Week in Review
On July 6, 2013, a 4,701 ft-long train weighing 10,287 tons carrying crude oil stopped for the night at Nantes, Quebec. She stopped on the mainline as the siding was occupied. The crew of one parked the train, set the manual handbrakes on all 5 locomotives and 10 of the 72 freight cars and shut down 4 of the 5 locomotives. Leaving one on to supply air pressure for the air brakes. Then caught a taxi and headed for a motel.
The running locomotive had a broken piston. Causing the engine to puff out black smoke and sparks as it sat there idling. Later that night someone called 911 and reported that there was a fire on that locomotive. The fire department arrived and per their protocol shut down the running locomotive before putting out the fire. Otherwise the running locomotive would only continue to feed the fire by pumping more fuel into it. After they put out the fire they called the railroad who sent some personnel out to make sure the train was okay. After they did they left, too. But ever since the fire department had shut down that locomotive air pressure had been dropping in the train line. Eventually this loss of air pressure released the air brakes. Leaving only the manual handbrakes to hold the train. Which they couldn’t. The train started to coast downhill. Picking up speed. Reaching about 60 mph as it hit a slow curve with a speed limit of 10 mph in Lac-Mégantic and jumped the track. Derailing 63 of the 72 tank cars. Subsequent tank car punctures, oil spills and explosions killed some 47 people and destroyed over 30 buildings.
This is the danger of shipping crude oil in rail cars. There’s a lot of potential and kinetic energy to control. Especially at these weights. For that puts a lot of mass in motion that can become impossible to stop. Of course, adding safety features to prevent things like this from happening, such as making these tank cars puncture-proof, can add a lot of non-revenue weight. Which takes more fuel to move. And that costs more money. Which will raise the cost of delivering this crude oil to refineries. And increase the cost of the refined products they make from it. Unless the railroads find other ways to cut costs. Say by shortening delivery times by traveling faster. Allowing them an extra revenue-producing delivery or two per year to make up for the additional costs. But thanks to the tragedy at Lac-Mégantic, though, not only will they be adding additional non-revenue weight they will be slowing their trains down, too (see Rail safety improvements announced by Lisa Raitt in wake of Lac-Mégantic posted 4/23/2014 on CBC News).
Changes to improve rail safety were announced Wednesday by federal Transport Minister Lisa Raitt in response to recommendations made by the Transportation Safety Board in the aftermath of the tragedy in Lac-Mégantic, Que.
The federal government wants a three-year phase-out or retrofit of older tank cars that are used to transport crude oil or ethanol by rail, but will not implement a key TSB recommendation that rail companies conduct route planning when transporting dangerous goods…
There are 65,000 of the more robust Dot-111 cars in North America that must be phased out or retrofitted within three years if used in Canada, Raitt said, adding, “Officials have advised us three years is doable.” She said she couldn’t calculate the cost of the retrofits, but told reporters, “industry will be footing the bill…”
The transport minister also announced that mandatory emergency response plans will be required for all crude oil shipments in Canada…
Raitt also said railway companies will be required to reduce the speed of trains carrying dangerous goods. The speed limit will be 80 kilometres an hour [about 49 mph] for key trains, she said. She added that risk assessments will be conducted in certain areas of the country about further speed restrictions, a request that came from the Canadian Federation of Municipalities…
Brian Stevens head of UNIFOR, which represents thousands of unionized rail car inspectors at CN, CP and other Canadian rail companies, called today’s announcement a disappointment.
“This announcement really falls short, and lets Canadians down,” he told CBC News.
“These DOT-11 cars, they should be banned from carrying crude oil immediately. They can still be used to carry vegetable oil, or diesel fuel, but for carrying this dangerous crude there should be an immediate moratorium and that should have been easy enough for the minister to do and she failed to do that.
“There’s a lot of other tank cars in the system that can carry crude,” Stevens explained. “There doesn’t need to be this reliance on these antiquated cars that are prone to puncture.”
Industry will not be footing the bill. That industry’s customers will be footing the bill. As all businesses pass on their costs to their customers. As it is the only way a business can stay in business. Because they need to make money to pay all of their employees as well as all of their bills. So if their costs increase they will have to raise their prices to ensure they can pay all of their employees and all of their bills.
What will the cost of this retrofit be? To make these 65,000 tank cars puncture-proof? Well, adding weight to these cars will take labor and material. That additional weight may require modifications to the springs, brakes and bearings. Perhaps even requiring another axel or two per car. Let’s assume that it will take a crew of 6 three days to complete this retrofit per tank car (disassemble, reinforce and reassemble as well as completing other modifications required because of the additional weight). Assuming a union labor cost (including taxes and benefits) of $125/hour and non-labor costs equaling labor costs would bring the retrofit for these 65,000 tanks cars to approximately $2.34 billion. Which they will, of course, pass on to their customers. Who will pass it on all the way to the gas station where we fill up our cars. They will also pass down the additional fuel costs to pull all that additional nonrevenue weight.
Making these trains safer will be costly. Of course, it begs this burning question: Why not just build pipelines? Like the Keystone XL pipeline? Which can deliver more crude oil faster and safer than any train can deliver it. And with a smaller environmental impact. As pipelines don’t crash or puncture. So why not be safer and build the Keystone XL pipeline in lieu of using a more dangerous mode of transportation that results in tragedies like that at Lac-Mégantic? Why? Because of politics. To shore up the Democrat base President Obama would rather risk Lac-Mégantic tragedies. Instead of doing what’s best for the American economy. And the American people. Namely, building the Keystone XL pipeline.
Tags: air brakes, air pressure, Canada, costs, crude oil, Dot-111 cars, fuel, handbrakes, Keystone, Keystone pipeline, Keystone XL pipeline, Lac-Megantic, locomotive, North America, oil, pipeline, puncture, rail cars, rail safety, railroad, retrofit, revenue, tank cars, train
Week in Review
The Boeing 747 ruled the long-haul routes for decades. Because of its range. And its size. With it being able to carry so many passengers the cost per passenger fell. Allowing it to offer ticket prices at prices people could afford while still making airlines a decent profit. Airbus took on the Boeing 747. And produced the mammoth A380. A double-decker aircraft that can carry around 555 in three classes. But this plane is big. With a wingspan greater than the 747. Not to mention special boarding requirements to load and unload its two decks. But this extra large size couldn’t board at any run-of-the-mill 747 gate. It needed a wider parking place. Double-decker boarding gates. As well as wider taxiways (see Korean Air A380 Hits 2 Light Poles At LA Airport by Tami Abdollah, AP, posted 4/17/2014 on Time).
A Korean Air A380 superjumbo jet hit two light poles while taxiing to its gate at a remote end of Los Angeles International Airport with hundreds of passengers aboard.
