(Originally published January 26th, 2012)
English Catholics and Protestants were Fiercely Religious and willing to Kill or be Killed for their Faith
To understand the founding political structure of the United States you need to understand 17th century Britain. The run up to the 17th century. And the Protestant Reformation. When Christianity split into Protestants and Catholics. And their beliefs and practices.
Catholics are born with original sin. Protestants aren’t. All Catholics have a chance to go to Heaven. God sorts out the Protestant’s going to Heaven before birth. Doing good deeds can help Catholics make it to Heaven. They won’t make any difference for Protestants. Catholics burn away their sins in Purgatory. Then comes Judgment Day. Clean souls go to Heaven. Unclean souls go to Hell. Protestants go straight to Heaven or Hell when they die with no layover in Purgatory or judgment. Catholics believe priests have special powers and the Pope is infallible. Protestants don’t. Catholics have saints, altar rails, candles, pictures, statues and stained glass windows. Protestants don’t. Catholics believe priests change the wine and bread at Communion into the actual body and blood of Christ. Protestants think they just represent the body and blood of Christ.
These are some significant differences. Especially in a time when everyone was fiercely religious. And did everything in this life to prepare for the afterlife. Even buy an indulgence from the Catholic Church to buy their way through Purgatory and into Heaven. One of the pet peeves of Martin Luther that he included in his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517 Germany (which was then a collection of German princedoms). This was serious stuff for the laypeople. Who were willing to kill or be killed for their faith. Which they did a lot of in Britain.
When Queen Elizabeth died King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England
King Henry the VIII hated Martin Luther. Was a staunch defender of the faith. But he wanted a divorce. So he could marry a woman who would give him a son instead of more daughters. But he needed the Pope to grant him this. And the Pope refused. Henry VIII also wanted to get the Catholic Church out of his affairs. So he created an English church. The Church of England. With him as the guy in charge. At first his church was going to be protestant. Fully anti-Pope. But he had Parliament pass the Act of Six Articles that made his Protestant Church very Catholic. After Henry VIII died succeeding rulers pulled the Church back and forth between Protestantism and Catholicism.
Edward VI pulled it back to Protestantism. Then that bread and wine issue came up again. So they wrote a new prayer book that was deliberately vague. Which caused the Catholics to riot. When he died his sister, Queen Mary, took the throne. An ardent Catholic. Out went that new prayer book. In came Catholicism. And she arrested and burned Protestants at the stake. Then she died. And in came Queen Elizabeth. A Protestant. So the Church of England became Protestant again. With a little Catholicism mixed in. But it wasn’t Catholic enough. So the Pope excommunicated her in 1570. Angry, she oppressed the Catholics. Yet the Protestants weren’t happy, either. That little bit of Catholicism was just way too much for their liking. Especially those hardcore Calvinist Protestants (the people we call Puritans even though at the time it was more a derogatory term). Who Elizabeth then arrested and executed.
There was a Protestant uprising in Scotland and they, too, broke from the Catholic Church. Without consulting their very important friend and ally. Catholic France. Which was home for an exiled Mary Queen of Scots. A Catholic. But she didn’t have the power to fight against the Protestants. So she joined the fight against the Catholics. But she had some Catholic baggage the Scottish couldn’t forgive and they forced her to abdicate anyway. Her son, James VI, became king. The Church of Scotland was Presbyterian (Calvinist Protestantism). But Scotland had a lot of Catholics as well. The Scottish Parliament made James the head of the Scottish Church. The Kirk. Which was a problem for the Presbyterians. Because they said a king couldn’t be the head of their church. When Elizabeth died James became King James I of England. Changed the spelling of his name from ‘Stewart’ to ‘Stuart’. And became the head of the Church of England. Who the Presbyterians said was way too Catholic.
King James I believed in the Divine Right of Kings and Hated Parliament
When Mary Queen of Scots abdicated James VI was only a baby and raised by a Presbyterian handler. His Regent. Who ruled for James until he came of age. Who must have been strict for James did not like the Scottish Presbyterians. Who were very similar to English Puritans. Elizabeth had oppressed Catholics and Puritans. Who were now both looking for a little relief from King James I. James met with some Puritans and Catholic bishops. The bishops resented having to meet with Puritans. And the Puritans wanted to do away with the bishops. But James preferred Catholics over Puritans. So he persecuted the Puritans. Some of who embarked on a ship called the Mayflower and sailed to religious freedom in America. Where they would allow anyone to practice any religion they chose. As long as they chose Puritanism.
Now even though James preferred the Catholics there were a lot of Protestants in England. And a strong anti-Catholic sentiment. After all England’s two great enemies, Spain and France, were Catholic. So he continued some Catholic oppression. One Catholic took great offense to this and decided to do something about it. Blow up Parliament. And the king. Robert Catesby planned the Gunpowder Plot. But someone warned the government. And they caught Guy Fawkes in the cellar surrounded by gun powder just before he could light the fuse. They sentenced Fawkes and the other conspirators to death.
James was not a fan of Parliament, either. It was different in Scotland. There they did pretty much what he wanted. But the English Parliament didn’t. And this really bugged him. For he believed in the Divine Right of Kings. Parliament didn’t. And they told him so. Also, Parliament controlled the purse strings. If he wanted money, and he did, he would have to work with Parliament. Or find another means to pay for what he wanted. He chose to find another means. He forced people to loan him money. And even sold a new hereditary title. The baronet. But it was never enough. When he died the kingdom wasn’t as rich as Elizabeth left it for him. Worse, he left a political mess for his successor. King Charles I. Who became the first king whose subjects put on trial. And executed. Following the English Civil War. Which he, of course, lost.
The Radical New Ideas Sown in the 17th Century would have a Profound Impact on the American Founding Fathers
King Charles I ruled in 17th century Britain. A momentous time of change. In Britain. The Old World. And the New World. A king would be tried for the first time by the people. Religious scores would be settled far and wide. Attempted, at least. And new states would rise in the New World where they would live under the religion they chose. Governed by representatives of the people. Who governed at the consent of the people. Radical new ideas. That were sown in 17th century Britain. And would have a profound impact on the American Founding Fathers.
