Ford brought the Price of Cars down and Paid his Workers more without Tariff Protection
Andrew Carnegie grew a steel empire in the late 19th century. With technological innovation. He made the steel industry better. Making steel better. Less costly. And more plentiful. Carnegie’s steel built America’s skylines. Allowing our buildings to reach the sky. And Carnegie brought the price of steel down without tariff protection.
John D. Rockefeller saved the whales. By making kerosene cheap and plentiful. Replacing whale oil pretty much forever. Then found a use for another refined petroleum product. Something they once threw away. Gasoline. Which turned out to be a great automotive fuel. It’s so great that we use it still today. Rockefeller made gasoline so cheap and plentiful that he put the competition out of business. He was making gasoline so cheap that his competition went to the government to break up Standard Oil. So his competition didn’t have to sell at his low prices. And Rockefeller made gasoline so inexpensive and so plentiful without tariff protection.
Henry Ford built cars on the first moving assembly line. Greatly bringing the cost of the car down. Auto factories have fixed costs that they recover in the price of the car. The more cars a factory can make in a day allows them to distribute those fixed costs over more cars. Bringing the cost of the car down. Allowing Henry Ford to do the unprecedented and pay his workers $5 a day. Allowing his workers to buy the cars they assembled. And Ford brought the price of cars down and paid his workers more without tariff protection.
George Westinghouse decreased the Cost of Electric Power without Tariff Protection
George Westinghouse gave us AC power. Thanks to his brilliant engineer. Nikola Tesla. Who battled his former employer, Thomas Edison, in the Current Wars. Edison wanted to wire the country with his DC power. Putting his DC generators throughout American cities. While Westinghouse and Tesla wanted to build fewer plants and send their AC power over greater distances. Greatly decreasing the cost of electric power. Westinghouse won the Current Wars. And Westinghouse did that without tariff protection.
After losing out on a military contract for a large military transport jet Boeing regrouped and took their failed design and converted it into a jet airliner. The Boeing 747. Which dominated long-haul routes. Having the range to go almost anywhere without refueling. And being able to pack so many people into a single airplane that the cost per person to fly was affordable to almost anyone that wanted to fly. And Boeing did this without tariff protection.
Bill Gates became a billionaire thanks to his software. Beginning with DOS. Then Windows. He dominated the PC operating system market. And saw the potential of the Internet. Bundling his browser program, Internet Explorer, with his operating system. Giving it away for free. Consumers loved it. But his competition didn’t. As they saw a fall in sales for their Internet browser programs. With some of their past customers preferring to use the free Internet Explorer instead of buying another program. Making IE the most popular Internet browser on the market. And Gates did this without tariff protection.
Tariff Protection cost American Industries Years of Innovation and Cost Cutting Efficiencies
Carnegie Steel became U.S. Steel. Which grew to be the nation’s largest steel company. Carnegie had opposed unions to keep the cost of his steel down. U.S. Steel had a contentious relationship with labor. During the Great Depression U.S. Steel unionized. But there was little love between labor and management. There were a lot of strikes. And a lot of costly union contracts. Which raised the price of U.S. manufactured steel. Opening the door for less costly foreign imports. Which poured into the country. Taking a lot of business away from domestic steel makers. Making it more difficult to honor those costly union contracts. Which led the U.S. steel producers to ask the government for tariff protection. To raise the price of the imported steel so steel consumers would not have a less costly alternative.
During World War II FDR was printing so much money to pay for both the New Deal and the war the FDR administration was worried about inflation. So they put ceilings on what employers could pay their employees. With jobs paying the same it was difficult to attract the best employees. Because you couldn’t offer more pay. So General Motors started offering benefits. Health care. And pensions. Agreeing to very generous union contracts. Raising the price of cars. Which wasn’t a problem until the imports hit our shores. Then those union contracts became difficult to honor. Which led the U.S. auto makers to ask the government for tariff protection. To raise the price of those imported cars so Americans would not have a less costly alternative.
These two industries received their tariffs. And other government protections. Allowing them to continue with business as usual. Even though business as usual no longer worked. So while the foreign steel producers and auto makers advanced their industries to further increase quality and lower their costs the protected U.S. companies did not. Because they didn’t have to. For thanks to the government they didn’t have to please their customers. As the government simply forced people to be their customers. For awhile, at least. The foreign products became better and better such that the tariff protection couldn’t make the higher quality imports costly enough to keep them less attractive than the inferior American goods. With a lot of people even paying more for the better quality imports. Losing years of innovation and cost cutting efficiencies due to their tariff protection these American industries that once dominated the world became shells of their former selves. With General Motors and Chrysler having to ask the government for a bailout because of the health care and pension costs bankrupting them. Something Carnegie, Rockefeller, Ford, Westinghouse, Boeing or Gates never had to ask.