Airline spokeswoman Penny Pfaelzer says the flight arrived from Seoul Wednesday afternoon with 384 people aboard. She says an airport operations vehicle guided the jet onto a taxiway that wasn’t wide enough…
The A380 is the world’s largest commercial airliner, carrying passengers in a double-deck configuration. It has a wingspan of nearly 262 feet.
The search for Malaysian Airlines Flight 370 is important. Because Malaysian Airlines Flight 370 was a Boeing 777. One of the most popular long-range, wide-body aircraft flying today. So if there is a mechanical defect every airline flying that plane would want to know.
Because of the cost of fuel airlines prefer 2-engine jets over 4-engine jets. Which is why they like the 777 so much. The 777-300ER can take 386 passengers in three classes 9,128 miles. On only 2 engines. Whereas the Airbus A380 can take 555 passengers in three classes 9,755 miles. But on 4 engines. Burning close to twice the fuel a 777 burns. So the A380 can out fly the 777. But at much higher fuel costs. And with greater restrictions. As the 777 can fit most any gate and taxiway at any airport. Unlike the A380. So is that extra passenger capacity worth it? It is. As long as you can fill the seats. In this case, though, the A380 flew the approximately 6,000 miles from South Korea to Los Angeles with only 384 people aboard. Something the Boeing 777-300ER could have done on half the engines. And about half the fuel cost.
This is why the Boeing 777 is one of the most popular long-range, wide-body aircraft flying today. Because it allows airlines to offer tickets at prices the people can afford while allowing the airlines a handsome profit. And it has an incredible safety record. Unless Malaysian Flight 370 changes that. Which is why it is so important to find that plane and determine what happen. As there are so many of these flying today.
Tags: 747, 777-300ER, A380, Airbus, Airbus A380, aircraft, airlines, Boeing 747, Boeing 777, fuel, fuel cost, long-range, passengers, range, wide-body aircraft
The Amtrak Crescent is about a 1,300 Mile 30 Hour Trip between New Orleans and New York City
An Amtrak train derailed this morning west of Spartanburg, South Carolina. Thankfully, the cars remained upright. And no one was seriously injured (see Amtrak Crescent with 218 aboard derails in SC by AP posted 11/25/2013 on Yahoo! News).
There were no serious injuries, Amtrak said of the 207 passengers and 11 crew members aboard when the cars derailed shortly after midnight in the countryside on a frosty night with 20-degree readings from a cold front sweeping the Southeast.
This is the Amtrak Crescent. About a 30 hour trip one way. It runs between New Orleans and New York City. Approximately 1,300 miles of track. Not Amtrak track. They just lease track rights from other railroads. Freight railroads. Railroads that can make a profit. Which is hard to do on a train traveling 1,300 miles with only 207 revenue-paying passengers.
People may board and leave the train throughout this route. But if we assume the average for this whole trip was 207 and they were onboard from New Orleans to New York City we can get some revenue numbers from the Amtrak website. We’ll assume a roundtrip. They each have to pay for a seat which runs approximately $294. Being that this is a long trip we’ll assume 20 of these people also paid an additional $572 for a room with a bed and a private toilet. Bringing the total revenue for this train to approximately $72,298. Not too shabby. Now let’s look at the costs of this train.
Diesel Trains consume about 3-4 Gallons of Fuel per Mile
If you search online for track costs you will find a few figures. All of them very costly. We’ll assume new track costs approximately $1.3 million per mile of track. This includes land. Rights of way. Grading. Bridges. Ballast. Ties. Rail. Switches. Signals. Etc. So for 1,300 miles that comes to $1.69 billion. Track and ties take a beating and have to be replaced often. Let’s say they replace this track every 7 years. So that’s an annual depreciation cost of $241 million. Or $663,265 per day. Assuming 12 trains travel this rail each day that comes to about $55,272 per train.
Once built they have to maintain it. Which includes replacing worn out rail and ties. Repairing washouts. Repairing track, switches and signals vandalized or damaged in train derailments and accidents. This work is ongoing every day. For there are always sections of the road under repair. It’s not as costly as building new track but it is costly. And comes to approximately $300,000 per mile. For the 1,300 miles of track between New Orleans and New York City the annual maintenance costs come to $390 million. Or $1 million per day. Assuming 12 trains travel this rail each day that comes to about $89,286 per train.
Diesel trains consume about 3-4 gallons of fuel per mile. Because passenger trains are lighter than freight trains we’ll assume a fuel consumption of 3 gallons per mile. For a 1,300 mile trip that comes to 3,900 gallons of diesel. Assuming a diesel price of $3 per gallon the fuel costs for this trip comes to $11,700. The train had a crew of 11. Assuming an annual payroll for engineer, conductor, porter, food service, etc., the crew costs are approximately $705,000. Or approximately $1,937 per day. Finally, trains don’t have steering wheels. They are carefully dispatched through blocks from New Orleans all the way to New York. Safely keeping one train in one block at a time. Assuming the annual payroll for all the people along the way that safely route traffic comes to about $1 million. Adding another $2,967 per day.
Politicians love High-Speed Rail because it’s like National Health Care on Wheels
If you add all of this up the cost of the Amtrak Crescent one way is approximately $161,162. If we subtract this from half of the roundtrip revenue (to match the one-way costs) we get a loss of $88,864. So the losses are greater than the fare charged the travelling public. And this with the freight railroads picking up the bulk of the overhead. Which is why Amtrak cannot survive without government subsidies. Too few trains are travelling with too few people aboard. If Amtrak charged enough just to break even on the Crescent they would raise the single seat price from $294 to $723. An increase of 146%.
Of course Amtrak can’t charge these prices. Traveling by train is a great and unique experience. But is it worth paying 80% more for a trip that takes over 7 times as long as flying? That is a steep premium to pay. And one only the most avid and rich train enthusiast will likely pay. Which begs the question why are we subsidizing passenger rail when it’s such a poor economic model that there is no private passenger rail? Because of all those costs. Congress loves spending money. And they love making a lot of costly jobs. And that’s one thing railroads offer. Lots of costly jobs. For it takes a lot of people to build, maintain and operate a railroad.
Which is why all politicians want to build high-speed rail. For it doesn’t get more costly than that. These are dedicated roads. And they’re electric. Which makes the infrastructure the most costly of all rail. Because of the high speeds there are no grade crossings. Crossing traffic goes under. Or over. But never across. And they don’t share the road with anyone. There are no profitable freight trains running on high-speed lines to share the costs. No. Fewer trains must cover greater costs. Making the losses greater. And the subsidies higher. Which is why politicians love high-speed rail. It’s like national health care on wheels.