Tags: bishops, Britain, Catholic Church, Catholicism, Catholics, Christ, Christianity, Church of England, divine right of kings, Elizabeth, England, English, faith, Henry the VIII, Martin Luther, Mary Queen of Scots, Parliament, Pope, Presbyterians, Protestant Reformation, Protestantism, Protestants, Puritans, Scotland, Scottish, The Kirk, wine and bread
(Originally published May 15th, 2012)
To encourage Risk Takers to Travel Halfway around the World Mercantile States granted Monopoly Charters
The modern world began because Europeans had a penchant for silk and spices. Something they enjoyed during Roman times. When the Romans ruled the world. And the Mediterranean Sea was nothing more than a Roman lake. But when the empire stopped conquering new lands and sending the spoils of war home they had to turn to other means to pay for the cost of empire. Taxes. To pay for the Roman government and their public spending. And the Roman legions. This excessive government spending led to the fall of the western half of the empire. But the eastern half lived on for another 1,000 years or so. Why? Because the capital of the Byzantine Empire was Constantinople. On the Bosporus. Trade crossroads of the world.
This city was so rich everybody wanted to conquer it. So they could have all those riches. For everything that came along the Silk Road from China crossed into Europe at the Bosporus. Soon Muslims fought Christians in the Holy lands. Then more Christians came. The Crusaders. Those who didn’t die went back to Europe with some of those Chinese luxuries. Spices. Silk. Porcelain. Etc. Sparking a renewed interest in these finer things in Europe. Especially the spices. For European cooking was horribly bland at the time. The Ottoman Turks eventually took Constantinople. Renamed it Istanbul. And controlled that lucrative trade. Making those much sought after Asian goods rather expensive in Europe. Which they had no choice but to pay. Because if you wanted those luxuries you had to go through Istanbul. Until the Portuguese sailed around Africa and found a direct route to those cherished goods, that is.
It was the Commercial Revolution. A new age of international trade. A trade even more profitable than what the Ottoman Turks controlled. Because big ocean-going vessels can carry more cargo than anything coming over land on the Silk Road. And these new European maritime powers wanted that wealth. And the power it would provide. To encourage risk takers to get into those wooden ships and travel halfway around the world they granted monopoly charters. The Dutch East India Company (VOC) was one of the largest. And one of the wealthiest. But this was not your typical company. The VOC established overseas colonies. It waged war. Established treaties. Even coined its own money. Because of this thousands of VOC ships stuffed full of valuable cargoes sailed to Antwerp and Amsterdam, making the Dutch very wealthy. And powerful.
The Tea Act allowed the Company to Ship their Tea Directly to America and exempted them from any Duties
Of course the Dutch weren’t the only ones doing this. They had competition. Portugal. Spain. France. And England. Who would bump into each other numerous times fighting for control of this trade. And those colonies. The English and the Dutch would fight 4 wars. Which is how Dutch-founded Manhattan became part of the British Empire and, subsequently, one of America’s greatest cities. The English East India Company gave the VOC a run for its money. Parliament even passed legislation to give the English a monopoly on all trade with their American colonies. The Navigation Acts. Which stated that all trade to and from America had to be on English ships. And all trade had to go through an English port. Where the ships were unloaded and the cargoes inspected. And taxed. Then they could reload their cargoes and continue on their journey. All tenets of mercantilism. This kept the lower-priced Dutch goods out of America. And prevented the Americans from selling to the Dutch directly for higher prices. So it shut down the Dutch from all American trade (except for a prosperous black market). And brought in some lucrative tax revenue for England. While extending shipping times and increasing prices for the Americans. Which they were not happy about in the least.
The English East India Company (the Company) was similar in structure to the VOC. And soon made the Indian subcontinent a wholly owned subsidiary of the Company. But it wasn’t cheap. Waging war was costly. As was managing those conquered territories (something the Romans had also learned). Then a famine in Bengal in 1770 claimed about one-third of the local population. Making laborers more scarce. And more expensive. All at a time when the sales of their imported goods were falling in Europe. There were warehouses full of unsold Chinese tea that they couldn’t sell. Making for a bad time for the Company.
Higher costs and lower sales spelled trouble. And that’s what the Company had a lot of. Trouble. So the Company turned to Parliament for help. And Parliament helped. By allowing the Company to ship their tea directly to America without having to unload it in a British port. Or pay a duty on that tea. Which would greatly reduce their costs. And allow them to sell it in America cheaper than they did before. So Parliament passed the Tea Act in 1773. Making life better for all involved. But the Tea Act left in place another tax in the previous Townshend Acts. Which was a bigger problem than getting cheaper tea (which they could get on the black market from the Dutch). These taxes on the British subjects in America were unconstitutional. Because there were no Americans sitting in Parliament. This was taxation without representation. A much bigger issue than cheap tea. So they threw that first ‘cheap’ tea into Boston Harbor. The Boston Tea Party being a major step towards war with the mother country. And American independence.
Britain became the Lone Superpower after Abandoning their Protectionist Mercantile Policies and Adopting Free Trade
The American Revolutionary War was not the only headache the British got from their mercantile policies. Part of those policies required maintaining a positive balance of trade. So there was always a net inflow of bullion into the mother country. That’s why raw materials shipped into Britain from America. And finished goods shipped out to America. Finished goods are more valuable than raw materials. So the Americans had to make up for this balance of trade in bullion. Resulting in a net inflow of bullion into the mother country. Very simple. As long as you can manufacture higher valued goods that other people want to buy.
And this is the problem they ran into with the Chinese. For though the British wanted those Chinese spices, silk and porcelain the Chinese didn’t want anything the British manufactured. Which meant Britain had to pay for those luxuries with bullion. Including all that Chinese tea they craved. Which resulted in a net outflow of bullion to the Chinese. The British fixed this problem by finding the one thing that the Chinese people wanted. Indian opium. Grown in Bengal. Of course, this turned a lot of Chinese into opium addicts. The addiction problem was so bad that the Chinese banned opium. But the British were able to smuggle it in. They sold so much of it that they used the proceeds to buy their tea. Thus reversing the bullion flow.
