy their lives.  Much like in North Korea.  Where Kim Jong il carried a few extra pounds while his people suffered famines.  Of course, before that happens there will be a great exodus as Greeks flee their country.  Which will inundate other countries with refugees.  And cheap labor.  As refugees typically are.  Throwing their economies into turmoil.  Spreading the Greek contagion throughout Europe.

There is no easy way out for Greece.  And it’s going to get worse before it gets better.  This should be a lesson in the growth of state spending.  But will anyone learn?  Let’s hope so.  Because if Germany or the United Kingdom or the United States goes down this Road to Serfdom the Greek problem will pale in comparison.

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Religion allowed Sumer, Egypt and Europe to be Great

Posted by PITHOCRATES - November 15th, 2011

History 101

Religion Allowed Sumerians and Egyptians to Work Together and Live in Crowded Urban Cities

The world’s first civilization was Sumer.  Which included a series of city-states in Mesopotamia.  That land between the Tigris and Euphrates rivers.  Modern day Iraq.  And at the center of each city was a temple.  A ziggurat.  A multilevel structure that was broad at the base.  Narrow at the top.  Kind of like a pyramid.  But it wasn’t for entombing the dead.  Its height made it a ‘bridge’ to their gods.  It was at the top of these ziggurats where the priests performed their sacred rituals.  Ruled over the people.  Organized their large-scale farming.  Irrigation.  And their civilization.  Their food surpluses, the key to an advanced civilization, were stored at or near the ziggurat.  And the priest-king distributed the food to the people.

The world’s second civilization was Egypt.  Home of the pyramids.  That entombed their dead in elaborate rituals.  To help them enter the afterlife.  During the Old Kingdom one man ruled all of Egypt.  The pharaoh.  But he wasn’t just a king.  He was a god.  The people worshipped the pharaoh.  And worked at his direction.  The pharaoh directed the massive irrigation works.  The farming.  Managed the food surpluses.  And the people served their gods.  Possibly built the pyramids for them.  Out of love.  For some evidence suggests that slaves may not have built the pyramids as once thought.  But that they willingly joined together to build these tombs out of love and/or respect for their beloved pharaohs.

The first two great civilizations were theocracies.  Religion was the basis of their governments.  And the religious authority ruled.  Whether it be a priest-king.  Or a pharaoh.  A god to the people.  They organized and directed the people to do the things that made these civilizations great.  And the people did great things.  For their cities.  And their god(s).  For their religion was the great unifying factor that allowed a great number of people to live in crowded urban settings.  And work towards a common goal.

During the Dark Ages Charlemagne used Christianity to Unite Europe

Civilization advanced from these humble but great beginnings.  Religious thinking led to other thinking.  And everything great that followed.  Math.  Science.  History.  Physics.  And metaphysics.  We were thinking about our present.  And remembering our past.  The Greeks took thinking to great heights.  Figured out much of what we know today.  Alexander the Great took the glory that was Greece and spread it to the known world.  Then the Romans spread it to the parts of the world Alexander did not conquer.  The grandeur that was Rome was, in fact, Greek.

But the greatness peaked during the Roman Empire.  And then the Germanic tribes to the north sacked Rome.  And plunged Europe into the Dark Ages.  A world devoid of glory.  Where the hands of time were turned back a millennium or two.  Or three.  But all was not lost for Europe.  Because there was Christianity.  For the Roman Empire was a Christian empire.  And that’s something the people of Europe did not lose.  Their religion.  Which was the unifying force of the kingdoms that followed.  Including the great Charlemagne.  The unifier of Europe during the Dark Ages.  For Charlemagne was a devout Christian.  And even ascended to the throne as Holy Roman Emperor.

The rise of Islam in the holy Christian lands led to the Christian Crusades.  While in the ancient cities around the Mediterranean the Christians found a lot of lost Greek texts.  Brought them back to Europe.  To Christian monasteries.  And started that thinking all over again.  Leading to the Renaissance.  And the Enlightenment.  Picking up basically where the Greeks and Romans left off.  Making Europe the dominant region for centuries to come.

A lack of Religion and Spiritual Understanding Empowered Dictators to Kill their own People

Throughout history religion has made life better.  From its earliest days that simply allowed people to live and work together.  To developing a love for our fellow man.  Which restrained our most base instincts.  And calmed the savage breast.  Don’t believe this?  Just look at the worst genocides.

