Week in Review
All you hear from Democrats is that we need to spend more on education. They call it investing in our future. Which is a lie. For ‘investing in our future’ is code for shoring up teachers’ pensions. And keeping higher education doing what those in control of higher education want it to do. Produce Democrat voters. Which actually starts in our public schools. Where they teach our kids to come home and tell their parents that they are ashamed of them. For all the global warming they’ve caused. And bringing them into the world in the evil, rotten United States.
These are the things our kids seem to know about. Global warming. Slavery. Stealing land from the Native Americans. American imperialism. But ask them to name the first four presidents of the United States? Four of the greatest Americans ever to live? Those in control of our public education don’t think knowing anything about them is important. Apparently (see Rolling Stone, Groupon Show The Viral Benefits of Historical Inaccuracy by Nathan Raab posted 4/11/2014 on Forbes).
In 2007, a US Mint poll showed that only 7 percent of those surveyed could name the first four Presidents in order. A later poll by Marist was not more encouraging.
George Washington (#1) kept the Continental Army together for 8 years under circumstances few could imagine today. Near the end of the Revolutionary War his character alone put down a mutiny in the officer corps. He turned down the offer to make him king. An unprecedented act at the time. King George of Britain had said if he turned down absolute power “he will be the greatest man in the world.” And Washington did. Twice. His presence was the only thing that got the states to ratify the Constitution. And his two terms in office was the only thing that gave the United States of America a chance of succeeding. This is why there is only one man we call the Father of his Country. And only one man we call the Indispensible Man. George Washington.
John Adams (#2) was a driving force for American independence. So much so that King George could not forgive him. Had they reconciled with the mother country the king would have pardoned many patriots. But not Adams. He would hang. Adams nominated George Washington to command the Continental Army. He chose Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of Independence. He worked with Benjamin Franklin to negotiate the peace treaty that ended the Revolutionary War. And negotiated America’s first loan from Amsterdam bankers. The first nation to recognize and do business with the new nation (other than France). And he averted war with France following the French Revolution. Giving the fledgling nation a chance to survive.
Thomas Jefferson (#3) was the author of Declaration of Independence. The author of the Statute of Virginia for Religious Freedom. And the Father of the University of Virginia. The three things Jefferson was most proud of and appear on his tombstone. As president his administration bought the Louisiana Territory from the French. More than doubling the size of the United States. And sent out Lewis and Clark to explore these vast new territories. And he slashed government spending wherever he could. A true believer in limited government.
James Madison (#4) is the Father of the Constitution. He wrote the Federalist Papers with Alexander Hamilton and John Jay to encourage ratification of the Constitution. The Federalist Papers are still referenced today in Constitutional law. He also helped the effort to ratify the Constitution in Virginia where he battled the great patriot Patrick Henry. Who feared a large central government. Madison served in the first Congress. Where he championed the Bill of Rights. And, later, supervised the Louisiana Purchase as President Jefferson’s Secretary of State.
It is indeed a sad commentary on our educational system that only 7% of those questioned could identify these great Americans. And it’s not a lack of money causing this. It’s a lacking in the curriculum. Choosing global warming, slavery, stealing land from the Native Americans, American imperialism, etc. Instead of teaching our kids why the United States is the greatest country in the world. Because of men like these. Who put the individual before the state. Who made freedom and liberty things we take for granted. Instead of things people can only dream of. Which is the case in much of the world today. And has been the norm throughout history.
Tags: Adams, Bill of Rights, Constitution, Continental Army, Declaration of Independence, Federalist Papers, first four presidents, George Washington, Global Warming, imperialism, independence, James Madison, Jefferson, John Adams, king, King George, Louisiana Purchase, Louisiana Territory, Madison, presidents, Revolutionary War, slavery, stealing land, Thomas Jefferson, United States, Washington
The Pope kept European Rulers from Oppressing their People lest they get Excommunicated from the Church
In 39 AD the Romans crucified Jesus of Nazareth. Because they said he called himself the King of the Jews. Or rather those with political power who felt threatened by Jesus’ popularity said this. His death was to protect power and privilege of those who had it. Ultimately, though, His death would do more to destroy power and privilege. For the Golden Rule allowed people to live together in peace. To build communities. And to help one another.
Emperor Diocletian split up the vast Roman Empire into four parts. The tetrarchy. The rulership by four. Each of the four parts had its own emperor. When Diocletian stepped down from power those emperors began vying for power. By 312 two emperors were in open war with each other. Constantine. And Maxentius. On October 28, 312, they met in battle near the Milvian Bridge over the Tiber. On the eve of battle Constantine had a vision. The Christian God would help him win the upcoming battle if he placed the Christian symbol on his soldiers’ shields (accounts differ it was either the Chi-Rho sign or the Latin cross). He did. He won. And became Constantine the Great. Sole ruler of the Roman Empire. And because of his victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge he began his conversion to Christianity. Making the Roman Empire Christian.
Christianity spread throughout and united Europe. And the Pope kept European rulers from oppressing their people. Lest they get excommunicated from the Church. In time, though, some resented rule from Rome. In particular when Pope Leo X sold indulgences (a way to help purify one from sin) to fund the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. This was one of many problems that had many calling for a reform of the Church. One in particular, Martin Luther, published his The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. Kicking off the Protestant Reformation.
Plymouth Colony succeeded when Communal Property became Private Property
Henry VIII, King of England, was a good Catholic. But his wife wasn’t giving him any sons. And he wanted a male heir. So he asked the Pope for an annulment from his wife. Catherine. So he could marry Anne Boleyn. The Pope refused. So Henry left the Catholic Church. And initiated the English Reformation. Making England Protestant. England would swing back and forth between Catholicism and Protestantism without being either but something in between. Making a group of Protestants very unhappy. As they felt the English Reformation did not go far enough. A group referred to derisively as Puritans. They were so hated that they were being persecuted along with the Catholics. So they left England. Landing in the Netherlands first. Then they sailed across the Atlantic. They sighted land on November 9, 1620. They eventually came ashore and established Plymouth Colony.
About half of Plymouth Colony died within the first few years. From disease. And hunger. The economic system they were using was killing them. Communal property. Everything the colonists produced belonged to everyone. People produced according to their ability and took from the common store according to their needs. A sort of Marxism. Before there was even a Karl Marx. To save the colony Governor William Bradford abandoned the idea of communal property in 1623. Communal property became private property. And the colony was saved. As people worked twice as hard to produce more on their land than they did on communal land. And because they did they replaced famines with bumper crops. So instead of dying off the American colonies became the prosperous New World.
