# Binary Numbers and Computer Speed

# Technology 101

## Computers are Good at Arithmetic thanks to Binary Numbers

Let’s do a fun little experiment. Get a piece of paper and a pen or a pencil. And then using long division divide 4,851 by 34. Time yourself. See how long it takes to complete this. If the result is not a whole number take it to at least three places past the decimal point. Okay? Ready……..start.

Chances are the older you are the faster you did this. Because once upon a time you had to do long division in school. In that ancient era before calculators. Younger people may have struggled with this. Because the result is not a whole number. Few probably could do this in their head. Most probably had a lot of scribbling on that piece of paper before they could get 3 places past the decimal point. The answer to three places past the decimal point, by the way, is 142.676. Did you get it right? And, if so, how long did it take?

Probably tens of seconds. Or minutes. A computer, on the other hand, could crunch that out faster than you could punch the buttons on a calculator. Because one thing computers are good at is arithmetic. Thanks to binary numbers. The language of all computers. 1s and 0s to most of us. But two different states to a computer. That make information the computer can understand and process. Fast.

## A Computer can look at Long Streams of 1s and 0s and make Perfect Sense out of Them

The numbers we use in everyday life are from the decimal numeral system. Or base ten. For example, the number ‘4851’ contains four digits. Where each digit can be one of 10 values (0, 1, 2, 3…9). And then the ‘base’ part comes in. We say base ten because each digit is a multiple of 10 to the power of n. Where n=0, 1, 2, 3…. So 4851 is the sum of (4 X 10^{3}) + (8 X 10^{2}) + (5 X 10^{1}) + (1 X 10^{0}). Or (4 X 1000) + (8 X 100) + (5 X 10) + (1 X 1). Or 4000 + 800 + 50 + 1. Which adds up to 4851.

But the decimal numeral system isn’t the only numeral system. You can do this with any base number. Such as 16. What we call hexadecimal. Which uses 16 distinct values (0, 1, 2, 3…9, A, B, C, D, E, and F). So 4851 is the sum of (1 X 16^{3}) + (2 X 16^{2}) + (15 X 16^{1}) + (3 X 16^{0}). Or (1 X 4096) + (2 X 256) + (15 X 16) + (3 X 1). Or 4096 + 512 + 240 + 3. Which adds up to 4851. Or 12F3 in hexadecimal. Where F=15. So ‘4851’ requires four positions in decimal. And four positions in hexadecimal. Interesting. But not very useful. As 12F3 isn’t a number we can do much with in long division. Or even on a calculator.

Let’s do this one more time. And use 2 for the base. What we call binary. Which uses 2 distinct values (0 and 1). So 4851 is the sum of (1 X 2^{12}) + (0 X 2^{11}) + (0 X 2^{10}) + (1 X 2^{9}) + (0 X 2^{8}) + (1 X 2^{7}) + (1 X 2^{6}) + (1 X 2^{5}) + (1 X 2^{4}) + (0 X 2^{3}) + (0 X 2^{2}) + (1 X 2^{1}) + (1 X 2^{0}). Or (1 X 4096) + (0 X 2048) + (0 X 1024) + (1 X 512) + (0 X 256) + (1 X 128) + (1 X 64) + (1 X 32) + (1 X 16) + (0 X 8) + (0 X 4) + (1 X 2) + (1 X 1). Or 4096 + 0 + 0 + 512 + 0 + 128 + 64 + 32 + 16 + 0 + 0 + 2 + 1. Which adds up to 4851. Or 1001011110011 in binary. Which is gibberish to most humans. And a little too cumbersome for long division. Unless you’re a computer. They love binary numbers. And can look at long streams of these 1s and 0s and make perfect sense out of them.

## A Computer can divide two Numbers in a few One-Billionths of a Second

A computer doesn’t see 1s and 0s. They see two different states. A high voltage and a low voltage. An open switch and a closed switch. An on and off. Because of this machines that use binary numbers can be extremely simple. Computers process bits of information. Where each bit can be only one of two things (1 or 0, high or low, open or closed, on or off, etc.). Greatly simplifying the electronic hardware that holds these bits. If computers processed decimal numbers, however, just imagine the complexity that would require.

If working with decimal numbers a computer would need to work with, say, 10 different voltage levels. Requiring the ability to produce 10 discrete voltage levels. And the ability to detect 10 different voltage levels. Greatly increasing the circuitry for each digit. Requiring far more power consumption. And producing far more damaging heat that requires more cooling capacity. As well as adding more circuitry that can break down. So keeping computers simple makes them cost less and more reliable. And if each bit requires less circuitry you can add a lot more bits when using binary numbers than you can when using decimal numbers. Allowing bigger and more powerful number crunching ability.

Computers load and process data in bytes. Where a byte has 8 bits. Which makes hexadecimal so useful. If you have 2 bytes of data you can break it down into 4 groups of 4 bits. Or nibbles. Each nibble is a 4-bit binary number that can be easily converted into a single hexadecimal number. In our example the binary number 0001 0010 1111 0011 easily converts to 12F3 where the first nibble (0001) converts to hexadecimal 1. The second nibble (0010) converts to hexadecimal 2. The third nibble (1111) converts to hexadecimal F. And the fourth nibble (0011) converts to hexadecimal 3. Making the man-machine interface a lot simpler. And making our number crunching easier.

The simplest binary arithmetic operation is addition. And it happens virtually instantaneously at the bit level. We call the electronics that make this happen logical gates. A typical logical gate has two inputs. Each input can be one of two states (high voltage or low voltage, etc.). Each possible combination of inputs produces a unique output (high voltage or low voltage, etc.). If you change one of the inputs the output changes. Computers have vast arrays of these logical gates that can process many bytes of data at a time. All you need is a ‘pulsing’ clock to sequentially apply these inputs. With the outputs providing an input for the next logical operation on the next pulse of the clock.

The faster the clock speed the faster the computer can crunch numbers. We once measured clock speeds in megahertz (1 megahertz is one million pulses per second). Now the faster CPUs are in gigahertz (1 gigahertz is 1 billion pulses per second). Because of this incredible speed a computer can divide two numbers to many places past the decimal point in a few one-billionths of a second. And be correct. While it takes us tens of seconds. Or even minutes. And our answer could very well be wrong.

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