Not the finest hour in the British Empire. The Chinese and the British would go on to fight a couple of wars over this opium trade. The Opium Wars. Which the British did all right in. Even gaining Hong Kong in the bargain. They didn’t build any long-lasting love with the Chinese people. But Hong Kong turned out pretty nice under the British. Especially after they abandoned their protectionist mercantile policies and adopted free trade. Which made the British the lone superpower for about a century as they modernized the world by leading the way in the Industrial Revolution. And the Chinese in Hong Kong were very happy indeed to be there when the communists took over the mainland. And caused a famine or two. For they lived comfortably. In a state founded on mercantilism. That achieved its greatest prosperity during the free trade of capitalism that followed Britain’s mercantile ways.
Tags: America, American colonies, balance of trade, black market, Bosporus, Boston, Britain, British, British Empire, bullion, Byzantine Empire, China, Chinese, Chinese luxuries, Chinese tea, colonies, Constantinople, Dutch, Dutch East India Company, empire, England, English, English East India Company, Europe, Europeans, free trade, Hong Kong, Istanbul, mercantile, mercantile policies, mercantilism, monopoly, opium, Opium Wars, Ottoman Turks, Parliament, porcelain, Revolutionary War, Roman, silk, Silk Road, spices, taxes, tea, Tea Act, trade, VOC
Week in Review
The Greek crisis happened because there was a currency union without a political union. The Eurozone set some pretty strict limits on deficits and debt to join. Why? Because people in the Eurozone would all be using the same Euro. So they didn’t want one country running up deficits or their debt. Because if they did they wouldn’t just be messing with their economy. They would be messing with the entire Eurozone economy.
Well, that’s what Greece did. They were spending so much money that they had large deficits that added to a large debt. A euro-denominated debt. Which meant a default would raise borrowing costs for other euro-denominated debt. Raising the borrowing costs for the Eurozone. So to avoid that required other Eurozone nations to help Greece with their debt. Requiring higher taxes in the more responsible countries of the Eurozone to pay for the irresponsible spending of Greece. Neither option (default or rescue package) being a popular option. Especially for the Greek people. For the rescue package came with strings. And the big one was austerity. They had to stop spending so much. Which meant a lot of people lost some of their government benefits. Making them very unhappy. Leading to some rioting in the streets.
Had there been a political union this would not have happened. For there would have been only one entity borrowing and spending Euros. One entity taxing the Eurozone nations. And one entity printing money. Much like the federal government in the United States. And London in the United Kingdom (see Scotland’s referendum: Salmond says independence will benefit whole UK posted 3/4/2014 on BBC News Scotland Politics).
An independent Scotland with a strong economy would benefit the whole of the UK, First Minister Alex Salmond has told a gathering in London…
“I believe George Osborne’s speech on sterling three weeks ago – his ‘sermon on the pound’ – will come to be seen as a monumental error.
“It encapsulates the diktats from on high which are not the strength of the Westminster elite, but rather their fundamental weakness.
“In contrast, we will seek to engage with the people of England on the case for progressive reform.”
But Tory MP Mr Mundell said that Mr Salmond was saying that a choice to leave the UK and become independent “means staying exactly the same as we are now”.
He added: “By definition, that simply cannot happen.
“No one should be under any illusion that voting for independence means getting independence, which means becoming a new country outside the UK.
If the Eurozone sovereign debt crisis has taught us anything it’s that a currency union without a political union is not a good thing. An independent Scotland would eliminate the political union there is now. And the reason why England does not want a currency union with an independent Scotland is because of what happened in the Eurozone. It doesn’t work. At least, it doesn’t work well. Which begs the question why do they want independence but not complete independence (keeping the pound)?
One can only surmise so they can have more autonomy over their taxing, borrowing and, of course, spending. Perhaps to spend more. Creating larger deficits. And a greater pound-denominated debt. Which would be of great concern to other holders of pound-denominated debt. The rest of the United Kingdom.
It is unlikely that independence would lead to a stronger Scottish economy. Or a stronger UK economy. If it did then the whole point of the Eurozone would be a lie. To create a larger economic zone to compete with the large economic zone that is the United States. Because bigger is better. At least in terms of GDP. The British Empire was bigger than the United Kingdom is now. And the United Kingdom is bigger than a United Kingdom without Scotland. And an independent Scotland would be smaller than all of the above. So if you want to maximize GDP you would want to maximize the size of your economy. Not shrink it. Which leads one to believe that the reason for independence is something other than economic. Because the UK is too English? Perhaps. Whatever the reason let’s just hope everything works out for the best. For the United Kingdom did make the world a better place. With great people like Adam Smith from Scotland. And John Locke from England. To name only two of the greats to come from the United Kingdom.
Tags: borrowing costs, British Empire, currency union, debt, deficits, economic zone, England, euro-denominated debt, Eurozone, GDP, Greece, independent Scotland, London, political union, pound, pound-denominated debt, Scotland, spending, taxes, UK, United Kingdom, Westminster
Week in Review
The problem with national health care is that it is zero-sum when it comes to budgeting. There is one big pie of funding that they divide throughout the system to pay for all of its parts. But anyone who has ever paid attention to a budget debate in Washington has seen that there is never enough in the pie. And no one is ever satisfied with their slice of the pie. Worse, every department will spend every last cent in their appropriation lest they reduce next year’s appropriation by the amount of any unspent funds in this year’s appropriation. No matter how wasteful that spending is. Such as for conferences in Las Vegas. Or extravagant office parties at home.
Britain’s National Health Service (NHS) is straining under the cost of an aging population. More people are leaving the workforce than are entering it. Which means fewer people are paying taxes. Just as the number of people using the resources of the NHS is growing. Forcing the NHS to do more with less. Which has everyone complaining about their chunk of the NHS budget (see ‘Unprecedented’ cuts see GPs warn half of Britain will be unable to get appointments by Charlie Cooper posted 2/23/2014 on The Independent).
More than 34 million people will fail to secure an appointment with their doctor at some point this year, the GP’s professional body has claimed, blaming “unprecedented” cuts to funding for family practices.
The Royal College of General Practitioners said that the profession was “on its knees” and called for GPs to get a larger share of the NHS budget.
However, the Department of Health dismissed their findings – which would imply that more than half the UK population will miss out an appointment this year – as “complete nonsense” and accused the college of “sensationalising” the issue.