Tags: Amtrak, Amtrak Crescent, block, costs, diesel, freight train, fuel, high-speed rail, maintenance, New Orleans, New York City, passenger rail, rail, railroad, revenue, road, signals, switches, ties, track, train
The Steam Locomotive was one of the Few Technologies that wasn’t replaced by a Superior Technology
Man first used stone tools about two and a half million years ago. We first controlled fire for our use about a million years ago. We first domesticated animals and began farming a little over 10,000 years ago. The Egyptians were moving goods by boats some 5,000 years ago. The Greeks and Romans first used the water wheel for power about 2,500 years ago. The Industrial Revolution began about 250 years ago. James Watt improved the steam engine about 230 years ago. England introduced the first steam locomotive into rail service about 210 years ago.
In the first half of the 1800s the United States started building its railroads. Helping the North to win the Civil War. And completing the transcontinental railroad in 1869. By 1890 there were about 130,000 miles of track crisscrossing the United States. With the stream locomotives growing faster. And more powerful. These massive marvels of engineering helped the United States to become the number one economic power in the world. As her vast resources and manufacturing centers were all connected by rail. These powerful steam locomotives raced people across the continent. And pulled ever longer—and heavier—freight trains.
We built bigger and bigger steam locomotives. That had the power to pull freight across mountains. To race across the Great Plains. And into our cities. With the chugging sound and the mournful steam whistle filling many a childhood memories. But by the end of World War II the era of steam was over. After little more than a century. Barely a blip in the historical record. Yet it advanced mankind in that century like few other technological advances. Transforming the Industrial Revolution into the Second Industrial Revolution. Or the Technological Revolution. That gave us the steel that built America. Electric Power. Mass production. And the production line. None of which would have happened without the steam locomotive. It was one of the few technologies that wasn’t replaced by a superior technology. For the steam locomotive was more powerful than the diesel-electric that replaced it. But the diesel-electric was far more cost-efficient than the steam locomotive. Even if you had to lash up 5 diesels to do the job of one steam locomotive.
The Hot Gases from the Firebox pass through the Boiler Tubes to Boil Water into Steam
The steam engine is an external combustion engine. Unlike the internal combustion engine the burning of fuel did not move a piston. Instead burning fuel produced steam. And the expansion energy in steam moved the piston. The steam locomotive is a large but compact boiler on wheels. At one end is a firebox that typically burned wood, coal or oil. At the other end is the smokebox. Where the hot gases from the firebox ultimately vent out into the atmosphere through the smokestack. In between the firebox and the smokebox are a bundle of long pipes. Boiler tubes. The longer the locomotive the longer the boiler tubes.
To start a fire the fireman lights something to burn with a torch and places it on the grating in the firebox. As this burns he may place some pieces of wood on it to build the fire bigger. Once the fire is strong he will start shoveling in coal. Slowly but surely the fire grows hotter. The hot gases pass through the boiler tubes and into the smokebox. And up the smoke stack. Water surrounds the boiler tubes. The hot gases in the boiler tubes heat the water around the tubes. Boiling it into steam. Slowly but surely the amount of water boiled into steam grows. Increasing the steam pressure in the boiler. At the top of the boiler over the boiler tubes is a steam dome. A high point in the boiler where steam under pressure collects looking for a way out of the boiler. Turned up into the steam dome is a pipe that runs down and splits into two. Running to the valve chest above each steam cylinder. Where the steam pushes a piston back and forth. Which connects to the drive wheels via a connecting rod.
When the engineer moves the throttle level it operates a variable valve in the steam dome. The more he opens this valve the more steam flows out of the boiler and into the valve chests. And the greater the speed. The valve in the valve chest moved back and forth. When it moved to one side it opened a port into the piston cylinder behind the piston to push it one way. Then the valve moved the other way. Opening a port on the other side of the piston cylinder to allow steam to flow in front of the piston. To push it back the other way. As the steam expanded in the cylinder to push the piston the spent steam exhausted into the smoke stack and up into the atmosphere. Creating a draft that helped pull the hot gases from the firebox through the boiler tubes, into the smokebox and out the smoke stack. Creating the chugging sound from our childhood memories.
The Challenger and the Big Boy were the Superstars of Steam Locomotives
To keep the locomotive moving required two things. A continuous supply of fuel and water. Stored in the tender trailing the locomotive. The fireman shoveled coal from the tender into the firebox. What space the coal wasn’t occupying in the tender was filled with water. The only limit on speed and power was the size of the boiler. The bigger the firebox the hotter the fire. And the hungrier it was for fuel. The bigger locomotives required a mechanized coal feeder into the firebox as a person couldn’t shovel the coal fast enough. Also, the bigger the engine the greater the weight. The greater the weight the greater the wear and tear on the rail. Like trucks on the highway railroads had a limit of weight per axel. So as the engines got bigger the more wheels there were ahead of the drive wheels and trailing the drive wheels. For example, the Hudson 4-6-4 had two axels (with four wheels) ahead of the drive wheels. Three axles (with 6 wheels) connected to the pistons that powered the train. And two axels (with four wheels) trailing the drive wheels to help support the weight of the firebox.
To achieve ever higher speeds and power over grades required ever larger boilers. For higher speeds used a lot of steam. Requiring a huge firebox to keep boiling water into steam to maintain those higher speeds. But greater lengths and heavier boilers required more wheels. And more wheels did not turn well in curves. Leading to more wear and tear on the rails. Enter the 4-6-6-4 Challenger. The pinnacle of steam locomotive design. To accommodate this behemoth on curves the designers reintroduced the articulating locomotive. They split up the 12 drive wheels of the then most powerful locomotive in service into two sets of 6. Each with their own set of pistons. While the long boiler was a solid piece the frame underneath wasn’t. It had a pivot point. The first set of drive wheels and the four wheels in front of them were in front of this pivot. And the second set of drive wheels and the trailing 4 wheels that carried the weight of the massive boiler on the Challenger were behind this pivot. So instead of having one 4-6-6-4 struggling through curves there was one 4-6 trailing one 6-4. Allowing it to negotiate curves easier and at greater speeds.
The Challenger was fast. And powerful. It could handle just about any track in America. Except that over the Wasatch Range between Green River, Wyoming and Ogden, Utah. Here even the Challenger couldn’t negotiate those grades on its own. These trains required double-heading. Two Challengers with two crews (unlike lashing up diesels today where one crew operates multiple units from one cab). And helper locomotives. This took a lot of time. And cost a lot of money. So to negotiate these steep grades Union Pacific built the 4-8-8-4 articulated Big Boy. Basically the Challenger on steroids. The Big Boy could pull anything anywhere. The Challenger and the Big Boy were the superstars of steam locomotives. But these massive boilers on wheels required an enormous amount of maintenance. Which is why they lasted but 20 years in service. Replaced by tiny little diesel-electric locomotives. That revolutionized railroading. Because they were so less costly to maintain and operate. Even if you had to use 7 of them to do what one Big Boy could do.