Tags: AC power, Boeing, business as usual, car, Carnegie, Current Wars, efficiencies, electric power, FDR, Ford, gasoline, Gates, General Motors, imports, innovation, Internet browser, Internet Explorer, jet, Rockefeller, steel, tariff, tariff protection, Tesla, U.S. Steel, union contracts, unions, Westinghouse
The Lateen-Rigged Sail allows Ships to Maneuver onto the Prevailing Winds Superhighways
Oceans are deep. Allowing ships to cross them without fear of striking bottom. Which helped the age of sail. As sailors could use the prevailing winds to fill large masts of square-rigged sails to blow them across oceans. Sailing to the New World with the trade winds (near the equator) and polar easterlies (near the poles) filling their sails. And sailing from the New World with the westerlies (in the middle latitudes in both hemispheres) filling their sails. The deep oceans let these sailing vessels move unrestricted to find the best wind.
That is, once these sailing vessels got to the proper latitude. Getting there they had to use another kind of sail. A lateen-rigged sail. A triangular sail with a leading edge that cut into the wind. Splitting the wind so part of it filled the sail. The sail blew out and redirected the wind to the stern of the ship. While the wind passing over the top of the curved sail created lift. Like on an aircraft wing. Pulling the ship forward. This allows a wind blowing in from the side of a ship to propel it forward. Which allows a sailing vessel to sail into the wind. By sailing in a zigzag path. Or beating. After sailing in one direction they come about. Or tack. Turning the bow through the wind so it blows in from the other side of the ship.
The wide open and deep oceans let these sailing vessels maneuver at will to catch the wind. Propelling them forward at speed. Without fear of grounding out on the bottom. Taking them to the great superhighways across the oceans. To the trade winds and polar easterlies to sail west. And to the westerlies to sail east. Where these winds could fill multiple squared-rigged sails on a single mast. On ships with multiple masts. Allowing them to catch a lot of wind. And to drive them forward to their destination.
Channel Markers and Buoys are Color-Coded telling Ship Captains ‘Red Right Returning’
Of course it’s these destinations that really matter. For sailing around in the middle of the ocean is worthless unless you can load and unload cargo somewhere. Getting to these ports was a little trickier. Because it required sailing closer to land. Where the ocean floor rises up quickly from great depths. Making sailing near shores hazardous. As hidden shoals and reefs hide just below the surface. Threatening to cut a deep gash in a ship’s hull. Or a ship could run aground in the shallows. Where they may have to wait for a rising tide to free them. All the while risking being damaged by any storm that blew in.
The first sailors who arrived in the New World had no navigational aids like we do today. Often having to rely on the experience of a grizzled captain who could see and smell dangers in the water. Or they dropped anchor away from the shore and explored the coast in smaller boats to sound out sea approaches to a deep-water harbor. As time passed lighthouses dotted the shoreline. And other navigational aids guided ship captains. To warn them of dangerous waters. And show safe channels to navigate. Channel markers and buoys are color-coded. With paint for day navigation. And lights for night navigation. In the New World (and Japan, South Korea and the Philippines) the colors are red and green. When entering a harbor or river from the sea the red is kept on the right of a ship. Mariners learn this with the memory device ‘red right returning’.
When the French sailed up the Saint Lawrence River they founded the oldest walled-city in North America. Quebec City. They then sailed as far upstream as they could. Founding the city of Montreal. Going beyond Montreal required portaging around the rapids at Montreal. And a few others until they got to Lake Ontario. Where they could re-embark ships and sail across Lake Ontario and into the Niagara River. Where they had to portage around the rapids. And Niagara Falls. Where they once again could re-embark ships and enter Lake Erie. Then sail up the Detroit River. Across Lake St. Clair. Up the St. Clair River. And into Lake Huron. Where they could sail through the Straits of Mackinac and into Lake Michigan. Or up the St. Marys River. Where they could portage around the rapids in the St. Marys River. Reentering the river upstream of the rapids to let them sail into Lake Superior. Where they could sail all the way to Minnesota. And take on iron ore. Mined from the great iron ore deposits beyond Lake Superior. To feed the blast furnaces of America’s steel industry.