General practice has seen its share of the NHS budget – which totalled more than £109bn in England last year – significantly eroded in recent years, from 11 per cent in 2005/06 to 8.5 per cent in 2011/12…
“GPs and practice nurses want to provide high quality care for every single patient who seeks a consultation, and over the last decade we have increased the number of patients we see each year in England by 40m,” she said. “However [we] can’t keep doing more for less…”
“The GP survey showed the vast majority of patients are satisfied with their GP and rated their experience of making an appointment as good,” the spokesperson said, adding that GPs had been given an extra £50m to modernise services and stay open longer.
Whenever you want to see your doctor you need to make an appointment. In the NHS that could take a few weeks. Which is driving a lot of people to the A/E (accident and emergency departments). Because they are sick now. And don’t want to wait 2 weeks to see a doctor to get an antibiotic for their strep throat.
If you read the comments following the linked article you can get a feeling of what the British people think about the NHS. And an idea of what Obamacare may lead to. They love their NHS. But are exasperated by it. Some think the doctors are too greedy. But there isn’t a mad rush to become a doctor to relieve the doctor shortage. So whatever the pay is it isn’t enough to get people to join the profession. Which ultimately increases the wait times to see a doctor.
The problem is that aging population. People who remember a kinder and gentler NHS remember one before the baby boomers retired and overloaded the system. Who are living longer into retirement. Consuming more of the NHS’ limited resources than people did before the baby boomers retired. Had Britain (and every other advanced economy) not reduced its birthrate around the Sixties they would not have this problem now. But they did. So they are. As we will, too. And every other advanced economy with an aging population will. Making it a very bad time for national health care. Yet President Obama and the Democrats have given us Obamacare at precisely this time. Which is guaranteed to make health care in the United States worse. If you don’t believe that just read the comments following the linked article.
Tags: aging population, appointment, appropriation, baby boomers, Britain, do more with less, doctor, England, GP, National health care, National Health Service, NHS, NHS budget, nurse, Obamacare, patient, wait time
Week in Review
The Eurozone was a grand idea to make an economic zone that could compete against the United States. A United States of Europe, if you will. But the Eurozone has suffered a sovereign debt crisis that was unavoidable. As many analysts have identified the problem causing the Eurozone all its sovereign debt woes. The lack of a political union.
The solution they say is for member states to give up some of their sovereignty and allow a Eurozone government have more control. Like the United States of America has. Which means putting even stricter controls on member states when it comes to their spending. Which, in turn, would limit their deficits. And their borrowing needs. Which brought on the sovereign debt crisis in the first place. Excessive spending beyond their ability to pay for with taxes. Normally not a problem for other countries when another country spends itself into oblivion. Unless, of course, there is a currency union with that country. Which makes their problems your problems. Problems that are impossible to solve without a political union.
The Eurozone sovereign debt crisis illustrates that a currency union without a political union will not work. Which makes the movement for Scottish independence very interesting (see Britain warns Scotland: Forget the pound if you walk away by Belinda Goldsmith, Reuters, posted 2/13/2014 on Yahoo! News).
Britain warned Scotland on Thursday it would have to give up the pound if Scots voted to end the 307-year-old union with England, declaring the currency could not be divided up “as if it were a CD collection” after a messy divorce…
The message was aimed at undermining the economic case for independence and one of the Scottish National Party’s (SNP) key proposals – that an independent Scotland would keep the pound…
The debate has intensified in recent weeks with Bank of England chief Mark Carney cautioning that a currency union would entail a surrender of some sovereignty…
The SNP [Scottish National Party] has indicated that if London prevented a currency union, an independent Scotland could refuse to take on a share of the UK’s 1.2 trillion pounds ($1.99 trillion) of government debt which Britain has promised to honor…
Osborne said the nationalist threat to walk away from its share of UK debt would mean punitively high interest rates for an independent Scotland and was an “empty threat”.
“In that scenario, international lenders would look at Scotland and see a fledgling country whose only credit history was one gigantic default,” Osborne said.
Currently there is a political union between Scotland and England. The United Kingdom (UK). And Scottish independence would go contrary to what some analysts say is needed to save the Eurozone. Political unity. The problem in the Eurozone is that no one nation wants to give up any of their sovereignty and have some distant power tell them what they can and cannot do. The way some in Scotland feel about London. That distant power that governs the United Kingdom.
The British pound is one of the world’s strongest currencies. A product of the powers in London. Because they have political control across the UK. If they lose their political control over Scotland will it damage the British pound? If the Eurozone is any measure of a currency union without a political union, yes. So it will be interesting to see what happens between these two great nations. Whose people made the world a better place. People like the great Scotsman Adam Smith. And the great Englishman John Locke. To name just two. So whatever happens let’s hope it’s in the best interest of both countries. For countries everywhere enjoying economic freedom and human rights can thank these two countries for their contributions to the British Empire. Which helped spread the best of Western Civilization around the world from the United States to Canada to Australia to Hong Kong. And beyond.
Tags: Britain, British pound, currency, currency union, debt, England, Eurozone, independent Scotland, London, political union, pound, Scotland, Scottish National Party, SNP, sovereign debt crisis, sovereignty, UK, United Kingdom
The Pope kept European Rulers from Oppressing their People lest they get Excommunicated from the Church
In 39 AD the Romans crucified Jesus of Nazareth. Because they said he called himself the King of the Jews. Or rather those with political power who felt threatened by Jesus’ popularity said this. His death was to protect power and privilege of those who had it. Ultimately, though, His death would do more to destroy power and privilege. For the Golden Rule allowed people to live together in peace. To build communities. And to help one another.
Emperor Diocletian split up the vast Roman Empire into four parts. The tetrarchy. The rulership by four. Each of the four parts had its own emperor. When Diocletian stepped down from power those emperors began vying for power. By 312 two emperors were in open war with each other. Constantine. And Maxentius. On October 28, 312, they met in battle near the Milvian Bridge over the Tiber. On the eve of battle Constantine had a vision. The Christian God would help him win the upcoming battle if he placed the Christian symbol on his soldiers’ shields (accounts differ it was either the Chi-Rho sign or the Latin cross). He did. He won. And became Constantine the Great. Sole ruler of the Roman Empire. And because of his victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge he began his conversion to Christianity. Making the Roman Empire Christian.
Christianity spread throughout and united Europe. And the Pope kept European rulers from oppressing their people. Lest they get excommunicated from the Church. In time, though, some resented rule from Rome. In particular when Pope Leo X sold indulgences (a way to help purify one from sin) to fund the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. This was one of many problems that had many calling for a reform of the Church. One in particular, Martin Luther, published his The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. Kicking off the Protestant Reformation.