Tags: articulating, Big Boy, boiler, boiler tubes, Challenger, Coal, diesel-electric, drive wheels, firebox, fireman, fuel, Hudson, Industrial Revolution, locomotive, maintenance, piston, piston cylinder, power, rail, railroad, smoke stack, smokebox, smokestack, speed, steam, steam cylinder, steam dome, steam engine, steam locomotive, tender, throttle, track, valve, valve chest, water
Week in Review
When people fly on vacation they’re about to spend a lot of money. And a big cost is airfare. Which they will try to book in advance to lock in some low prices. This is what people think about when they are about to fly on vacation. Not carbon emissions (see America’s greenest airlines by N.B. posted 9/17/2013 on The Economist).
IN THEORY, fuel efficiency should be a win-win proposition for airlines. Burning less fuel is better for the environment and the carriers’ bottom lines—fuel is generally their biggest single cost. That’s why one finding from a recent fuel-efficiency study is so surprising. In a new report (pdf), the International Council on Clean Transportation (ICCT) found that Allegiant Air, the most profitable airline on domestic American routes between 2009 and 2011, was also the least fuel-efficient airline during 2010.
…The upshot is obvious: according to the researchers, the financial benefits of fuel efficiency have not been enough to force convergence—”Fuel prices alone may not be a sufficient driver of in-service efficiency across all airlines…. Fixed equipment costs, maintenance costs, labour agreements, and network structure can all sometimes exert countervailing pressures against the tendency for high fuel prices to drive efficiency improvements.”
So if the bottom line cannot force airlines to be more fuel efficient, what can? The researchers suggest that airlines can start by making more data available to the public…Cars come with fuel-efficiency ratings, and appliances come with energy-efficiency stickers. Maybe flights should include that kind of data, too, so that concerned passengers can make an informed choice.
Allegiant Air is a low-cost no-frills airline that caters to people going on vacation. And when you’re on vacation you are taking a break from worrying. About the bills. The job. Even the environment. You may drive a Prius back at home. But for two 4-hour flights a year (to and from your vacation spot) you’re just not going to worry about carbon emissions. Because you’re on vacation.
Allegiant Air flies predominantly MD-80s that sit about 166 people. An MD-80 is basically a stretched out DC-9. These have two tail-mounted turbojet engines. The least fuel-efficient engines on planes. But these turbojet engines are small and can attach to the fuselage at the tail. Allowing it to use shorter landing gear. These planes sit lower to the ground and can be serviced with the smaller jet-ways you see at smaller airports. Where Allegiant Air flies out of nonstop to their vacation destinations. People like not having to make a connecting flight. And will gladly dump a few extra tons of carbon into the atmosphere for this convenience.
The Allegiant Air business model includes other things to help keep costs down. They are nonunion. They also fly only a few flights a week at each airport. Allowing a smaller crew to service and maintain their fleet. These labor savings greatly offset the poorer fuel efficiency of their engines. The airlines that have unions (pilots, flight attendants, maintenance, etc.) all share something in common. Recurring bankruptcies. Which Allegiant Air doesn’t have. Despite their higher fuel costs.
Fuel costs are an airlines greatest cost. Especially for the long-haul routes. Which burn a lot more fuel per flight than the typical Allegiant Air flight. Which is why the fuel-efficient Boeing 787 is so attractive to them. As they need to squeeze every dime out of their fuel costs as they can. To offset their high union labor costs. Those very costs that return a lot of airlines to bankruptcy.
Tags: airlines, Allegiant Air, carbon emissions, engines, fuel, fuel costs, fuel efficiency, MD-80, plane, turbojet, turbojet engines, union
Trains require an Enormous Amount of Infrastructure between Terminal Points whereas a Plane does Not
Trains and jets are big and expensive. And take huge sums of money to move freight and passengers. Each has their strength. And each has their weakness. Planes are great for transporting people. While trains are best for moving heavy freight. They both can and do transport both. But pay a premium when they are not operating at their strength.
The big difference between these two modes of transportation is infrastructure. Trains require an enormous amount of infrastructure between terminal points. Whereas a plane doesn’t need anything between terminal points. Because they fly in the air. But because they fly in the air they need a lot of fuel to produce enough lift to break free from the earth’s gravity. Trains, on the other hand, don’t have to battle gravity as much. As they move across the ground on steel rails. Which offer little resistance to steel wheels. Allowing them to pull incredible weights cross country. But to do that they need to build and maintain very expensive train tracks between point A and point B.
To illustrate the difference in costs each incurs moving both people and freight we’ll look at a hotshot freight train and a Boeing 747-8. A hotshot freight gets the best motive power and hustles on the main lines across the country. The Boeing 747-8 is the latest in the 747 family and includes both passenger and freighter versions. The distance between Los Angeles (LA) and New York City (NYC) is approximately 2,800 miles. So let’s look at the costs of each mode of transportation moving both people and freight between these two cities.
Railroads are so Efficient at moving Freight because One Locomotive can pull up to 5,000 Tons of Freight
There are many variables when it comes to the cost of building and maintaining railroad track. So we’re going to guesstimate a lot of numbers. And do a lot of number crunching. An approximate number for the cost per mile of new track is $1.3 million. That includes land, material and labor. So the cost of the track between LA and NYC is $3.6 billion. Assuming a 7-year depreciation schedule that comes to $1.4 million per day. If it takes 3 days for a hotshot freight to travel from LA to NYC that’s $4.3 million for those three days. Of course, main lines see a lot of traffic. So let’s assume there are 8 trains a day for a total of 24 trains during that 3-day period. This brings the depreciation expense for that trip from LA to NYC down to $178,082.
So that’s the capital cost of those train tracks between point A and point B. Now the operating costs. An approximate number for annual maintenance costs per mile of track is $300,000. So the annual cost to maintain the track between LA and NYC is $840 million. Crunching the numbers the rest of the way brings the maintenance cost for that 3-day trip to approximately $278,671. Assuming a fuel consumption of 4 gallons per mile, a fuel cost of $3/gallon and a lashup of 3 locomotives the fuel cost for that 3-day trip is approximately $100,800. Adding the capital cost, the maintenance expense and the fuel costs brings the total to $566,553. With each locomotive being able to pull approximately 5,000 tons of freight for a total of 15,000 tons brings the cost per ton of freight shipped to $37.77.
Now let’s look at moving people by train. People are a lot lighter than heavy freight. So we can drop one locomotive in the lashup. And burn about a gallon less per mile. Bringing the fuel cost down from $100,800 to $50,400. And the total cost to $516,153. Assuming these locomotives pull 14 Amtrak Superliners (plus a dining car and a baggage car) that’s a total of 1,344 passengers (each Superliner has a 96 passenger maximum capacity). Dividing the cost by the number of passengers gives us a cost of $384.04 per passenger.