A Lock consists of a Chamber with Watertight Gates at each end and some Valves
Of course, iron ore is heavy. As is a lot of the bulk freight shipping on the Great Lakes. Making those portages around rapids and falls difficult and costly. They needed to find a better way. And they have. Which is why Great Lakes freighters can travel from the western end of Lake Superior to the Saint Lawrence River. And ocean-going freighters can enter the Saint Lawrence River and travel to the western end of Lake Superior. Without a single portage. Thanks to canals. And locks.
A canal provides a passage around rapids or falls. And locks in the canal can raise or lower a ship to the water level at either side of the rapids or falls. Getting around the rapids between Montreal and Lake Ontario and in the St. Marys River didn’t require long canals. Just enough to provide a passage around the rapids. The Niagara River posed a bigger problem. For there were both rapids. And Niagara Falls. As well as a great change in water levels. The level in Lake Erie is 326.5 feet above the level in Lake Ontario. As the typical lock doesn’t raise and lower water 326.5 feet one lock just wasn’t a solution. So they used 8 (7 for raising and lowering ships and the 8th as a control lock). And dug a canal across the Niagara peninsula. The Welland Canal. From Port Weller on Lake Ontario to Port Colborne on Lake Erie. Interconnected by 26 miles of canal. Allowing fully loaded bulk freighters to travel between Lakes Erie and Ontario. And ocean-going freighters to travel from the Atlantic ocean (and the world beyond) to the western end of Lake Superior.
So how does a lock work? Are there massive pumps to pump in water to raise a ship? No. There are no pumps. Just a couple of valves. A lock consists of a chamber with watertight gates at each end. The gates swing open towards the upstream side. When they close they form an 18-degree angle that points upstream. So when the water level is higher on the upstream side the force of the water presses the gates closed and makes a watertight seal. When the water level is equal on both sides of the gate they can easily open the gates. When a ship enters a lock both gates seal. If they are lowering a ship they open valves between the chamber and the canal on the downstream side. The high water level inside the chamber drains until the water levels equalize. If they are raising a ship they open valves between the chamber and the canal on the upstream side. Water from the canal enters the chamber until the water levels equalize. Then the appropriate gate opens and the ship goes on its way. A very simple and low-tech process. Allowing ships with deep drafts to travel the oceans. Rivers. And inland lakes. Thanks to navigational aids. Canals. And locks.
Tags: bulk freighters, buoys, canal, canals, chamber, channel markers, Gates, Great Lakes, Lake Superior, lateen-rigged sail, lock, locks, navigational aids, New World, Niagara Falls, Niagara River, ocean, polar easterlies, prevailing winds, red right returning, sailing vessels, sails, Saint Lawrence River, squared-rigged sail, trade winds, valves, watertight gates, Welland Canal, westerlies
Arnold prevented a British Drive down the Hudson Valley to separate New England from the Rest of the Colonies
There was a fine line between Patriot and Loyalist. And between Patriot and traitor. For Benedict Arnold, at least. Who went from Patriot to hero to traitor. Some would argue that if it weren’t for Benedict Arnold we may not have won the American Revolutionary War. And they may be right. Yet at the same time he almost single-handedly lost the Revolutionary War.
Benedict Arnold was both the best and the worst of Americans during the Revolution. For he was a complex man. And a flawed man. After hostilities broke out at Lexington and Concord Arnold led his company from New Haven to Boston. One of the first to answer the call of duty after that fateful day when a shot was fired that was heard ’round the world. He was in it from the get-go. A Patriot. When it became apparent that the Americans lacked the artillery to attack the British in the fortified Boston they looked west. To Fort Ticonderoga. The Massachusetts Committee of Safety directed Arnold to raise a force and march on Fort Ticonderoga. Capture it. And bring back their cannon for action on the British fortifications at Boston. The Connecticut Committee of Safety, not knowing of the orders given to Arnold, gave similar orders to Ethan Allen. These two leaders met on the way to Ticonderoga. Argued a little. Then shared command. Captured Ticonderoga. Ethan Allen dragged the captured cannon back to Boston while Arnold went on and captured Crown Point. Captured a British ship. Sailed it to St. John. And captured it.