Plymouth Colony succeeded when Communal Property became Private Property
Henry VIII, King of England, was a good Catholic. But his wife wasn’t giving him any sons. And he wanted a male heir. So he asked the Pope for an annulment from his wife. Catherine. So he could marry Anne Boleyn. The Pope refused. So Henry left the Catholic Church. And initiated the English Reformation. Making England Protestant. England would swing back and forth between Catholicism and Protestantism without being either but something in between. Making a group of Protestants very unhappy. As they felt the English Reformation did not go far enough. A group referred to derisively as Puritans. They were so hated that they were being persecuted along with the Catholics. So they left England. Landing in the Netherlands first. Then they sailed across the Atlantic. They sighted land on November 9, 1620. They eventually came ashore and established Plymouth Colony.
About half of Plymouth Colony died within the first few years. From disease. And hunger. The economic system they were using was killing them. Communal property. Everything the colonists produced belonged to everyone. People produced according to their ability and took from the common store according to their needs. A sort of Marxism. Before there was even a Karl Marx. To save the colony Governor William Bradford abandoned the idea of communal property in 1623. Communal property became private property. And the colony was saved. As people worked twice as hard to produce more on their land than they did on communal land. And because they did they replaced famines with bumper crops. So instead of dying off the American colonies became the prosperous New World.
The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) came to the New World. By the time it ended Catholic France lost its North American possessions to Protestant Great Britain. To pay off the enormous debt of that war Parliament decided to tax their British American colonists. Who made out very well in the conflict without the costs the British incurred. But they did this without discussing it with the colonists. Treating them as second-class citizens in the British Empire. Who had no representation in Parliament. Which led to anger over taxation without representation. Leading to the Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773). Which led to the Intolerable Acts and the Quebec Act (1774-1775). Which led to the shot heard ’round the world. The Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775). Which ultimately led to July 2, 1776. When the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence. After a few revisions it was formally passed 2 days later. On July 4, 1776. Known forever after as Independence Day in the United States.
In the United States your Last Name does not Determine the Quality of your Life
The American Revolutionary War did not start out well. As the British pushed them back with little effort. Until Benedict Arnold (future traitor) did some superb soldiering. Impeding the advance of General Burgoyne. The Americans met him in battle for the last time on October 7, 1777. On the second day of fighting in the Battle of Saratoga. And won. Forcing an army in the mightiest empire in the world to surrender. Shocking the world. And getting the French to take notice. Who then entered the American War of Independence. The turning point of the war. And world history. For France was anxious to get back what they had lost to the British. As was Spain. Who joined the conflict as France’s ally. Turning the American War of Independence into a world war. And a war of attrition. As their new foes forced them to send British forces all around the globe. Leaving fewer to fight in North America. With a British public growing weary of the war in North America.
America won. Eventually. Taking 8 years until the Treaty of Paris officially ended the conflict (September 3, 1783). And peace and prosperity followed. Thanks in large part to Jay’s Treaty (ratified by the Senate in November 1794). Which improved relations between Great Britain and the new United States of America. And began a Special Relationship between two nations of a common people, culture, religion and tradition. When the treaty expired there was a minor hiccup in that Special Relationship that resulted in war. The War of 1812 (1812-1815). But peace and prosperity soon resumed. With the South having a larger say in the national direction thanks to the Three-Fifths Compromise in the United States Constitution (1787). Giving the South greater representation in the House of Representatives as they counted 3/5 of each slave to determine their number of representatives. As the North industrialized and immigration filled their factories and swelled her population the South was losing that larger say. One thing led to another that eventually resulted in the American Civil War (1861-1865).
The agrarian South had more in common with feudal England than they did with the industrial North. Rich landowners (the planter elite) comprised an aristocracy that controlled politics. While peasants/slaves worked the land. The South was holding onto the Old World. Where there was power and privilege. While the North was building the New World. Though the South talked about states’ rights they used the power of the federal government wherever they could. Such as the Fugitive Slave Act (1850). When war broke out the South won most battles. Until General Grant started his great advance down the Mississippi River. With the Vicksburg Campaign (May 18 – July 4, 1863) culminating in the capture of Vicksburg. And control of the Mississippi River. Severing the Confederacy into two. Pretty much guaranteeing a Union victory. It was just a matter of time. In the east the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863) also ended in a Union victory. President Lincoln went to the Gettysburg battlefield for the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery there. Where he gave his Gettysburg’s Address (November 19, 1863). Which ended with “we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” And so far it hasn’t. Remaining that shining city upon a hill. The destination of people everywhere yearning liberty. And a better life. Where all men are created equal. And your last name does not determine the quality of your life.
Tags: British Empire, Catholic, Christian, Christianity, Church, communal property, Constantine, Declaration of Independence, Diocletian, England, English Reformation, France, Gettysburg, Great Britain, Jesus, Marx, Milvian Bridge, New World, North, Old World, Parliament, Plymouth Colony, Pope, power, private property, privilege, Protestant, Reformation, Revolutionary War, Roman Empire, Romans, Rome, South, Special Relationship, Vicksburg
Queen Elizabeth hated the Puritans more than the Catholics
The Pilgrims landing at Plymouth Rock were God-fearing people. Who had left England to escape religious persecution. The Pilgrims were members of the new Protestant faith. Less than a century old at that time. With Henry VIII, King of England, turning Catholic England Protestant in the 1530s. Which didn’t go over well with England’s Catholics. Becoming a thorn in Henry’s daughter’s side. Queen Elizabeth. (The first Queen Elizabeth. Not the current one.) Who she persecuted. But they weren’t the only people she persecuted.
The Church of England swung between Catholicism and Protestantism through the years. Trying to please both Catholic and Protestant. In time becoming neither Catholic nor Protestant but something in between. Pleasing neither Catholic nor Protestant. Queen Elizabeth, the head of the Church of England, settled the matter. By persecuting those dissatisfied with the Church of England. The Catholics who said it was too Protestant. And the Protestant ‘extremists’ who said the Protest Church of England was too Catholic.