Passenger Rail requires Massive Government Subsidies because of the Costs of Building and Maintaining Track
A Boeing 747-8 freighter can carry a maximum 147.9 tons of freight. While consuming approximately 13.7 gallons of jet fuel per mile. At 2,800 miles that trip from LA to NYC will consume about 38,403 gallons of jet fuel. At $3/gallon that comes to a $115,210 total fuel cost. Or $778.97 per ton. Approximately 1,962% more than moving a ton of freight from LA to NYC by train. Excluding the capital costs of locomotives, rolling stock, airplanes, terminal infrastructure/fees, etc. Despite that massive cost of building and maintaining rail between point A and point B the massive tonnage a train can move compared to what a plane can carry makes the train the bargain when moving freight. But it’s a different story when it comes to moving people.
The Boeing 747-8 carries approximately 467 people on a typical flight. And burns approximately 6.84 gallons per mile. Because people are a lot lighter than freight. Crunching the numbers gives a cost per passenger of $123.11. Approximately 212% less than what it costs a train to move a person. Despite fuel costs being almost the same. The difference is, of course, the additional $465,753 in costs for the track running between LA and NYC. Which comes to $346.54 per passenger. Or about 90% of the cost/passenger. Which is why there are no private passenger railroads these days. For if passenger rail isn’t heavily subsidized by the taxpayer the price of a ticket would be so great that no one would buy them. Except the very rich train enthusiast. Who is willing to pay 3 times the cost of flying and take about 12 times the time of flying.
There are private freight railroads. Private passenger airlines. And private air cargo companies. Because they all can attract customers without government subsidies. Passenger rail, on the other hand, can’t. Because of the massive costs to build and maintain railroad tracks. With high-speed rail being the most expensive track to build and maintain. Making it the most cost inefficient way to move people. Requiring massive government subsidies. Either for the track infrastructure. Or the electric power that powers high-speed rail.
Tags: Boeing 747-8, freight, freight train, fuel, fuel cost, government subsidies, heavy freight, high-speed rail, hotshot freight, infrastructure, jet, locomotive, maintenance costs, passenger rail, passengers, planes, railroad, railroad track, track, train tracks, trains
Week in Review
If you’ve watched Ice Road Truckers you’ve learned that it isn’t easy to move freight in Arctic regions. Like Alaska. Because there aren’t a lot of roads or bridges in Arctic regions. Hence the ice roads. Crossing rivers, lakes and oceans in the winter when they’re frozen over. But even these roads cover only a fraction of Alaska’s sprawling country. Which is why the airplane dominates in Alaska. To move freight. And people. Making for some really high transportation costs. Raising the costs of everything the good people of Alaska buy (see Hometown U: Could blimps find a place in Alaska skies? by Kathleen McCoy, Hometown U, posted 7/27/2013 on Anchorage Daily News).
Rob Harper at AUTC [Alaska University Transportation Center] pointed me to a new study the Center and UAA’s Institute for Social and Economic Research (ISER) partnered on, looking at the effect of higher transportation fuel prices. He called it a true eye-opener on the ever-rising cost of moving goods to and around Alaska. Every household and business is affected. No one thinks fuel prices will go down again.
ISER economists have often looked at spiking heat and electricity costs, but this was a first attempt to document higher transportation costs rippling through Alaska’s economy. In 2010, economist Ginny Fay and her study colleagues reported, Alaska’s per capita energy consumption was triple the national average.
Alaska fuel prices increased more than 25 percent between 2009 and 2010. Consumers responded by buying fewer cars and airplane tickets. They also paid higher prices for everything they did buy, from food to clothing…
Industries that use the most fuel are the hardest hit. In Alaska, that’s aviation, which uses 90 percent of it, Fay wrote.
And this in a state that exports oil. But while they may be rich in oil reserves they have no refinery capacity. Which means refined aviation fuel, diesel and gasoline has to be brought into Alaska. And unlike the lower 48, that get their refined petroleum products via pipelines, Alaska must rely on more costly modes of transportation. Shipping it over land or over water in smaller batches at greater prices.
Here’s where those slow, graceful dirigibles wedge their way back into our conversation. Being lighter than air thanks to nonflammable helium, and moving much slower than planes, they consume a lot less fuel. One research study for the military in 2009 compared an hour of flight time in an F-16 ($8,000) to an hour of flight time in a dirigible (less than $500).
Traditional air cargo is the most expensive way to move freight on a fuel-cost-per-ton-mile basis. Fay’s analysis showed that rail is cheapest, followed by trucks, then barge, ships and ferries. But Alaska only has 500 miles of rail. Our ships and barges often leave the state less than full, raising the cost per ton-mile. And we only have two roads, one north and one south. Most of Alaska is nowhere near a road or a coastline. So we’re back to air cargo.
Rail is the cheapest way to move heavy freight because of steel wheels on steel rails. There’s very little friction so locomotives can pull a very long train consist full of heavy freight. And they move fast. Day or night. In any kind of weather. So they can quickly carry revenue-producing freight nearly around the clock. Trucks are fast like trains but carry far less per load. And whereas railroads change out train crews to keep trains rolling around the clock most long-haul trucks are privately owned. And when the driver reaches his legal limit of driving time per day he or she has to park their rig and rest for a mandatory rest period. Thus reducing the revenue-miles of trucks compared to trains.
Barges, ships and ferries can carry larger loads than trucks but loading and unloading takes time. Time they can’t earn revenue. Also, they travel slower than trains or trucks. Limiting the amount of revenue-earning trips they can make. Whereas air cargo is the fastest way to move cargo. Allowing many revenue-earning trips. But the planes flying in Alaska carry a fraction of the cargo trains, trucks, barges, ships and ferries can carry. Greatly increasing the fuel-cost-per-ton-mile. Which makes the dirigible such an attractive alternative in Arctic regions like Alaska.
The dirigible doesn’t need a road or waterway. It can travel year round weather permitting. It’s slow but because it burns so little fuel the cost per trip is nothing compared to an airplane. It can’t carry as much as a train, barge or ship but it can go where a train, barge or ship can’t. And it can travel as the crow flies. A straight line between two points. Something that only an airplane can do. But it can do it for a far lower fuel-cost-per-ton-mile than an airplane.
There is little downside of using a dirigible to ship freight in these inhospitable Arctic regions. Unless you’re a fan of Ice Road Trucking. For a dirigible could probably carry anything a truck can carry. And without a road, paved or ice, to boot. Putting the ice road truckers out of business.