Right from the beginning Arnold was what the Americans needed. An aggressive leader who took the initiative. And he would again. But Arnold was also a prima donna. He yearned for glory. Shortly after Ticonderoga Congress decided on a Canadian campaign. To conquer the British in Montreal and Quebec (City) so the Canadians could join the Americans as the fourteenth colony. While a campaign was put together for Montreal Arnold persuaded General Washington for another campaign he would lead through Maine to Quebec. Washington approved.
Arnold’s Action around Saratoga brought the French into the War and Changed everything for Britain
So Arnold gathered his force. Including one Daniel Morgan. And marched through the inhospitable wilderness of Maine in some unpleasant weather. His men were wet, hungry, cold and miserable. They made it to Quebec and assaulted the fortress in a January blizzard. It did not go well. Richard Montgomery, coming to join Arnold after conquering Montreal, was killed in the attack. Arnold was wounded. The Americans retreated. First to Montreal. Then all the way back to Ticonderoga. Battling the British in a rearguard action. While smallpox decimated the American ranks. British General Carleton was in hot pursuit coming down to Lake Champlain. Where Arnold would meet him. He threw together a small makeshift squadron and met Carleton in battle on Lake Champlain. Arnold lost his fleet. But he delayed Carleton a month. Unprepared for a winter campaign, Carleton retreated. Thus Arnold prevented a British drive down the Hudson valley to separate New England from the rest of the colonies.
About a year later British General John Burgoyne launched a three-pronged attack consisting of a force attacking east from Oswego through the Mohawk valley. A force attacking north up the Hudson River from New York. And a force led by Burgoyne taking the same route Carleton had a year earlier. Down through Lake Champlain and into the upper Hudson valley. All three prongs to converge around Albany. To cut off New England from the rest of the colonies. The southern prong coming out of New York never materialized, though. For General Howe was busy running around in Pennsylvania. While the other two prongs got bogged down before reaching their objectives. Burgoyne himself was having some trouble around a little town called Saratoga. Burgoyne’s lines of communications were stretched dangerously long. He was getting into trouble. At the same time, though, political intrigue changed the American commander. Horatio Gates replaced General Schuler. Gates was content to trust his defenses and wait for the British assault. Arnold saw the British were going to attempt to turn a weak American flank at Freeman’s Farm. He argued with Gates to counter that move. He finally gave in and agreed to send a force that included Daniel Morgan’s riflemen. As that battle ebbed and flowed Arnold led a force against the British center.
Arnold saved the day. Had he received reinforcements he may have defeated the British army that day. Instead Gates relieved Arnold of his command. And marginalized him in his report to Congress. At the subsequent battle at Bemis Heights Arnold, without a command, gathered some men and assaulted some British fortifications as the British retired behind them. Breached the fortifications. Sending the British in retreat all the way back to Saratoga. Getting a horse shot out from underneath him in the process. And taking another bullet in the leg. Because of Arnold’s action around Saratoga Burgoyne had no choice but to ask for terms of surrender. And he surrendered to General Horatio Gates. Who got all the glory. While his part in this victory was marginal at best. But this victory was big. It brought the French into the war. Which changed everything for Britain. Who now had a world war on their hands. And the Spanish would later join that war against the British. As allies to the French. Then Catherine the Great of Russia led a drive for an armed neutrality of the other nations not taking sides in this new world war. Which isolated Britain further. Making it more difficult to interdict supplies going to the American rebels on neutral ships.
We remember Benedict Arnold not for the Hero he was but for the Traitor he Became
You could say that Benedict Arnold made this all possible. By saving New England twice. First by delaying Carleton on Lake Champlain. Then winning the battles at Freeman’s Farm and Bemis Heights. But did he get the glory? No. Some respected him. General Washington did. But the politics of the Congress were against him. Which was a problem for a man like Arnold. Who had a huge ego. Was arrogant. A bit of a hothead. And had a gambling problem. Put it all together and it caused this Patriot to become a traitor. Because he was not given the proper respect for his glorious achievements. And saving the American cause time and again. If the American political elite would not give him the proper respect the British would. And made a deal with him. Money and security for the rest of his life for him and his family. In exchange for information. And control of the Hudson River via the forts of West Point.
Arnold asked for and got command of West Point from General Washington. And then started feeding the British inside information. And began making plans for the handover of West Point to the British. To finally sever New England from the rest of the colonies. And it might have happened as planned if not for his British contact, Major André, being caught behind the American lines out of uniform with plans of how to capture the forts of West Point. Arnold was to meet General Washington that day who by then knew of André’s capture. Arnold did not. But he found out just in time to escape to the British lines. André was not so lucky. For the Americans hanged him as a spy.