The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) came to the New World. By the time it ended Catholic France lost its North American possessions to Protestant Great Britain. To pay off the enormous debt of that war Parliament decided to tax their British American colonists. Who made out very well in the conflict without the costs the British incurred. But they did this without discussing it with the colonists. Treating them as second-class citizens in the British Empire. Who had no representation in Parliament. Which led to anger over taxation without representation. Leading to the Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773). Which led to the Intolerable Acts and the Quebec Act (1774-1775). Which led to the shot heard ’round the world. The Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775). Which ultimately led to July 2, 1776. When the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence. After a few revisions it was formally passed 2 days later. On July 4, 1776. Known forever after as Independence Day in the United States.
In the United States your Last Name does not Determine the Quality of your Life
The American Revolutionary War did not start out well. As the British pushed them back with little effort. Until Benedict Arnold (future traitor) did some superb soldiering. Impeding the advance of General Burgoyne. The Americans met him in battle for the last time on October 7, 1777. On the second day of fighting in the Battle of Saratoga. And won. Forcing an army in the mightiest empire in the world to surrender. Shocking the world. And getting the French to take notice. Who then entered the American War of Independence. The turning point of the war. And world history. For France was anxious to get back what they had lost to the British. As was Spain. Who joined the conflict as France’s ally. Turning the American War of Independence into a world war. And a war of attrition. As their new foes forced them to send British forces all around the globe. Leaving fewer to fight in North America. With a British public growing weary of the war in North America.
America won. Eventually. Taking 8 years until the Treaty of Paris officially ended the conflict (September 3, 1783). And peace and prosperity followed. Thanks in large part to Jay’s Treaty (ratified by the Senate in November 1794). Which improved relations between Great Britain and the new United States of America. And began a Special Relationship between two nations of a common people, culture, religion and tradition. When the treaty expired there was a minor hiccup in that Special Relationship that resulted in war. The War of 1812 (1812-1815). But peace and prosperity soon resumed. With the South having a larger say in the national direction thanks to the Three-Fifths Compromise in the United States Constitution (1787). Giving the South greater representation in the House of Representatives as they counted 3/5 of each slave to determine their number of representatives. As the North industrialized and immigration filled their factories and swelled her population the South was losing that larger say. One thing led to another that eventually resulted in the American Civil War (1861-1865).
The agrarian South had more in common with feudal England than they did with the industrial North. Rich landowners (the planter elite) comprised an aristocracy that controlled politics. While peasants/slaves worked the land. The South was holding onto the Old World. Where there was power and privilege. While the North was building the New World. Though the South talked about states’ rights they used the power of the federal government wherever they could. Such as the Fugitive Slave Act (1850). When war broke out the South won most battles. Until General Grant started his great advance down the Mississippi River. With the Vicksburg Campaign (May 18 – July 4, 1863) culminating in the capture of Vicksburg. And control of the Mississippi River. Severing the Confederacy into two. Pretty much guaranteeing a Union victory. It was just a matter of time. In the east the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863) also ended in a Union victory. President Lincoln went to the Gettysburg battlefield for the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery there. Where he gave his Gettysburg’s Address (November 19, 1863). Which ended with “we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” And so far it hasn’t. Remaining that shining city upon a hill. The destination of people everywhere yearning liberty. And a better life. Where all men are created equal. And your last name does not determine the quality of your life.
Tags: British Empire, Catholic, Christian, Christianity, Church, communal property, Constantine, Declaration of Independence, Diocletian, England, English Reformation, France, Gettysburg, Great Britain, Jesus, Marx, Milvian Bridge, New World, North, Old World, Parliament, Plymouth Colony, Pope, power, private property, privilege, Protestant, Reformation, Revolutionary War, Roman Empire, Romans, Rome, South, Special Relationship, Vicksburg
Paid-Laborers are Rented as Needed while Slave-Laborers are Owned even when not Needed
There is a common misconception that slave labor was free labor. The argument goes that the United States got rich because of all their free slave labor. They’ll say this despite knowing of the immense suffering of African slaves on the slave ships. Who came to the New World where slave traders auctioned them off. This was the slave trade. The key word in this is ‘trade’. African slave traders sold them to European slave traders. Who auctioned them off in New World slave markets. To feed a labor-hungry market.
People bought and sold slaves. And anything you buy and sell is not free. So slave labor wasn’t free. It was a capital cost. Let’s explain this by comparing leasing and owning. Businesses can buy buildings. Or lease them. If they buy them they own them. And are responsible for them. They add a large asset on their balance sheet that they depreciate. And add new debt that they must service (making premium and/or interest payments). They also must pay expenses like taxes, insurance, maintenance, supplies, utilities, etc. Things owners are responsible for. When they lease a building, though, they don’t add an asset to depreciate. And they don’t pay any expenses other than a lease payment. The owner, the lessor, pays all other expenses. When you lease you pay only for what you use. When you buy you pay for what you use now. And what you will use for years to come. We can make a similar comparison between paid-labor and slave-labor.
For this exercise let’s take a factory today with 125 employees. We’ll look at the costs of these laborers as paid-laborers versus slave-laborers. We assume that the total labor cost for everything but health care/insurance is $65,000 per paid-laborer. And an annual health care expense of $5,000. Bringing the total annual labor and health care/insurance costs for 125 paid-laborers to $8,750,000. For the slave laborers we assume 47 working years (from age 18 to 65). But we don’t multiple 47 years by $65,000. Because if we buy this labor there are a lot of other costs that we must pay. Slave traders understand this and discount this price by 50%. Or $32,500 annually for 47 years. Which comes to $1,527,500 per slave-laborer. Bringing the annual total cost for all 125 slave-laborers to $4,062,500. And, finally, because they own these laborers they don’t have to offer premium health insurance to attract and keep employees. So we assume health care/insurance expense is only half of what it is for paid-laborers.
Slave-Labor Overhead included Food, Housing, Clothing and Interest on Debt that Financed Slave-Laborers
If we stop here we can see, though not free, slave-laborers are a bargain compared to paid-laborers. But if they own these people they have to take care of these people. They have to provide a place for them to live. They have to feed them. Clothe them. As well as pay interest on the money they borrowed to buy them. And the building to house them. For if they are not fed and protected from the elements they may not be able to work.
A slave-owner will try to keep these overhead costs as low as possible. So they won’t be feeding them steaks. They will feed them something inexpensive that has a high caloric content. So a little of it can feed a lot of people. In our exercise we assumed a $1.25 per meal, three meals daily, seven days a week, 52 weeks a year. For a total of $170,625 annually. We assumed a $500,000 building to house 125 slave-laborers and their families. The depreciation expense (over 40 years), taxes, insurance, supplies (soap, toilet paper, laundry detergent, etc.) and utilities come to $24,100 annually. For clothing we assume a new pair of boots every 5 years. And 7 inexpensive shirts, pants, tee shirts, underwear and socks each year. Coming to $10,094 annually.