Tags: air cargo, airplane, Alaska, Arctic regions, aviation, blimp, dirigible, freight, fuel, fuel prices, fuel-cost-per-ton-mile, heavy freight, ice road, transportation costs
It takes a Lot of Time to Design, Develop and Bring to Market a Radical New Aircraft
The number one cost airlines have is fuel. So anything that can reduce fuel consumption can cut an airline’s costs. Aircraft manufacturers are aware of this. And want to incorporate new fuel-saving technology into their aircraft. Because that’s what airlines want. And if you can give the airlines what they want they will buy your aircraft. But sometimes new technology can be a little temperamental. Everything doesn’t work as expected. And sometimes problems that come up can take a long time to engineer through. Like it did for the Boeing 787 Dream liner.
Boeing did everything they could think of to squeeze every last ounce of weight from the 787. One thing they did is well known. Thanks to a problem with it that caused the grounding of the entire 787 fleet. The lithium-ion battery. But that’s not the only weight-saving innovation of the 787. They added Dual Electronic Flight Bags in the cockpit. So pilots don’t have to bring bulky and heavy books aboard. They went from conventional pneumatic architecture to more-electric architecture. Eliminating the engine bleed air system and associated pneumatic system components. Reducing weight and improving efficiency. Which reduced fuel consumption. They used simple trailing edge flaps. Not slotted flaps. Letting them use smaller flap track fairings (those canoe-shaped things underneath the trailing edge of the wings that operated the flaps). Reducing drag. And fuel consumption. They used bigger engines with higher bypass ratios (the amount of air pulled into the fan disk but NOT used for combustion). Increasing engine efficiency. Reducing fuel consumption. The use of composite materials decreased weight. And the use of one-piece barrel sections eliminated additional joints, fasteners and splice plates. Reducing weight. And fuel consumption.
These and other innovations result in a fuel savings of 20% over similarly sized aircraft. This is huge. Which is why airlines are ordering this airplane. But such a radical change in aircraft design comes with a lot of risks. As the problem with the lithium-ion battery has shown. And it takes a lot of time to design, develop and bring to market a new aircraft. Especially one that is radically different from other airplanes. So the decision to put the aircraft company on this course was a very risky decision. And one that took a lot of guts. Because so many things can go wrong. Leading to cost overruns. Which can delay promised delivery dates. And Boeing had their share of those bringing the 787 to market. Which they have worked through. Will it be worth it? As long as airlines want to save on fuel costs, yes. And no problems arise that they can’t overcome.
Stock Options get Risk-Averse and Cautious CEOs to be Bold and Take Risks
These are big decisions. Decisions that lead to great successes. Or great failures. Some so bad that they can bankrupt a company. Someone has to be responsible for these decisions. That one person sitting at the top of the corporation. The CEO. It is the CEO who has the ultimate say on the direction of the corporation. And with this one decision all the resources of the corporation are marshaled together to take the corporation in this new direction. Incurring great costs that will be on the books for years. Making it hard to change course until these great investments pay off. If they pay off.
These are the things CEOs have to deal with. Not just at Boeing. But throughout corporate America. CEOs have to make these singular decisions that can have consequences for years to come. Where it may take years to see if that one decision actually pays off. There are few CEOs in the labor force. So few can imagine the stress these people work under. And in that pool of CEOs there are only a few that have the Midas touch. Who can consistently take great risks while making all the right decisions. Board members desperately want these CEOs. Offering very generous compensation packages to lure them in. And to keep them once they have them. This crème de la crème of CEOs may make the big bucks. But in exchange for that fat paycheck they do something few others can. They make shareholders rich. And they love making these owners rich. For they love the thrill of the job. Relishing that high-stress environment. Where every little decision has great consequences. Thriving under the kind of pressure that would leave most others whimpering in their beds. Curled up in the fetal position. In a pool of their own tears.
But not every corporation can get one of the crème de la crème. They may have a great CEO. But one that suffers from a major CEO character flaw. Being averse to taking big risks. Who instead wants to be a little more conservative. And a little more cautious. Shareholders don’t like overly cautious CEOs. Because the people getting rich are doing it by breaking away from the pack. By doing something different. Abandoning convention. Trying something bold. And new. Bringing something brand new to market that no one knows anything about. But once they learn about it they can’t live without it. This is what shareholders want. Not cautious and conservative. So to light a fire under these CEOs they came up with a new way to compensate them. To appeal to their greed. By letting them get rich if they can make that next great thing that sends the stock price soaring. And the key to their greed is the stock option.
Stock Options provide a Powerful Incentive to bring Great New Things to Market
The CEO that creates the next big thing everyone will want to buy will send sales revenue soaring. And with great sales revenue comes great profits. Increasing the value of the company. Which, in turn, makes the stock price soar. This is what shareholders want. A soaring stock price. So to encourage the CEO to give them what they want they tie the CEO’s interest to their interests. By giving the CEO stock options. Making the sky the limit. For the more the CEO increases the stock price the greater the CEO’s compensation. Thus encouraging the CEO to try something bold and new.
A stock option is a right to buy a share of stock at a fixed price in the future. Say the current stock price is $70/share. The board of directors gives the CEO the option to buy, say, 500,000 shares of stock at $80/share up until some date in the future. Creating a strong incentive for the CEO to raise the stock price. The greater the CEO raises the price above $80 the greater his or her compensation. Let’s say the CEO was bold and took a great risk. And it pays off. Sending the stock price soaring to $110/share. When the CEO exercises those options he or she will buy 500,000 shares of stock from the company at $80/share. The company gets $40 million in new capital to help finance further growth. And the CEO will sell those 500,000 shares at the current market price of $110/share. Pocketing $15 million. And the shareholders, of course, get what they want. A higher stock price. Everyone wins.
Now let’s say that nothing spectacular happens. And the stock price only rises to $75/share. Because it’s below the ‘strike price’ the CEO will let these options expire. The CEO profits nothing from these options. But doesn’t lose anything either. But what happens when the stock price falls because of that bold, new direction? Causing the corporation to lose value. As well as the shareholders. But the CEO? Again, the CEO will let those options expire. And will lose no money. Which is one of the benefits of stock options. It got those risk-averse and cautious CEOs to take those big risks that got shareholders rich. As there is no downside risk for the CEO. Which is both good and bad. On the one hand it encourages risk taking. But on the other it encourages risk-taking. Some CEOs will take excessive risks as they have nothing to lose. Some will even cook the books to boost the stock price so they can exercise those options. So it’s not a perfect system. But they do provide a powerful incentive to bring great new things to market. Which is what shareholders want. And will take great risks themselves to get it.
Tags: 787, aircraft, airlines, Boeing, Boeing 787, cautious, cautious CEOs, CEO, compensation, conservative, fuel, fuel consumption, incentive, risk, risk-taking, shareholders, stock options, stock price
Week in Review
When the price of oil soars it doesn’t affect the railroads that much. Because fuel costs are not their greatest cost. Maintaining that massive infrastructure is. For wherever a train travels there has to be track. It’s different for the airlines. The only infrastructure they have is at the airports. And the traffic control centers that keep order in the sky. Once a plane is off the ground it doesn’t need anything but fuel in its tanks to go somewhere. And because the flying infrastructure is so much less than the railroad infrastructure fuel costs are a much larger cost. In fact, it’s their greatest cost of flying. So when fuel costs rise ticket prices rise along with them. And they start charging more bag fees. As well as any other fee they can charge you to offset these soaring fuel costs.