It was these Protestant ‘extremists’ that really irked Elizabeth. No, the Church of England wasn’t good enough for them. Because it didn’t strip every last vestige of Catholicism from it. It was impure. Corrupted with Catholicism. Vestments. Icons. Altars. It was just downright obscene. That’s why she turned on these ‘Puritans’ with a vengeance. And persecuted them like Catholics. Even worse at times.
The Pilgrims suffered Three Years of Poor Harvests and Famines because of Socialism
Things didn’t get any better under James I. Who followed Elizabeth’s lead. With the political climate turning against the ‘Puritans’ they skedaddled. Leaving England. And resettled in Leiden, Holland. Where they had the freedom to worship as they pleased. But the different language and culture became a problem for the congregation. Their children were becoming less like their parents and more like the Dutch. Who enjoyed the pleasures in life a little more freely than they thought proper for a ‘Puritan’. If their children became Dutch it would ultimately mean the end of the congregation. So they boarded a ship. No, not that one. They took the Speedwell to England. Then boarded THAT ship. The Mayflower. Crossed the Atlantic Ocean. And landed at Plymouth Rock.
Now the Pilgrims landing at Plymouth Rock were God-fearing people. But they had a little in common with the hippies of the Sixties. Not the sex and drugs. But how they lived. For the Pilgrims lived like the hippies wanted to live. As communists. The Pilgrims worked but didn’t own anything. Everything they produced belonged to everyone. Produced by those according to ability. And taken by those according to need. The perfect communist society. And truly authentic to the yet unknown communist philosophy. Right down to the recurring famines.
The harvest of 1620 was poor. Making the first winter hard. And there was famine. It was so bad that half of them died. The Indians then taught them how to grow corn. Things were looking up. They celebrated the first Thanksgiving. But the harvest of 1621 was just as bad as the harvest of 1620. And they suffered another famine. Another poor harvest followed in 1622. And another famine. Why? Because people were lazy. The most able-bodied of them did not want to work according to their ability. Just so the lazy could enjoy the fruit of their labors. And draw from the common stores according to their need. Without contributing anything to the common stores. Because they had better things to do than work. Besides, it was easier just to steal what others grew than working hard in the fields.
All of the Things that made America Great were born in Plymouth Colony
Jamestown was suffering the same fate. The socialist utopia of living in a commune just didn’t work. The most able-bodied men refused to work according to their ability to support other men’s wives and children. For they had their own wives and children to support. So those with ability did the minimum. Because doing any more didn’t help them in any way. Or their families. It was like asking people to work an extra two hours at work for free. So others with large families to support could work two hours less and go home early. So one group of workers work 10 hours for 8 hours of wages. While another group work for 6 hours for 8 hours of wages. Which is socialism. Redistribution. From those according to ability to those according to need. It was this economic philosophy many settlements used. Giving them poor harvests. And famines.
But that all changed in 1623 for the Pilgrims at Plymouth Colony. William Bradford, governor of the colony, changed the economic system. He abolished socialism. And replaced it with free market capitalism. He parceled out the common land. Giving each household a parcel of land. Saying it was their property. It belonged to them. As did anything they grew on it. Which meant the more they grew the more they could eat. Or trade for other things they needed. Which unleashed the energies in the able-bodied. And they worked their behinds off. Growing as much as they possibly could. Soon the harvests everywhere they implemented free market capitalism were bountiful. Even in Jamestown. And there was no famine in Plymouth Colony following the 1623 harvest. Things were different. And never would be the same again.
Finally the Pilgrims had a reason to be thankful. Free markets. The best medicine there is for famine. Thanks to free market capitalism the colonies prospered. And a new nation arose. This economic liberty would go on to make the United States the greatest nation in the world. Religious freedom. Private property. Limited government. All of those things that made America great were born there in Plymouth Colony. Thanks to William Bradford. Who saw the futility of socialism. And abolished it. Things were difficult in the beginning. But their decision to leave England ultimately provided the better life they were seeking. And as it turned out they got out when the getting was good. For the religious climate didn’t improve in England. As the conflict between Catholics and Protestants would lead to civil war in 1642. And it wasn’t pleasant. Missing the horror of that gave the Pilgrims another thing to be thankful for.
Tags: according to ability, according to need, capitalism, Catholic, Catholicism, Church of England, commune, Communist, Elizabeth, England, famine, free market, free-market capitalism, harvest, Jamestown, Pilgrims, Plymouth, Plymouth Rock, Protestant, Protestantism, Puritans, Queen Elizabeth, socialism, socialist, Thanksgiving, William Bradford
Week in Review
If you’ve ever watched The Five you’ve probably heard Greg Gutfeld (libertarian/quasi conservative) blame all of our woes on liberal college professors. And heard Bob Beckel (liberal) say Greg Gutfeld is full of excrement. And that whenever they play a video of a leftist professor saying something anti-capitalist/socialist/communist Beckel (the one liberal in the group of five) yells that they only put on liberal extremists. Never a conservative extremist. Which he said there are just as many as liberal extremists teaching our kids in college.
Of course he’s full of excrement. Because conservatives aren’t in control of the curriculum. Liberals are. In the United States. And in the United Kingdom. And it’s because they control the curriculum that things like this happen (see ‘Refusal will result in a Racial Discrimination note being attached to your child’s educational record…’ by Daniel Hannan posted 11/22/2013 on The Telegraph).
As part of the National Religious Curriculum together with the multicultural community in which we live, it is a statutory requirement for Primary School aged children to experience and learn about different cultures.
The workshop is at Staffordshire University and will give your child the opportunity to explore other religions. Children will be looking at religious artifacts, similar to those that would be on display in a museum. They will not be partaking in any religious practices.
Refusal to allow your child to attend this trip will result in a Racial Discrimination note being attached to your child’s education record, which will remain on this file throughout their school career.
England has an official religion. The Church of England. Which is Protestant. That is, Christian. And it has a long history of being Christian. Which makes this school action rather remarkable. For it basically is telling British children to forget their culture and tradition. And observe the greatness of people who are not British.
When an American high school choir wants to sing a Christmas carol referencing Jesus of Nazareth, who the Christmas holiday celebrates, the school authorities shut it down. But they make a trip to expose students to other religions mandatory. Why? Because liberals hate Christianity. And love anything that disparages Christianity. Which is why they will brand any student who doesn’t attend a field trip that enshrines other religions (while banning high school choirs from singing Christmas carols referencing Jesus of Nazareth) as a racist. Even though religion transcends race.