Then comes one of the largest expense. The interest on the money borrowed to buy these slave-laborers. Here we assume they own half of them free and clear. Leaving $95,468,750 of debt on the book for these slave-laborers. At a 4.25% annual interest rate the interest expense comes to $4,057,422. We also assume half of the debt for the housing still on the books. At a 4.25% annual interest rate the interest expense comes to $10,625.
George Washington was Greatly Bothered by the Contradiction of the Declaration of Independence and American Slavery
These overhead expenses bring the cost of slave-laborers nearly to the cost of paid-laborers. Almost making it a wash. With all the other expenses of owning slaves you’d think people would just assume to hire paid-laborers. Pay them for their workday. Their health insurance. And nothing more. Letting them go home after work to their home. Where they can take care of their own families. Provide their own food. Housing. And clothing. Which they pay for out of their paycheck. Of course, this wasn’t quite possible in the New World. There weren’t enough Europeans living there to hire. And the Native Americans in North, Central and South America were more interested in getting rid of these Europeans than working for them. Which left only African slaves to exploit the natural resources of the New World. But that slave-labor could grow very costly over time. Because when you own people you own families. Including children and elderly adults who can’t work. By the time of our Founding this was often the case as some slave owners owned generations of slave families.
In our exercise we assume an equal number of men and women working in the factory. Assumed these men and women married. And half of these couples had on average 3 young children. We’ve also assumed the current working generation is a second generation. So their surviving parents live with them. We assumed half of all parents are surviving. These children and the surviving parents cannot work. But they still must eat. And require medical attention. Using the costs for the workers these non-workers add another $845,469 to the annual labor cost. Brining the cost of the slave-laborers greater than the cost of the paid-laborers.
George Washington was very conscious of history. Everything he said or did was with an eye to future generations. And their history books. One of the things that greatly bothered him was the contradiction of the Declaration of Independence declaring all men equal while the institution of slavery existed. But to form a new nation they needed the southern states. And they wouldn’t join without their slaves. So they tabled the subject for 20 years. Sure by then that the institution would resolve itself and go away. Washington believed this because he had many generations of slaves on his plantation. And desperately wanted to sell them and replace them with paid-laborers. Because he was feeding so many slaves that they were eating his profits. But people wanted to buy only those who could work. Not the children. Or the elderly. Unable to break up these families he did what he thought was the honorable thing. And kept using slaves. To keep these families together. Making less money than he could. Because slave-labor was more costly than paid-labor. Contrary to the common misconception.
Tags: African slaves, debt, Declaration of Independence, Europeans, Founding, George Washington, health insurance, institution of slavery, interest, interest expense, labor, labor cost, New World, paid laborer, paid-labor, slave, slave labor, slave traders, slave-laborer, slave-owner
The Quill Pen was nothing more than a Bird’s Feather and some Ingenious Thinking
The pen is mightier than the sword. For while the sword can kill a person they cannot kill that person’s words. Even the words ‘sword’ and ‘words’ are interesting in themselves. For if you drop the ‘s’ from both you have ‘word’. That thing that makes us human. Putting our thoughts into words onto paper. So that others can read these words. And understand our thoughts. Our ideas. Our perspectives. Our wisdom. So we can pass these words down through the ages. Or on to others in our current age.
The Egyptians, the Sumerians, the Harappa and the Nanzhuangtou all wrote. A stylus on a clay tablet was probably the first form of writing. Not quite the communications we have today. But this writing gave us the four great ancient civilizations. But only a select few wrote in these early civilizations. No. Writing didn’t really take off until much later. And the introduction of the first great writing tool. The quill pen. Which was nothing more than a bird’s feather. And some ingenious thinking.
What happens when you place a paper towel on a spill? The towel absorbs the liquid. By rising up into the paper towel. This is capillary action. And is the basis of the quill pen. Without getting too technical molecules in a liquid are attracted to the surface of a round tube. Everyone no doubt remembers seeing this in a high school chemistry class using a graduated cylinder. That tall tube of glass we measured liquids in by reading the scale off of the glass. The surface of the glass attracted and pulled up the liquid on the sides of the glass. Forming a concave surface on top. The narrower the tube the greater this pulling force. And the higher this attraction will pull a liquid up the tube.
Thanks to the Dip Pen most Americans were Well-Informed and Literate at the time of the Civil War
A bird’s feather is hollow. A long narrow tube. When dipped in a well of ink capillary forces will pull this ink up the hollow tube of the feather. And hold it there. Not a long column of ink. But enough to let us write words. Before we did, though, we used a pen knife to cut a nib in the end. You make a 45-degree cut across the bottom. Then you cut again to remove most of the round cylinder. If you were looking into the end of the feather and imagine the face of a clock you would remove everything from 1:00 to 11:00. Or thereabouts. So you are left with a flat-like extension from the tube of the feather. You then cut the tip of this flat extension to get a nice chisel point. Then, finally, you slice or score this flat extension of the tube from the tip of the nub to the tube holding the ink. This allowed the ink to flow from the tube to the point. As one wrote the ink at the tip would wipe off on the paper. And when it did it would pull fresh ink from the tube reservoir above.
This was a remarkable tool. And one we used for a very long time. Roughly from the 6th to the 19th century. This is what the scribes used in those monasteries when they translated all those Greek texts the Crusaders brought back to Europe. Quills penned Magna Carta. It’s what Shakespeare used. It gave us the King James Bible. The works of the Enlightenment. The Declaration of Independence. The U.S. Constitution. And the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. We used it that long because it was that good. Simple. And we only stopped using it when manufacturing techniques advanced to the point that could create the quill nib in steel. Giving us the dip pen. And once we did we said goodbye to the quill pen.
The dip pen was basically the quill nib made out of steel. Only it was sturdier. And didn’t require anyone having to become skilled with a pen knife. We began manufacturing the dip pen around the 1820s. Mass production techniques brought down prices. Allowing anyone to write. Even children with poor pen knife skills. School desks had holes in the upper right corner. To hold an ink well. So children in school could dip their pens. And put words to paper. Literacy rates soared. As did education. Americans were probably not more informed and literate than they were at the time of the Civil War. Thanks to the inexpensive and easy-to-use dip pen.
Penmanship and Cursive Writing were once Important Parts of the School Curriculum
The dip pen had a much shorter life than the quill pen. Replaced by the fountain pen. Pretty much the same as the dip pen. Only with an internal ink reservoir. Other advancements made the fountain pen portable. Such as a retractable nib. Or a cap that covered the nib. Allowing us to slip the fountain pen in a pocket without ink staining our shirt. We filled early reservoirs with an eyedropper. Which was messy. The next development was adding a mechanism that when operated drew ink up through the nib into the reservoir. And a breather hole helped the ink flow to the paper by allowing air to enter the reservoir to replace the ink as it left. Filling a fountain pen through the nib was neater to fill than using an eye dropper. But still required an open ink well. Which could spill or leave excess ink on the nib after filling. The next advancement was an ink cartridge. Removing the need to have an open well of ink. Removing the chance of an ink spill. And there was no excess ink on the nib after refilling.