Boeing made their 787, the Dreamliner, exceptionally light. To reduce flying costs. They used a lot of composite materials. Two large engines because they’re lighter than 4 smaller engines. They even used a new lithium-ion battery system to start up their auxiliary power unit. And made it fly-by-wire to eliminate the hydraulic system that normally operates the control surfaces. They did all of these things to fight the biggest enemy they have in flying. Weight. For the greater the weight the more fuel they burn. And the less profitable they are.
Freight airlines charge their customers by the weight of the freight they wish to ship. Because there is a direct correlation between the weight of their freight and the amount of fuel they have to burn to carry that freight. In fact, all shippers charge by the weight. Because in transportation weight is everything. But there is one mode of transportation that we don’t charge by the weight. Passenger air travel. Until now, that is (see A tax on overweight airline passengers: a brutal airline policy by Robin Abcarian posted 4/3/2013 on the Los Angeles Times).
When teensy-weensy Samoa Airlines debuted its pay-by-the-kilo policy in January, I doubt it expected to set off an international controversy about fat discrimination.
But that’s what happened when news seeped out this week after the airline’s chief executive, Chris Langton, told ABC News radio in Australia that the system is not only fair but destined to catch on.
“Doesn’t matter whether you’re carrying freight or people,” explained Langton. “We’ve amalgamated the two and worked out a figure per kilo.”
Samoa Air, he added, has always weighed the human and non-human cargo it carries. “As any airline operator knows, they don’t run on seats, they run on weight,” said Langton. “There’s no doubt in my mind this is the concept of the future because anybody who travels has felt they’ve paid for half the passenger that’s sitting next to them…”
“Samoa Air, Introducing a world first: ‘Pay only for what you weigh’! We at Samoa Air are keeping airfares fair, by charging our passengers only for what they weigh. You are the master of your Air’fair’, you decide how much (or little) your ticket will cost. No more exorbitant excess baggage fees, or being charged for baggage you may not carry. Your weight plus your baggage items, is what you pay for. Simple. The Sky’s the Limit..!”
One bright note to this policy: Families with small children, who often feel persecuted when they travel, stand to benefit most from this policy. Since Samoa no longer charges by the seat, it will cost them a lot less to fly than it did before.
The appeal of this policy depends on your perspective. If you’re of average weight sitting next to someone spilling over their seat into yours it may bother you knowing that you each paid the same price for a seat and resent the person encroaching on your seat. But if you paid per the weight you bring onto the airplane then that person paid for the right to spill over into your seat. Which they no doubt will do without worrying about how you feel. As they paid more for their ticket than you paid for yours. So the person who weighs less will get a discount to suffer the encroachment. While the person who weighs more will have to pay a premium for the privilege to encroach.
Under the current system the people who weigh less subsidize the ticket prices of those who weigh more. It’s not fair. But it does save people the embarrassment of getting onto a scale when purchasing a ticket. So should all airlines charge like all other modes of transportation? Or should they continue to subsidize the obese? Should we be fair? Or should we be kind?
Chances are that government would step in and prevent airlines from charging by the weight. Calling it a hate crime. Even while they are waging a war on the obese themselves. Telling us what size soda we can buy. And regulating many other aspects of our lives. Especially now with Obamacare. Because the obese are burdening our health care system with their health problems the government now has the right to regulate our lives. And they have no problem calling us fat and obese. But a private airline starts charging by the weight of the passenger? Just don’t see how the government will allow that. For it’s one thing for them to bully us. But they won’t let these private businesses hurt people’s feelings by being fair. So the people who are not overweight will continue to subsidize the flying cost of those who are overweight.
Until the government determines obese people are causing an unfair burden on society. The obese have more health issues. Which will consume more limited health care resources. Also, flying these heavier people around will burn more fuel. Putting more carbon emissions into the air. Causing more breathing problems for everyone else. As well as killing the planet with more global warming. So while the airlines may not want to weigh people when selling them a ticket because of the potential backlash, the government won’t have a problem. To cut the high cost of health care and to save the planet from global warming caused by carbon emissions they may even introduce a ‘fat’ tax. Like any other sin tax. To encourage people to choose to be healthier. And to punish those who choose not to. If they can force us to buy health insurance what can stop them from accessing a ‘fat’ tax? Especially when they do have the right to tax us.
This is where national health care can take us. When they begin paying the bill for health care they will have the right to do almost anything if they can identify it as a heath care issue. Because it’s in the national interest. They’ve painted bulls-eyes on the backs of smokers. And drinkers. With tobacco and alcohol taxes. And you know they would love to tax us for being fat. Perhaps even having our doctors file our weight with the IRS. So they can bump our tax rates based on how obese we are. If the tax dollars pay for health care they will say they have that right. As the obese consume an unfair amount of those limited tax dollars. Anything is possible with an out of control growing federal government faced with trillion dollar deficits. Especially when they can call it a health care issue.
Tags: airfares, airlines, fat, fat tax, flying, freight, fuel, fuel costs, health care system, limited health care resources, obese, overweight, passengers, plane, Samoa Air, ticket prices, weight
(Originally published March 28th, 2012)
A Lit Match heats the Fuel Absorbed into a Wick, Vaporizes it, Mixes it with Oxygen and Ignites It
Fire changed the world. From when Homo erectus first captured it. Around 600,000 BC. In China. They saw it. Maybe following a lightning strike. Seeing it around volcanic activity. Perhaps a burning natural gas vent. Whatever. They saw fire. Approached it. And learned not to fear it. How to add fuel to it. To transfer it to another fuel source. To carry it. They couldn’t create fire. But they could manage it. And use it. It was warm. And bright. So they brought it indoors. To light up their caves. Scare the predators out. To use it to heat. And to cook. Taking a giant leap forward for mankind.
When man moved into man-made dwellings they brought fire with them. At first a one-room structure with a fire in the center of it. And a hole in the roof above it. Where everyone gathered around to eat. Stay warm. Sleep. Even to make babies. As there wasn’t a lot of modesty back then. Not that anyone complained much. What was a little romance next to you when you were living in a room full of smoke, soot and ash? Fireplaces and chimneys changed all that. Back to back fireplaces could share a chimney. Providing more heat and light. Less smoke and ash. And a little privacy. Where the family could be in one room eating, staying warm, reading, playing games and sleeping. While the grownups could make babies in the other room.