In sheer numbers it’s a tossup who killed more of their own people.  Joseph Stalin (the Soviet Union).  Or Mao Tse-Tung (the Peoples Republic of China).  In terms of a percentage of their population it’s no contest.  Pol Pot (Cambodia) wins that honor.  He killed some 20% of his own people.  And what do these three have in common?  They were all communists.  And their official religion?  None.  They were atheists.

Which is probably what let these dictators commit these cruel acts of barbarism against their own people.  Because they had no spiritual understanding of this life.  Or the afterlife.  So they had little to lose in their eyes.  Nothing to give them pause in unleashing all that repressed cruelty that advanced civilizations worked so hard to suppress.

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One of the most Basic Comforts of Life, the Flush Toilet, goes back to Trade with the Indus Valley Civilization

Posted by PITHOCRATES - November 1st, 2011

History 101

The Earliest Discovery of an Indoor Flush Toilet goes all the way Back to India

The first First Lady to live at the White House was Abigail Adams.  Wife of the second U.S. president.  The great John Adams.  They moved into the White House while it was still under construction.  And long before it had indoor plumbing.  So when the First Lady had to do her business she did so like most everyone at that time did.  She visited the outhouse.  Which was in full view of the general public.  So everyone knew what she was doing when she was doing her business.  Not a dignified moment for America’s First Lady.

Today when a lady has to poop we spare her this indignity.  For we have indoor flush toilets.  And when they go into the bathroom they always emerged with fresh makeup and coifed hair.  So we have no idea what they’re doing in the powder room.  Pooping.  Or just making themselves beautiful.  Which makes a trip to the toilet never an embarrassing moment these days.  Like it was for poor Abigail Adams.  If only we had indoor flush toilets during Mrs. Adams time.

The funny thing is, we did.  Not in America.  But in ancient Rome.  For the Romans had flush toilets.  Some 2000 years before they had them in America.  But the Romans didn’t invent this luxury.  No.  They were great engineers.  Great builders.  But they weren’t great mathematicians and scientists.  The Greeks were.  The Romans took the great learning of the Greeks and built great things.  But the indoor flush toilet even predates the Greeks.  The earliest discovery of an indoor flush toilet goes all the way back to India.  To the Indus Valley Civilization.  And the ancient city of Harappa.

The Greeks may have Learned about Sanitary Sewers and Flush Toilets from the Indus Valley Civilization

The Indus Valley Civilization (IVC) was one of the four first big civilizations.  Along with Egypt in the Nile Valley.  Sumer in the Fertile Crescent.  And the Chinese in the Hwang-Ho valley.  They started out independently.  Then their trade routes eventually crossed.  And they learned from each other.  Through their trade.

We don’t know a lot about the IVC.  For we haven’t been able to decipher their early writing.  Yet.  But what we do know is that they had a remarkably advanced city infrastructure.  And that they traded.  They had the wheel.  And boats.  They traded overland into Central Asia and the Iranian Plateau.  And over water to Mesopotamia.  Where they traded with the Sumerians.  And the people who followed the Sumerians traded with the Greeks.

The Sumerians were probably the first to map the stars and planets.  The Greeks may have used this work as the foundation for their astronomy.  And it may not be the only thing they learned from the Sumerians.  For it is likely they learned about the IVC from their friends in Mesopotamia.  And took what they learned about sanitary sewers and flush toilets back to Greece.  Where the Romans eventually learned about it.

Germanic Barbarian Tribes brought the Western Roman Empire and the Indoor Flush Toilet to an End

Trade is not just about goods and services.  We trade knowledge, too.  And the knowledge we gain makes our civilization better.  More advanced.  Giving us as higher quality of life.  All through peaceful means.  Of course those on the outside looking in, the uncivilized barbarians beyond the frontiers of civilization, prefer plunder over trade.  And less peaceful means.

It was the Germanic tribes north of the Western Roman Empire that eventually conquered this advanced civilization.  Which turned back the hands of time.  And Introduced the Dark Ages.  Plunging us back into a backward world.  Where we lost much of our knowledge.  And the modern comforts of life.  Including the flush toilet.

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