The fountain pen was about as good as it got. Until the ballpoint pen arrived. Cheap. Disposable. Convenient. And clean. Up until the ballpoint pen the mechanics of the pen remained the same from the quill pen to the dip pen to the fountain pen. They all had a nib with a slit that drew ink from a reservoir. The ballpoint pen was a completely different technology. Where we replaced the nib with a very small ball inserted into a point. Hence ballpoint pen. We make the ball from a very hard metal such as tungsten carbide and machine it into a perfect sphere. The ball snaps into a socket in the point. Attached to this nib assembly is an ink-filled plastic tube. The ball fits so snuggly that it can’t slip out of the point or slip up into the ink reservoir. And it holds back the ink from running out of the reservoir. When you write you drag the point across the paper. This rotates the ball in the point. Bringing ink from behind the ball onto the paper. Producing a very uniform ink line.
The ink pen created civilization. By allowing us to put our thoughts into words. And putting those words onto paper for others to read. Penmanship and writing in cursive were once important parts of the school curriculum. As they were the gateway to literacy and education. But that has all changed. Few people write today. Instead they type. Or text. Bastardizing our words into shorthand gibberish. A long cry from the elegant words of William Shakespeare. Or the impassioned words of the Declaration of Independence. Where we raised our words to the level of art and put them to paper. Ushering in the golden era of civilization. Where we were our most human. Expressing our thoughts. Our ideas. Our perspectives. And our wisdom. Replaced today with truncated efficiency. As we dehumanize ourselves to live in a digital world.
Tags: ballpoint pen, bird's feather, capillary action, civilization, cursive, Declaration of Independence, dip pen, education, feather, fountain pen, ideas, ink, ink pen, ink reservoir, ink well, literacy, pen, pen knife, penmanship, perspectives, put words to paper, quill pen, reservoir, Shakespeare, sword, thoughts, tube, wisdom, words, writing
A Strong President and a Few Judges could defy Congress and the State Legislatures and Govern as They Please
Woodrow Wilson became president in 1913. He was a progressive. And didn’t much care for our Founding Fathers. Or our Founding Documents. The Declaration of Independence. And the Constitution. He referred to our inalienable rights as a “great deal of nonsense.” Preferring to think of them as privileges granted by the government. Like kings once did. And as kings did not like limits on their power so did Wilson not like limits on his power. For government was a living thing that could grow and do great things. But to do great things it needed great men in leadership positions. Like him. Not hindered by the checks and balances of the Constitution. Or state legislatures. Or people clamoring about their inalienable rights.
This was the age of progressivism. When smart people were in government. Smarter than they ever were before. People who graduated from the finest institutions of higher learning. Or ran them. Like Wilson. Who was president of Princeton. Progressives were smarter than the average American. Who could take America to such great heights. If they could only keep the dumb people from interfering with their vision. And foolishly try to limit the power of the federal government. So, as president, Wilson got a lot of legislation passed that helped make the federal government more powerful. Such as creating the Federal Reserve System. A central bank that could print money as the government needed it. And enacting the first federal income tax since the American Civil War. With this new found wealth the federal government only needed one other thing to take America to great heights. Getting rid of the Constitution.
As much of what Wilson wanted to do exceeded his Constitutional authority he needed a way around that particular nuisance. The checks and balances of the Constitution. Especially after the Framers made it so difficult to add amendments. Requiring a 2/3 supermajority in both houses of Congress. And then ratification by three-fourths of the state legislatures. Not a promising way to make radical changes in the structure of the federal government. So Wilson’s solution was not to amend the Constitution. But to go around the Constitution. With judicial activism. The president should appoint federal judges who share his views of abandoning the intent of the Framers. Thus consolidating power into fewer hands. So they could do more of what they wanted and less what the people wanted. A strong president and a few judges along the way could defy the Congress and the state legislatures and govern as they please. Reshaping America into their vision. Not the Founders’ vision. A progressive vision. Where these few enlightened and very smart individuals would do what was best for us. Even if we didn’t know what that was.
The New Deal was a Revolution made not by Tanks and Machine Guns but acts of Congress and Decisions of the Supreme Court
Franklin Delano Roosevelt (FDR) saw things the way Wilson did. FDR was all for radical change. And breaking away from the constraints of our Founding Documents. And his New Deal did just that. A radical change and expansion of the federal government. And to help get the people to embrace these changes in the long-term he introduced Social Security. To get even more people dependent on the federal government. A program so convoluted he reportedly said that it would be impossible to overturn. He empowered unions. He introduced payroll taxes to fund Social Security. He raised income taxes. Even tried to implement a heavy progressive tax that topped out at 100% for the very rich. And he introduced the withholding tax. As people’s tax bills were to grow so large there would have been push back had they had to write a check at the end of the year for the full amount. But if you took a little bit each pay period the total tax bill didn’t seem so high.
In FDR’s 1944 State of the Union speech he proposed a Second Bill of Rights. However, when talking about our Constitutional rights he called them “inalienable political rights.” By inserting the word ‘political’ those God-given rights of the Declaration of Independence became privileges granted by the government. Which was similar to the way Wilson saw those rights. As privileges granted by government. And privileges that government could take away. Thus emphasizing the power of the federal government over the individual. Making it easier to impose those new federal taxes. So what were those new rights? A good-paying job, adequate food and clothing, recreation, high farm prices for farmers, freedom from unfair competition, a decent home, medical care, a pension, unemployment insurance and a good education. Sound familiar? If you’re an old Soviet communist they do.
Chapter X of the 1936 Soviet constitution included a list of Fundamental Rights. Which included a right to a good-paying job, adequate food and clothing, recreation, medical care, a pension, and a good education. Among others. No surprise, really. As FDR was a fan of Joseph Stalin and what he was doing in the Soviet Union. The same kind of things he wanted to do. But he didn’t have the same freedoms Stalin had. There were such similarities that Whittaker Chambers, a Soviet spy in the US during the time of the New Deal wrote in his book Witness “the New Deal was a genuine revolution, whose deepest purpose was not simply reform within existing traditions, but a basic change in the social and, above all, the power relationship within the nation. It was not a revolution of violence. It was a revolution by bookkeeping and lawmaking…made not by tanks and machine guns, but acts of Congress and decisions of the Supreme Court…” Just like Wilson envisioned.
If Woodrow Wilson, FDR and Joseph Stalin were Alive Today they would likely Endorse Barack Obama and Joe Biden
Alexander Hamilton believed in a strong central government. Partly because he saw what a weak central government did to the Continental Army during the Revolutionary War. And partly because he admired the greatness of the British Empire. He wanted an American Empire. Trusting that only men of virtue would serve in a republican government, he did not fear a federal government from overreaching, and abusing, their power. Thomas Jefferson and James Madison thought Hamilton was mad. And fought against him with every last fiber of their bodies. Because they knew that they couldn’t trust future members of their republican government to be men of virtue. As proven by Aaron Burr. Who lived during the time of the Founding Fathers.