Liberals will say a cross submerged in urine is art. But children not learning the glory of Islam and other non-Christian religions is showing an extreme lack of respect to those religions. And is worthy of branding those children as racist. Even though religion transcends race.
Bob Beckel is a Christian. And is a vocal opponent of the anti-Christian acts of militant Islam. Even condemning the whole Islamic faith as no one in that faith condemns these heinous acts. Yet he fails to see the anti-Christian element in our public schools and universities. Or refuses to see it. For although Beckel is a Christian liberals in general don’t like Christian morals that frown upon premarital sex and abortion. Things liberals are all for. As are our public schools and universities. As is evidenced by their handing out of free birth control. And providing access to abortion services. Even without parental consent wherever they can. And this while one of those religions they want to expose our kids to, Islam, won’t let their women out of the house unless they’re covered from head to toe and in the company of a male family member. There’s no premarital sex or abortion for them. But this is a religion we must show tolerance to. While showing no tolerance to Jesus of Nazareth during the holiday celebrating His birth. Is that because conservatives are in control of the school curriculum? No. It’s because liberals are. So Gutfeld is right. And Beckel is wrong.
Tags: anti-Christian, Beckel, Bob Beckel, Christian, conservative, curriculum, England, Greg Gutfeld, Gutfeld, Islam, Jesus of Nazareth, liberal, liberal extremist, public schools, Religion, universities
(Originally published August 30th, 2012)
King Louis XIV remained Catholic as Protestantism was Breaking Out in Europe and Britain
It’s been awhile since the last ice age. In fact the last time we had a real ice age predated the first civilizations. We still wore animal skins and hunted and gathered our food. Long before we first farmed. But it would get cool again. Shortly after the Black Death (during the 1300s) it did get unseasonably cool. So cool that we now call it the Little Ice Age (from 1350 to 1850 or thereabouts). The glaciers didn’t cover Europe. But it was cold. And wet. The spring took forever to change into summer. While summer was quick to turn into fall. Which led to short growing seasons. Poor harvests. Hunger. And famine.
Martin Luther was no fan of the Pope. Especially because of the indulgences he was selling. A shortcut to heaven. For those with money. Which is what the Pope wanted. Money. For he was doing some costly renovations in Rome. So in 1517 Martin Luther nailed up his Ninety-Five Theses to the church door demanding reform. And kicking off the Protestant Reformation. Well, the Catholic Church wasn’t interested in reform. So Luther set up a new church. With a new religion. Protestantism. A more plain religion. With masses in the common language of the people. Instead of Latin. And no fancy things in the church. No altars. No stain glass. No icons. Just the word of God. With over a thousand years of Catholicism already under their belt, though, a lot of people took offense to this. And their offense offended the new Protestants. So they went to war with each other for a few centuries or so over their religious differences.
King Louis XIV was one of the great French monarchs. Under his rule France was the dominant European power. The Sun King believed in the divine right of kings. Absolute monarchism. Doing pretty much as he pleased. Which included a few wars. And growing an empire with oversea colonies. It cost a pretty penny. And a lot of lives. Louis remained Catholic as Protestantism was breaking out in Europe. And in England. For a couple hundred years or so England and France were bitter enemies. Contesting colonial lands throughout the globe. And defending the true faith. Catholicism. Or Protestantism. The Catholic-Protestant battle lines stretched across Europe. And to distant lands across the globe. Including the New World. Where they would both spend fortunes in waging war.
For the French the American War of Independence had nothing to do with the Americans
The Enlightenment, or the Age of Reason, gave the French Voltaire. One of the great Enlightenment philosophers. When Benjamin Franklin was in France the French were eager to bring two of the world’s greatest Enlightenment philosophers together. And did. The French also gave us the great Charles-Louis de Secondat, baron de La Brède et de Montesquieu. The greatest influence on the Founding Fathers as they drafted our Constitution. So there was some great thinking percolating in France. Thoughts that focused on science and reason. Not tradition and faith. Even questioning some long-held beliefs about the Catholic Church, the aristocracy and the absolute monarchy.
Louis XIV built a great French empire. The French seemed invincible. Until Louis XV took over. Who lost the Seven Years’ War to the British. And saw French North America become British. (And the Louisiana Territory go to Spain.) That was tough having their eternal foe humiliate them. The Protestant British. It was a blow to French pride. French commerce. And French finances. The near-perpetual state of war that had existed between Britain and France had cost both nations a lot of money. The British decided to recoup some of that money by taxing their American colonies. Which didn’t go over well with the Americans. For unlike France the British had a constitutional monarchy. Where the Parliament restricted the king’s powers. That great institute of the people. Which the Americans had no representation in. Leading to their rebellion. Because they didn’t like being treated like second-class subjects of the British Empire. Which brought about the American Revolutionary War.
After the Americans defeated a British army at the Battle of Saratoga the French joined the Americans in their fight for independence from the oppression of a constitutional monarchy. Which seemed rather odd being that the French at this time was still an absolute monarchy (though now ruled by Louis XVI). Which was far more oppressive than the constitutional variety. But for the French the American War of Independence had nothing to do with the Americans. It had to do with French interests. It was a chance to strike back at their eternal enemy. The Protestant British. And more importantly, when they won they could get back all their colonies they lost in the Seven Years’ War.
The French were Intoxicated with all of those Enlightenment Ideals and the American Win over an Oppressive Monarchy
The Americans won their independence. But the French didn’t get anything they wanted. All they got was a lot of debt. To add to the enormous pile of debt they already had. One of the French conditions for their alliance was that the Americans would not make a separate peace with the British. Which is what the Americans did. Why? Because the French and the Spanish were conspiring against the Americans during the peace talks. So they could expand their holdings in North America at the expense of the British and the Americans. The French were even willing to trade American Independence away. The British, who would rather have Americans on their former lands than the French or Spanish, made a separate peace with the Americans.