As we advanced so did our literacy. After a hard day’s work we went inside. After the sun set. To read. Write letters. Do some paperwork for the business. Write an opera. Whatever. Even during the summer time. When it was warm. And we didn’t have a large fire burning in the fireplace. But we could still see to read and write. Thanks to candles. And oil lamps. One using a liquid fuel. One using a solid fuel. But they both operate basically the same. The wick draws liquid (or liquefied) fuel via capillary action. Where a porous substance placed into contact with a liquid will absorb that liquid. Like a paper towel or a sponge. When you place a lit match into contact with the wick it heats the fuel absorbed into the wick and vaporizes it. Mixing it with the oxygen in the air. And ignites it. Creating a flame. The candle works the same way only starting with a solid fuel. The match melts the top of this fuel and liquefies it. Then it works the same way as an oil lamp. With the heat of the flame melting the solid fuel to continue the process.
Placing a Mantle over a Flame created Light through Incandescence (when a Heated Object emits Visible Light)
Two popular oils were olive oil and whale oil. Beeswax and tallow were common solid fuels. Candles set the standard for noting lighting intensity. One candle flame produced one candlepower. Or ‘candela’ as we refer to it now. (Which equals about 13 lumens – the amount of light emitted by a source). If you placed multiple candles into a candelabrum you could increase the lighting intensity. Three candles gave you 3 candela of light to read or write by. A chandelier with numerous candles suspended from the ceiling could illuminate a room. This artificial light shortened the nights. And increased the working day. In the 19th century John D. Rockefeller gave the world a new fuel for their oil lamps. Kerosene. Refined from petroleum oil. And saved the whales. By providing a more plentiful fuel. At cheaper prices.
By shortening the nights we also made our streets safer. Some cities passed laws for people living on streets to hang a lamp or two outside. To light up the street. Which did indeed help make the streets brighter. And safer. To improve on this street lighting idea required a new fuel. Something in a gas form. Something that you could pump into a piping system and route to the new street lamps. A gas kept under a slight pressure so that it would flow up the lamp post. Where you opened the gas spigot at night. And lit the gas. And the lamp glowed until you turned off the gas spigot in the morning. Another advantage of gas lighting was it didn’t need wicks. Just a nozzle for the gas to come out of where you could light it. So there was no need to refuel or to replace the wicks. Thus allowing them to stay lit for long periods with minimum maintenance. We later put a mantle over the flame. And used the flame to heat the mantle which then glowed bright white. A mantle is like a little bag that fits over the flame made out of a heat resistant fabric. Infused into the fabric are things that glow white when heated. Rare-earth metallic salts. Which change into solid oxides when heated to incandescence (when a heated object emits visible light).
One of the first gases we used was coal-gas. Discovered in coal mines. And then produced outside of a coal mine from mined coal. It worked great. But when it burned it emitted carbon. Like all these open flames did. Which is a bit of a drawback for indoor use. Filling your house up with smoke. And soot. Not to mention that other thing. Filling up your house with open flames. Which can be very dangerous indoors. So we enclosed some of these flames. Placing them in a glass chimney. Or glass boxes. As in street lighting. Enclosing the flame completely (but with enough venting to sustain the flame) to prevent the rain form putting it out. This glass, though, blackened from all that carbon and soot. Adding additional maintenance. But at least they were safer. And less of a fire hazard. Well, at least less of one type of fire hazard. From the flame. But there was another hazard. We were piping gas everywhere. Outside. Into buildings. Even into our homes. Where it wasn’t uncommon for this gas to go boom. Particularly dangerous were theatres. Where they turned on the gas. And then went to each gas nozzle with an open fire on a stick to light them. And if they didn’t move quickly enough the theatre filled with a lot of gas. An enclosed space filled with a lot of gas with someone walking around with an open fire on a stick. Never a good thing.
Fluorescent Lighting is the Lighting of Choice in Commercial, Professional and Institutional Buildings
Thomas Edison fixed all of these problems. By finding another way to produce incandescence. By running an electrical current through a filament inside a sealed bulb. The current heated the filament to incandescence. Creating a lot of heat. And some visible light. First filaments were carbon based. Then tungsten became the filament of choice. Because they lasted longer. At first the bulbs contained a vacuum. But they found later that a noble gas prevented the blackening of the bulb. The incandescent light bulb ended the era of gas lighting. For it was safer. Required less maintenance. And was much easier to operate. All you had to do was flick a switch. As amazing as the incandescent light bulb was it had one big drawback. Especially when we use a lot of them indoors. That heat. As the filament produced far more heat than light. Which made hot buildings hotter. And made air conditioners work harder getting that heat out of the building. Enter the fluorescent lamp.
If phosphor absorbs invisible short-wave ultraviolet radiation it will fluoresce. And emit long-wave visible light. But not through incandescence. But by luminescence. Instead of using heat to produce light this process uses cooler electromagnetic radiation. Which forms the basis of the fluorescent lamp. A gas-discharge lamp. The most common being the 4-foot tube you see in office buildings. This tube has an electrode at each end. Contains a noble gas (outer shell of valence electrons are full and not chemically reactive or electrically conductive) at a low pressure. And a little bit of mercury. When we turn on the lamp we create an electric field between the electrodes. As it grows in intensity it eventually pulls electrons out of their valence shell ionizing the gas into an electrically conductive plasma. This creates an arc between the electrodes. This charged plasma field excites the mercury. Which produces the invisible short-wave ultraviolet radiation that the phosphor absorbs. Causing fluorescence.
One candle produces about 13 lumens of light. Barely enough to read and write by. Whereas a 100W incandescent light bulb produces about 1,600 lumens. The equivalent of 123 candles. In other words, one incandescent lamp produces the same amount of light as a 123-candle chandelier. Without the smoke, soot or fire hazard. And the compact fluorescent lamp improves on this. For a 26W compact fluorescent lamp can produce the lumen output of a 100W incandescent light bulb. A one-to-one tradeoff on lighting output. At a quarter of the power consumption. And producing less heat due to creating light from fluorescence instead of incandescence. Making fluorescent lighting the lighting of choice in commercial, professional and institutional buildings. And any other air conditioned space with large lighting loads.
Tags: bulb, candela, candle, candlepower, Carbon, chandelier, compact fluorescent lamp, electrode, filament, fire, fire hazard, flame, fluorescent lamp, fuel, gas, gas lighting, gas nozzle, gas-discharge, gas-discharge lamp, heat, ignite, incandescence, incandescent light bulb, light, light bulb, lighting intensity, liquid, liquid fuel, lumens, mantle, match, noble gas, oil lamp, open flames, phosphor, plasma, radiation, short-wave ultraviolet radiation, smoke, solid fuel, soot, street lamps, street lighting, tungsten, ultraviolet, vaporize, visible light, wick
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