The modern Democrat Party traces its roots back to Woodrow Wilson and FDR. Men hungry for power. And having little virtue. Today we call people like them Big Government liberal Democrats. Who have continued to advance the growth and power of the federal government. Approximately 20% of the population identifies themselves as liberals. And yet the liberals have greatly advanced their agenda. How? In large part through judicial activism. Using the courts to give them what the state legislatures or Congress won’t. Such as when a state passes a referendum on a liberal issue, such as redefining gay marriage, the liberals use the courts to overturn that act of democracy. Or any other that they disagree with.
Now that’s the kind of governing that Wilson and FDR would approve of. Even Joseph Stalin. More and more power centralized in the federal government. The ability to overturn legislation you don’t like. A revolution without violence. It doesn’t get any better than that. If Woodrow Wilson, FDR and Joseph Stalin were alive today they would likely endorse the Democrat candidates Barack Obama and Joe Biden.
Tags: 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, checks and balances, Congress, Constitution, Declaration of Independence, Democrat, Democrat Party, FDR, federal government, founding documents, Founding Fathers, Framers, inalienable rights, Joseph Stalin, judges, judicial activism, liberal, New Deal, privileges, Progressive, Social Security, Soviet, Stalin, state legislatures, Supreme Court, Wilson, Woodrow Wilson
The Slave Owners were the Social Elite and Holders of Political Power Similar to the Aristocracy in European Feudalism
General Motors (GM) required a government bailout and bankruptcy protection because of rising labor costs that prevented them from selling enough cars at a price to cover their costs while being profitable. Their problem goes back to FDR. During the Great Depression his government placed a ceiling on wages. To encourage companies to hire more people. By paying more people less money instead of fewer people more money. So businesses had to do something else to attract the best employees. And the employee benefit was born. Pensions and health care benefits. That were very generous when there was no competition and car companies could sell cars at whatever price they chose. But that wasn’t the case in the 21st century. Competition put great cost pressures on those companies with rising health care and pension costs. And the job bank paying for workers who didn’t work. Until they could be put back to work. Adding a lot of costs to each car. And sending GM into bankruptcy.
Slavery as an economic model had a similar problem. High costs. Which goes contrary to the public perception that slave labor was free labor. George Washington wanted to sell his slaves and hire paid-laborers. Because his slave families had grown so large. So he had a growing slave population. But they all weren’t working. The young children could not do the work of a young man in his working prime. Nor could the elderly. Or the sick or infirmed. (Who he couldn’t sell along with the healthier and stronger ones in their families. So he kept his slaves, keeping those families together. Freeing them upon the death of his wife. And including provisions in his will to help them integrate into free society. Giving them some job skills to help them find gainful employment so they could care for their young, elderly, sick and infirmed.) Yet Washington was feeding them all. While the growing amount of food they ate couldn’t go to market. As the years passed his costs went up and his revenue fell. Just like at GM. For both had long-term labor commitments that became more inefficient over time. Which is why slavery was a dying institution in the United States. The industrial North was slave-free. As they used more efficient paid-laborers. Drawing a lot of immigrants to those northern factories. And slavery was dying out in the South. Until the cotton gin came along. Allowing workers to comb (separating the seeds from the fiber) huge amounts of cotton at a time. Greatly opening the market for that labor-intensive cotton crop.
The typical image of the South in 1860 is endless plantations each with hundreds of slaves working the fields. Which is wrong. Most people worked a small family farm. In fact, most of the Confederate soldiers who fought in the American Civil War came from those small family farms and never owned a slave in their life. The actual numbers of large slaveholders will probably surprise you. Approximately 0.84% of the southern population owned at least 20 slaves. Only 0.05% of the southern population owned at least 100 slaves. And the number of big plantations owning at least 500 slaves? Twelve. So it was a very small population that had a vested interest in the institution of slavery. Yet the South seceded from the union over the issue of slavery. Why? Because of who those slave owners were. The social elite and holders of political power. The Planter Elite. People similar to the aristocracy in European feudalism. An Old World nobility. The very wealthy few who ruled the South. And for awhile they ruled the United States thanks to an unfair advantage they had in the House of Representatives. Where they determined their representation by not only counting the free population but by counting every slave as 3/5 a free person as well. And this southern nobility was determined to maintain their aristocracy.
Popular Sovereignty created a Bloodbath in Kansas as ‘Free’ and ‘Slave’ People raced there to Settle the State
Which was easier said than done. Because of that industrial growth in the north attracting so many immigrants that they swelled the northern population. Transferring control of the House from the South to the North. Which left only the Senate (and the presidency) for the South. As each state got two senators the race was on to admit free and slave states to the union. Which didn’t really solve anything. It only made the differences between the North and the South greater. And intensified the bad feelings between the North and the South. The North was full of abolitionist busybodies trying to tell southerners how to live. While the southerners were a bunch of immoral slaveholders. Bringing shame to the nation that was supposedly a place where all men were created equal. Words enshrined in the Declaration of Independence. Words written incidentally by a southern slaveholder. It was finally time to address the nation’s original sin.
Congress passed the Missouri Compromise (1820) after Thomas Jefferson bought the Louisiana Territory from the French. Adding a lot of new land to form states from. The compromise prohibited slavery north of the border between Arkansas and Missouri (except in the state of Missouri). They added new states in pairs. A free state. And a slave state. Maintaining the balance of power in Congress. Then came Kansas and Nebraska. Both above the Missouri Compromise line. Well, that meant two new free states. And a change in the balance of power. Which the South couldn’t have. So Senator Stephen Douglas introduced the Kansas-Nebraska Act. And the idea of popular sovereignty. The idea of letting the people in these new states decide for themselves if they should be a free state or a slave state. Creating a bloodbath in Kansas as ‘free’ and ‘slave’ people raced there to settle the state. Fighting and intimidating each other so they would be the ones to vote on making Kansas free or slave. It was anarchy.
Abraham Lincoln had reentered politics in 1854 to campaign for fellow Whig Richard Yates. Who opposed the Kansas-Nebraska Act. Democrat Stephen Douglas was making a series of speeches in Illinois. In response to one of Stephens’ speeches Lincoln gave his Peoria speech. In commenting on letting slavery into Nebraska and Kansas Lincoln said, “I hate it because of the monstrous injustice of slavery itself. I hate it because it deprives our republican example of its just influence in the world—enables the enemies of free institutions, with plausibility, to taunt us as hypocrites—causes the real friends of freedom to doubt our sincerity and especially because it forces so many really good men amongst ourselves into an open war with the very fundamental principles of civil liberty—criticizing the Declaration of Independence, and insisting that there is no right principle of action but self-interest.”