This act of diplomacy stunned the French. For they had assurances from the American Congress that they would take the lead in the peace talks. The Americans double-crossed them before they could double-cross the Americans. This wasn’t supposed to happen in the world of European diplomacy. Especially with rubes like the Americans. But it did. And the French were now in a world of hurt. Broke. And facing bankruptcy. Desperately needing new tax revenue King Louis XVI called an Assembly of Notables. The nobility and clergy. But they didn’t want to pay any more taxes. So the king called the Estates-General of 1789. Which included the clergy, the nobility and everyone else (i.e., the Third Estate).
Meanwhile there was widespread hunger and malnutrition. Poor grain harvests (in part due to the Little Ice Age) pushed the price of bread out of reach for many. People were cold, hungry and poor. In the Third Estate, that is. For though they may have been suffering they saw that the nobility and the Catholic clergy were not. In fact, they were living rather well. Which inflamed the masses. Who became intoxicated with all of those Enlightenment ideals. And that American victory over an oppressive monarchy. It got the people thinking. That they didn’t need a nobility any more. The Catholic Church. Or a king. And the people would get rid of these things. For awhile, at least. With something called the French Revolution.
Tags: absolute monarchism, American Revolution, Britain, British, Catholic, Catholic Church, Catholicism, clergy, constitutional monarchy, England, Enlightenment philosophers, famine, France, French, French Revolution, hunger, king, King Louis XIV, little ice age, Louis XIV, Martin Luther, nobility, Parliament, poor harvests, Pope, Protestant Reformation, Protestantism, Religion, Seven Years War, Spanish, Sun King, Third Estate
The East-West Schism of 1054 gave us the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
Constantine the Great won the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312 AD) thanks to divine intervention. Or so the story goes. The Christian God communicated to Constantine and his soldiers in a vision on the eve of battle. If they put the first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek on their shields they would be victorious in battle. So they did. And they were. Thus beginning Constantine’s transformation from paganism to Christianity.
Christianity was illegal in the Roman Empire. And persecuting Christians was a national pastime. But Constantine changed all that. By first decreeing religious tolerance with the Edict of Milan (313). And following that up with the First Council of Nicaea (325). Where Christian bishops met to resolve some of their differences. And try for the first time to reach a consensus for the Christian church.
In time Christianity would spread throughout the empire. Through northern Europe. And all the way to Britannia (Roman Britain). But things were a little different going east. Where the eastern Christians did not see things the same way the western Christians did. Leading to the East-West Schism (1054). Giving us the Roman Catholic Church in the west. And the Eastern Orthodox Church in, of course, the east.
King Henry VIII was no fan of Martin Luther and he defended the Catholic Faith
The schism between east and west would prove to be a costly one. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) went to free the Holy Land from Islam. The European Crusaders were from the Latin Catholic Church. Who never made it to the Holy Land. But they did sack Constantinople. Where the Latin Crusaders slaughtered Orthodox Christians. Weakening the Eastern Roman Empire. Opening the door for Ottoman conquest (1453). And making the way clear for Islam to spread into Europe. So instead of freeing the Holy Land from Islam they brought Islam into Christian Europe. But that wouldn’t be the last Christian-on-Christian fighting.
In 1517 Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses attacking the Roman Catholic Church. In particular its selling of indulgences to buy your way into heaven. A funding scheme by Pope Leo X to pay for the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Thus kicking off the Protestant Reformation. A schism in Western Christianity. Splitting up Christianity in Europe between the Catholics and Protestants. Leading to centuries of warfare. Especially between Catholic Spain & France and Protestant England & Germany.
In England King Henry VIII was no fan of Martin Luther. And he defended the Catholic faith. But he had a problem with the Pope. For he wanted a divorce from his queen. Katherine of Aragon. So he would be free to marry Ann Boleyn. Well, the Pope said ‘no’. So Henry said goodbye to the Roman Catholic Church. And set up the Church of England. With Henry himself as the head of the church. Soon England was full of Catholics and Protestants. And they fought each other to maintain the true faith. Bitterly. And cruelly. The Church of England would swing between Catholicism and Protestantism through these turbulent times. From Henry VIII to Edward VI to Queen Mary to Elizabeth to James I.
James continued Elizabeth’s Persecution of Catholics which led to the Gunpowder Plot
James I was King James VI of Scotland. On the death of Elizabeth he moved south and took the English throne. Becoming James I of England. Scotland was Presbyterian (which fell in the Protestant camp). The Presbyterians did not like the Church of England for they felt it was virtually Catholic. Something the Catholics would disagree with. The Puritans (basically Protestants) also criticized the Church of England for being too Catholic. Which annoyed Elizabeth. So she persecuted both Puritans and Catholics. James was raised a Presbyterian but he hated Presbyterians. And Puritans. Who he thought were nothing more than Presbyterians who spoke more eloquently.
So the Puritans were a thorn in James’ side. This animosity between the Puritans and James would lead to the Puritans leaving England and eventually landing in the New World. James hated Puritans so much that he preferred Catholics over them. However, Elizabeth had taken England into a very anti-Catholic direction. And he did not want to appear to be soft when it came to Catholics. So he made life unpleasant for them. Even banished Catholic priests. Sick of this persecution of Catholics someone did something about it.
Remember, remember, the 5th of November
The gunpowder treason and plot
I know of no reason why the gunpowder treason
Should ever be forgot
Robert Catesby planned the Gunpowder Plot. To rid England of anti-Catholic rule. The plan was to blow up Parliament by filling a cellar beneath the House of Lords with barrels of gunpowder. But someone tipped off Lord Monteagle. Authorities arrived in the cellar to find Guy Fawkes surrounded by barrels of gunpowder, a fuse in one hand and a match in the other. Leading to a new holiday in Britain. Guy Fawkes Day. Where people burned effigies of the Pope. To celebrate the Protestant victory over the ‘Catholic’ plot that tried to topple the government on the 5th of November in 1605. And providing even more animosity between Protestants and Catholics in England. Which would later erupt in the English Civil War (1642–1651). But today Guy Fawkes Day is just about fireworks and celebrations. Without the religious overtones it once had.
Tags: 5th of November, Catholic Church, Catholics, Christian, Christianity, Church of England, Constantine, East-West Schism, Eastern Orthodox Church, Elizabeth, England, Gunpowder Plot, Gunpowder Treason, Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes Day, Henry VIII, Holy Land, Islam, James I, Latin, Martin Luther, Pope, Presbyterian, Protestants, Puritans, Roman Catholic Church, Roman Empire, Scotland
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