Arnold would return to America. As a British general. Landing in Virginia and leading an army of Loyalist Tories near the end of the war. Doing some damage. But he would never recapture past glories. He would retire to England. Pretty much a footnote in the British history of the American Revolutionary War. For their investment in Arnold delivered little. So Arnold would live out his remaining days a man with no real country. He could never return to America. And the British never really accepted him. Americans and British alike lamented the death of Major André. Who died because of Arnold. A death he nevertheless faced with honor and courage. But Arnold would suffer a worse fate. Indifference. He mattered to no one. He had no honor. Lived another 20 years or so. Insignificant. And died a traitor. Which is the only thing we remember him for. Not the hero he was. But the traitor he became.
Tags: Allen, American Revolutionary War, Arnold, Artillery, Bemis Heights, Benedict Arnold, Boston, Britain, British, Burgoyne, Canadian, cannon, Carleton, Committee of Safety, Daniel Morgan, Ethan Allen, Fort Ticonderoga, Freeman's Farm, French, Gates, General Washington, hero, Horatio Gates, Hudson River, Lake Champlain, Loyalist, Maine, Major André, Montreal, New England, Patriot, Quebec, Revolutionary War, Saratoga, Ticonderoga, traitor, Washington, West Point
The Scotch-Irish and Germans in the South had a connection to the Stuart/Hanover King George III
It turns out the first British general to lose an army on the field of battle to the Americans was the only one with a coordinated plan. General Burgoyne planned to separate and isolate New England with a coordinated three-prong attack. He’d attack down Lake Champlain and the upper Hudson. St. Leger would attack out of Oswego and head east along the Mohawk valley. With Howe coming up the Hudson. Bringing all three prongs together around Albany. And it may have worked if Burgoyne had overall command of British forces in America. But he didn’t. For there was no one in charge of all British forces coordinating their resources in a unified plan. So General Howe ran around Pennsylvania instead of going up the Hudson to meet Burgoyne at Albany. Downriver from Saratoga. Where Burgoyne surrendered his army.
Now Burgoyne wasn’t the greatest general the British had. But he had about the only grand strategy to defeat the Americans. For no one else tried to marshal Britain’s superior forces towards some strategic end. Lucky for the Americans as it gave them the time to survive through Valley Forge. Where they emerged as good as any European army. Which rebuffed the British when they turned to the Middle States. Cities they captured they eventually gave up and left for the Americans. And returned to New York. Where a large British force stayed ensconced throughout the American Revolutionary War. While another British force tried their luck in the South.
Things could have been different in the South. For there were a lot of Loyalists in the South. Especially in the back country of North and South Carolina. A great mutt of nationalities. Including a lot of Scotch-Irish. And Germans. Who had a connection to King George III. Who was the king of England and Wales. As well as Scotland, Ireland and Hanover. A German province. And family. Related to the British House of Stuart. Yes, those Stuarts. Who had ruled England for such a long time. And still do to this day. Thanks to their Hanoverian relations. So there was hope in the South for Britain. Made even more promising by the fact that these Scotch-Irish and Germans didn’t get along well with the local American governments.
Tarleton’s Waxhaw Massacre inflamed anti-British Sentiment and Turned a lot of Neutrals into Patriots
In truth once you moved away from the big cities the South was neither Loyalist nor Patriot. It was both. Depending on where in the South you were. In fact there was a lot of bloody fighting in the South that the British had no part in. This bloody fighting was between neighbors and families. Which is why it was so bloody. For civil wars are the cruelest of wars. Because of the vengeance factor. Whenever your enemy did unspeakable acts of atrocities to their former friends and family the retaliation was in kind. Or worse. It was an ideal environment to wage war in. A little overwhelming force and coordination with the Loyalist side could have paid large dividends for the British. Sort of like D-Day in World War II. The Allies dropped paratroopers behind the beach defenses to support the beach invasions. A multi-pronged British force could have done the same. Attacked the coastal areas while the Loyalists kept the Patriots busy, preventing them from joining the action in the coastal areas.