If Lincoln were Alive Today he would Likely Endorse the Republican Candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan
The fallout from the Kansas-Nebraska Act splintered existing political parties apart. Created new ones that disappeared later. And gave birth to the new Republican Party. The party of George W. Bush, Ronald Reagan and Abraham Lincoln. Who became the leading spokesman of the party. The Republicans lost the 1856 presidential election but won majorities in most of the northern states. Tipping the balance of power further away from the South. When Lincoln won his party’s nomination to run for senator in 1858 he gave his ‘House Divided Speech’ saying, “A house divided against itself cannot stand. I believe this government cannot endure permanently half slave and half free. I do not expect the Union to be dissolved—I do not expect the house to fall—but I do expect it will cease to be divided. It will become all one thing, or all the other.”
When slave Dred Scott traveled to a free state with his owner his owner died. Scott said he was then a free man. The Supreme Court thought otherwise. Saying that Scott was still a slave because neither Congress nor any territory legislature had the authority to change that. Which meant no one could restrict the movement of slaves because no one had the right to restrict the movement of private property. Thus opening all the new territories to slavery. Making the South very happy. While infuriating the North. Who refused to enforce slave laws on the books like the Fugitive Slave Law. A provision included in the Compromise of 1850 for the states’ rights South. That called for the federal government to force northerners to return slaves or face arrest and penalties. States’ legislatures in the North passed laws saying a slave living in a free state was a free man. The Supreme Court struck down these laws. Favoring southern states’ rights over northern states’ rights. So the states just refused to help the federal government in any prosecution of a violation of the Fugitive Slave Law. Then abolitionist John Brown’s failed slave revolt at Harper’s Ferry, Virginia, further angered the South.
Then came the 1860 presidential election. That Abraham Lincoln won. Which was the last straw. The South lost both Congress and the presidency. Worse, the new president, though not an outright abolitionist, opposed the expansion of slavery. Leaving the South with one last option. Secession. Which they did. Leading to the American Civil War. Which the South lost because of everything they believed in. For an Old World nobility just could not defeat a modern industrial power. Lincoln won because he had modern factories building whatever he needed. The northern economy was large and diverse providing war financing. Railroads crisscrossed the North. A large navy controlled the interior rivers and blockaded the southern ports. Cutting off the South from the outside world and starving it. When the South desperately pursued the British for recognition Lincoln issued the Emancipation Proclamation. Making it impossible for Britain to ally itself with a nation fighting for the institution of slavery.
No president entered office with a heavier burden than President Lincoln. Standing on principle he made the hard decisions. Becoming the most hated sitting president of all time. He did not look for an easy solution like every other politician had up to his time. Only making the inevitable solution more costly. And more painful. He would do what had to be done. Regardless the price he would pay. Politically. Or personally. A cost so high that it made him a one term president thanks to an assassin’s bullet. He didn’t base his decisions on the polls. Or populist movements. But on principles. Drawn from the Constitution. And the Declaration of Independence. As well as the Bible. So if he were alive today who would he endorse in the current election? He would, of course, support his party. Out of party loyalty. And because it tends to stand on principle more than the Democrat Party. Which often used an activist Supreme Court to get what they couldn’t get in the legislature. Which tends to use populist movements and character assassination to advance their agenda. Such as the so-called war on women to scare women into voting Democrat because they can’t persuade them to based on a successful track record in office. Also, the Republicans are more pro-business and more pro-military. Which gives you the ability to win civil wars. And other wars. As well as protecting US security interests around the world. Maintaining peace through strength. For anything was preferable to the hell he went through during the four long years of the Civil War. And to have so much blood on his hands. The war being so horrific because of a policy of continued failed diplomacy when there was simply no common ground. He said that there was only one of two possible outcomes. All free. Or all slave. And he was right. But it took someone willing to be the most hated sitting president to have the courage to act to bring about the inevitable. So if Lincoln were alive today he would likely endorse the Republican candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan. Not the party that wants to delay the inevitable by refusing to address the systemic problems of Medicare and Social Security. And a growing welfare state. Systems a declining population growth rate can no longer fund. Because aging populations bankrupt nations with expanding welfare programs. Just like an aging workforce can bankrupt a car company like GM.
Tags: 1860, 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, abolitionist, Abraham Lincoln, American Civil War, aristocracy, Civil War, Compromise of 1850, Constitution, cotton, Declaration of Independence, feudalism, free state, Fugitive Slave Law, house divided, House of Representatives, immigrants, Kansas, Kansas-Nebraska Act, Lincoln, Missouri Compromise, nobility, North, northern, Old World nobility, paid laborers, planter elite, popular sovereignty, Republican, Republican Party, Senate, slave, slave labor, slave state, slaveholders, slavery, South, southerners, states' rights, Stephen Douglas, Supreme Court, union
When the Radicals attacked Parliament and the King’s Ministers Jefferson’s Summary View attacked King George
When Thomas Jefferson entered politics he was still a quiet and shy awkward young man. He was not the public speaker Patrick Henry was. And did not enjoy being in the spotlight. That said he was incredibly book smart. When he was in college he spent up to 15 hours a day reading. And another 3 hours practicing his violin. Which probably explained why he was quiet and shy. And not a real lady’s man. His first love was and always remained his books. And it was this insatiable thirst to read and learn that made him one of the greatest writers of the Revolutionary era. It was also where he was most comfortable. For it was something a quiet and shy young man could do best in his solitude.
After earning a law degree he went into law. Then he won a seat in the Virginian House of Burgesses. And joined the opposition against the taxing efforts of British Parliament. As well as their regulation of trade. Going so far as to join a boycott of British imports. Unless it was something really nice that he really, really wanted. For he was a bit of a dandy who enjoyed the finest fashions, furnishings, wines, pretty much anything French, etc. If it was fashionable in high society Jefferson probably had it. But you wouldn’t believe he was a dandy by his writing. For he wrote some powerful stuff while still in the House of Burgesses. Especially his A Summary View of the Rights of British America (1774). Published at a time when there was a lot of friction between the colonies and the mother country. As furious debate raged about Parliament’s right to tax and regulate trade in the colonies. To summarize his Summary View Jefferson stated, “The British Parliament has no right to exercise authority over us.” Like many of the Revolutionary generation, Jefferson did not like some distant central power imposing their will on them. But Summary View went even farther.
At the time most British Americans still wanted to be subjects of Great Britain. They just wanted the same rights subjects living in England had. Namely, representation in Parliament. Denied that they attacked the dictatorial powers of Parliament. And the king’s ministers. But they didn’t attack King George. Jefferson did. When the other radicals attacked Parliament and the king’s ministers Summary View attacked King George. While the other radicals wanted fair and equal treatment as subjects of the British Crown Jefferson was already moving beyond that. He was ready for independence from the British Crown. For he had no love of monarchy.
The States drafting their own Constitutions was a de facto Declaration of Independence
Much of the trouble in the colonies began with the Stamp Act of 1765. But in Summary View Jefferson said their problems went further back. To 1066. To the Norman Conquest of England. A time when, according to the Whig interpretation of history that Jefferson had read, things changed. All land belonged to kings after 1066. Not to the people. But before the Norman Conquest there was the Saxony model of government. Tracing its lineage back to Saxony Germania. Along the North Sea. Where once upon a time in a mystical place the good people of Saxony enjoyed representative government. A beautiful system of government under which people lived in harmony and bliss. Until feudalism came along. And kings arose. Who snuffed out these old ways. So Jefferson hated all monarchies. The nobility class. And birthrights. He didn’t believe in the divine rights of kings. To him they were just a bunch of bullies who came along and changed the rules of the game by force for personal gain. And King George III was no different.
When Peyton Randolph left the Continental Congress Jefferson replaced him. At the time he was a very minor player in Virginian politics. But his Summary View created a reputation that preceded his arrival. And he was warmly welcomed. Especially by the more radical elements. The Americans had not yet declared their independence but they were already at war with Great Britain. Blood was spilled at Lexington and Concord. And General Washington was now in command of the Continental Army then laying siege to the British in Boston. More importantly, some states were already drafting their own constitutions. To form new governments to replace the royal government. Which to many (including Jefferson) was the most pressing business. As it was a de facto declaration of independence. Which was even more important than the drafting of the Declaration of Independence. Something the more senior members delegated to the junior member from Virginia. Because they had more important things to do.
In May and June of 1776 Jefferson’s mind was back in Virginia. And he wrote three drafts of a new constitution for Virginia. His constitution was similar to the future U.S. Constitution. It included a separation of powers. A 2-house (i.e., bicameral) legislature. An independent judiciary. And, most importantly of all, a WEAK executive. Leaving political power in the hands of the people via their representatives in the legislature. There would be no royal governors or kings in the new state government. Just pure self-government. Just like in that mystical place where the Saxons lived in harmony and bliss. And so it would be in Virginia. There would be democracy. At least for the people who owned property and paid taxes, that is. For if you wanted to tell government what they could do you had to have skin in the game. And pay taxes. But after taking care of this Virginian business he got around to writing the Declaration of Independence. And that thing that no one wanted to waste their time doing? It became the seminal document of the United States. Making Jefferson a superstar among the Founding Fathers. In posterity John Adams regretted that he didn’t waste his valuable time to write it.
If Jefferson were Alive Today he would likely Endorse the Republican Candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan
After the Americans won their independence Jefferson accepted a diplomatic post in France where he accomplished little. Jefferson championed open markets and free trade. And he worked tirelessly with the French to adopt a free trade agreement. So cheap raw materials (like Virginian tobacco) could flow to France. And cheap manufactured goods could flow to the United States. But the political reality in France stymied him. The French refused to lower tariffs so they could protect their domestic markets. Not to mention that those high custom duties allowed corrupt officials to pocket more for themselves. His only success in France was a Dutch loan John Adams secured while Jefferson was tagging along. Adams understood the complex world of international finance. Jefferson did not. Other than large sums of money tended to corrupt people. Custom agents. And governments. So it was a wise thing to keep the centers of finance apart from the center of government. Which is why the federal capital is in Washington DC and not in New York City.
Jefferson was in France during Shay’s Rebellion. An armed protest against new taxes imposed by Boston. Those in the fledgling government worried about suppressing this uprising (the Continental Congress had few resources other than to ask states for contributions) to prevent the collapse of the new nation. While Jefferson said, “The spirit of resistance to government is so valuable on certain occasions, that I wish it to be always kept alive…I like a little rebellion now and then.” And, “The tree of liberty must be refreshed from time to time with the blood of patriots and tyrants. It is its natural manure.” Later, serving as Secretary of State in the Washington administration, he battled with Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton over the size of government and the meaning of the Constitution. Hamilton wanted to expand the power of the federal government to help jumpstart America into becoming a mighty empire like the British Empire. With the government partnering with the private sector. Pooling great amounts of capital together to build incredible things. While Jefferson wanted all Americans to be yeoman farmers physically working their own land. With as small a federal government as possible. And one that spent as little money as possible and remained debt-free. In fact, when he was president he slashed spending so much that the nation could barely afford the navy to protect its shipping from the Barbary pirates.
So it is pretty clear that Thomas Jefferson hated big government. He spent his entire political life trying to limit the power and scope of government. To make government as impotent as possible. To the point where he even supported a little rebellion every now and then to keep government in its place. What would he think of the federal government today? It would probably make him physically ill. The spending? The debt? The federal register? These would make him long for the responsible governing of King George. And his pro-American policies. If he were able to vote today he would vote for the lesser of two evils. And that would be the party of limited government. To stop the out of control growth of the federal government. And hopefully reduce its size. If Jefferson were alive today he would likely endorse the Republican candidates Mitt Romney and Paul Ryan for president and vice president.
Tags: 2012 election, 2012 Endorsements, Alexander Hamilton, British, British Crown, British Parliament, Constitution, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, England, federal government, France, free trade, Great Britain, Hamilton, House of Burgesses, Jefferson, John Adams, King George, limited government, Mitt Romney, monarchy, Norman Conquest, Parliament, Paul Ryan, representative government, Republican, Romney, Ryan, Saxony, self-government, Summary View, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginian, Virginian House of Burgesses
The Hutchinson Letters and the Tea Act put the Americans firmly on the Path to Independence
There’s a fine line between treason and loyalty. Some people cross that line. Some people don’t. Some people wait to see which side of the line their best interests lay. Some like to straddle the line. Either unable to commit. Unwilling to commit. Or unwilling to give up profiting from both sides of that line. Such it was during the American Revolutionary War. A very unique conflict. That pitted colony against mother country. New World against Old World. American against Brit. Brit against Brit. And American against American.
The American Revolutionary War was a smorgasbord of antagonism. What started out as a dispute over taxation escalated into world war. And into civil war. To settle old scores. And to settle new ones. Upon the signing of the Declaration of Independence the American colonies were in open rebellion against their sovereign. The ultimate act of treason. Yet they committed this act of treason to live a more British life. For Britain’s constitutional monarchy gave unprecedented rights to British subjects. And the highest standard of living then known to a middle class. Most knew what the rest of the world was like. And they wouldn’t trade their British way of life for any other. So rebellion undoubtedly made a great many nervous. For many were happy and comfortable living under the British sovereign. Benjamin Franklin, for one.