Instead the British won great battles. And captured cities. But the surrounding countryside was rife with partisan guerilla war. The British did not bring a large enough force to subdue the countryside. Or to protect the cities they won. Where Patriot leaders like Francis Marion, Thomas Sumter, Andrew Pickens and Daniel Morgan rode freely, making hit and run raids at will. While British Lieutenant Colonel Banastre Tarleton lead a cavalry unit made up of Loyalists Tories. The Loyal Legion. (Mel Gibson’s character in the movie The Patriot was a composite based on these Patriots. And his enemy was based on Tarleton). And waged a cruel war that won him no love from those who had remained neutral in the South. Such as following the fall of Charleston. Tarleton set out to try and subdue the countryside. And met a force of some 300 Virginians commanded by Colonel Buford at Waxhaw Creek. When they met Tarleton demanded Buford’s surrender. He refused. They fought. Overwhelmed, the Americans raised the white flag. Tarleton’s men then killed the surrendering Americans by bayonet. Perhaps the cruelest act of the war. And from this came the battle cry ‘Tarleton’s quarter’. Meaning take no prisoners when fighting the British. The British win at Waxhaw secured much of the south for them. But the massacre inflamed anti-British sentiment. Turning a lot of neutrals into Patriots.
For the most part both the British and the American regular soldiers fought according to accepted rules of warfare. And committed no such atrocities like the Waxhaw Massacre. In fact, it wasn’t even the British who committed this atrocity. It was American Loyalists fighting for Tarleton. Part of that civil war in the South. Which grew ugly. The British and their Tory American allies were like Vikings. Doing a lot of pillaging. And not being very nice to the Patriot ladies. While their men were away they not only looted their homes but stole the possessions they were wearing at gun and sword point. And who knows what else. Acts perpetrated on no orders. But by the free-for-all in a land consumed by civil war. And once again the crueler the war the more it inspired people to continue the fight. While their men were away continuing the good fight their women were at home. Securing supplies for their Patriot men. And getting them to those fighting the good fight. Brave women these Patriot women. And heroes.
General Daniel Morgan’s Victory at the Battle of Cowpens was the Turning Point of the War
The ‘hero’ of Saratoga came south to take command of American forces. Horatio Gates. Who came in to take command just prior to the surrender at Saratoga. Where the battle was truly won by future traitor Benedict Arnold. And Daniel Morgan’s riflemen. Who would leave the military soon thereafter. After a long and distinguished career. But those in Congress gave the credit to Gates. As they did the Southern Department. Something General Washington was not in favor of. And for good reason. For Gates displayed a certain incompetence that put his army in danger. And suffered one of the greatest American defeats at the Battle of Camden. In the general route that followed Gates got on a horse and fled from the battlefield. And did not stop fleeing until he reached Charlotte. Some 60 miles away.
General Nathaniel Greene replaced General Gates in the Southern Department. He was who Washington wanted for the position in the first place. And Morgan emerged from retirement to join the department under Greene. Where they and those other Patriot partisans were causing all sorts of trouble for the British in the South. General Morgan was proving to be quite the problem so General Cornwallis detached Tarleton and his Loyal Legion to handle the Morgan problem. And caught up to him at Cowpens. Suffering one of the greatest British defeats of the war. (The final battle in The Patriot is based on the Battle of Cowpens. Though in real life Tarleton survived and returned to England, forever haunted by this great defeat). Which proved to be the turning point of the war. Setting the stage for another British army to surrender.
The failed British Strategy in the South allowed a revitalized American army to push the British across Virginia. To the coast. Where they were hoping to get support from the Royal Navy. Only to see the French navy. For the French had joined the American cause after the victory as Saratoga. And were now joining forces with the Americans under General Washington. At a little place called Yorktown. Where Cornwallis found his back to the water. And the French navy. While surrounded on land by a Franco-American force. And for the second time in the American Revolutionary War a large British army surrendered on the field of battle to an American general. Only this time “northern laurels” didn’t turn into “southern willows” as they had for Gates. The victory at Yorktown was only the prelude to an American win in the Revolutionary War. And the birth of a new nation.
Tags: American Revolutionary War, Americans, Banastre Tarleton, Britain, British, Buford, Burgoyne, Camden, Civil War, Cornwallis, Cowpens, Daniel Morgan, England, French, Gates, General Burgoyne, General Cornwallis, General Washington, Germans, Greene, Hanover, Horatio Gates, Loyal Legion, Loyalist, Morgan, navy, partisan, Patriot, Revolutionary War, Saratoga, Scotch-Irish, Southern Department, Stuart, Tarleton, the South, Tory, Virginia, Washington, Waxhaw, Waxhaw Massacre, Yorktown