Franklin was a Loyalist. At first. He knew how to work the system. And did. Even achieving the post of American postmaster. And he made it profitable. Very profitable. Even his son, William Franklin, was governor general in New Jersey. So he was very connected to the British Empire. And saw it as the best system of government ever developed. Which is why he sought reconciliation. He was in England when tensions were increasing between the colonies and the mother country. He then came into the possession of some private correspondence that he passed along to his contacts in Massachusetts. The Hutchinson letters. As in governor general of Massachusetts Thomas Hutchinson. Which basically said that the way to subdue the unrest over recent Parliament actions (i.e., taxation without representation) was to deprive the colonists of some of their English liberties. Franklin asked that they not publish these letters. His intent was to calm the more radical in America. Proving that these misguided policies were the result of some bad advice from a few people. There was no general animosity towards the American colonies in Great Britain. And that reconciliation was possible. Which is what Franklin wanted. But they published the Hutchinson letters. And the Americans were not pleased. Then one thing led to another. After Parliament passed the Tea Act Franklin was anxious of the American response. Hoping for calm. But the response was anything but calm. And did nothing to aid reconciliation.
The Humiliation in the Cockpit helped Push Franklin from Reconciliation to Independence
When the first tea arrived following the Tea Act the Patriots threw it in Boston Harbor. Forever known thereafter as the Boston Tea Party (1763). This destruction of private property shocked Franklin. For this was not an act against Parliament. But an act against a private company. The East India Company. This did not go over well in England. Which was pretty agitated over the publication of those private Hutchinson letters. People accused each other of being the source of the leak. It got so bad that two men dueled in Hyde Park. Each blaming the other for the dishonorable act of leaking those private letters. Not being a very good duel both men survived. When they were going to have at it again Franklin publically stated that he was the leak. Explaining his intentions.
Though Franklin sought reconciliation he had his enemies in England. Who thought he was more of rabble rouser on the other side of the pond. And pounced on this opportunity to disgrace him. They summoned him to appear before the Privy Council. On the pretense to hear testimony on the petition from the Massachusetts Assembly to remove Hutchinson as governor general. But when Franklin arrived in the ‘Cockpit’ he found that he was on trial. For leaking the Hutchinson letters. News of the Boston Tea Party had by then reached England. And the newspapers attacked Franklin without mercy. All of England was turning against the man who wanted reconciliation more than any American. It even looked like Franklin could end up in an English jail.
It was an all out assault on Franklin in the Cockpit. Where his enemies packed the room. While few of his friends sat in. Such as Edmund Burke. Lord Le Despencer. And Joseph Priestly. One after another his enemies took their turn lambasting Franklin. Blaming him for the agitation in the American colonies against British rule. They attacked him personally. And besmirched his honor. Humiliated him. During it all Franklin stood silent. Refusing to partake in this farce. When Wedderburn called Franklin as a witness his counsel stated that his client declined to subject himself to examination. In the end they rejected the Massachusetts petition. And his friend Lord Le Despencer had no choice but to relieve Franklin from his post as American postmaster. He wrote his son William and urged him to quit his post as governor general of New Jersey in order to pursue more honorable work. He would not, though. And thus began the breach between father and son.
Franklin and William were no longer Father and Son but Patriot and Loyalist
William would stay loyal to the crown. While Franklin was moving closer to the side of the Patriots. In response to the Boston Tea Party Britain planned a blockade of Boston Harbor. In response the colonies united behind Boston and formed the First Continental Congress. Which William said was a mistake. And that Boston should make good on the tea they destroyed. Which would be the best way to calm the situation. And reopen Boston Harbor. Exactly what Franklin had earlier suggested. But after the Cockpit and the loss of his post as postmaster Franklin was losing his love for the British Empire. But he still tried while he remained in England with no official duties. He even played chess with Caroline Howe. Sister of Admiral Richard Howe and General William Howe. Who would later command the British naval and military forces in the opening of the Revolutionary War. But at the time they were both sympathetic to the American cause. Despite of his shameful treatment in the Cockpit she and other friends urged him to put pen to paper. And try to mediate a peaceful solution to the breach between the American colonies and Great Britain. He tried.
But all efforts came to naught. He worked on a bill with Lord Chatham. Which Lord Sandwich attacked with a fury when introduced into the House of Lords. And they publicly attacked Franklin again. They rejected the bill. And Franklin booked passage home. He met with Edmund Burke before leaving. Discussed with him one last plea for reconciliation. He spent his last day in London with his friend Joseph Priestly. And discussed the future. The coming war. Reading the papers. Priestly later wrote that the thought of that dismal future brought Franklin to tears. After Franklin was on a ship sailing west Burke rose in Parliament and gave his famous speech On Conciliation with America. Where he said, “A great empire and little minds go ill together.”
The move to independence accelerated after arriving home. Thomas Paine, who Franklin helped to bring to America, wrote Common Sense. Which Franklin read before it was published. Even offered a few revisions. As he would offer later to Thomas Jefferson’s Declaration of Independence. Then the Continental Congress scheduled a vote for independence. General Washington was preparing to fight General William Howe on Long Island. Supported by his brother Admiral Lord Richard Howe. Who made one last attempt at conciliation with Franklin. But things had already progressed too far. Franklin had crossed that fine line. The time for peace had passed. On June 15, 1776, the new American provincial government in New Jersey ordered the arrest of William Franklin. On the day of his trial Benjamin Franklin wrote General Washington. He did not mention William. Nor did he say anything when the Continental Congress voted to imprison him in Connecticut. The breach between father and son was complete. No longer father and son. But Patriot and Loyalist. As families throughout the colonies similarly tore asunder. Setting the stage for the civil war within the world war that was the American Revolution.
Tags: Admiral Richard Howe, American, American colonies, American Revolutionary War, Benjamin Franklin, Boston, Boston Harbor, Boston Tea Party, Britain, British, British Empire, Civil War, colonies, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, Edmund Burke, England, English, First Continental Congress, Franklin, General Washington, General William Howe, governor general, Great Britain, Howe, Hutchinson, Hutchinson letters, independence, Joseph Priestly, Lord Le Despencer, Loyalist, Massachusetts, mother country, New Jersey, Parliament, Patriot, reconciliation, Revolutionary War, tea, Tea Act, the Cockpit, treason, Washington, William Franklin, world war
The Declaration of Independence declared that Government should be By the People, Of the People and For the People
Tearing down the old order is one thing. Building a new one is something completely different. For there’s been a lot of tearing down throughout history. And rarely does peace and prosperity spontaneously follow. Which is something that no doubt weighed heavily on the minds of those who voted on July 2, 1776, to declare formerly their independence from Great Britain. What, exactly, were they to do next? The most powerful navy and army in the world no longer protected them. Instead, they were now the enemy of the most powerful navy and army in the world. Which meant they couldn’t protect themselves. Their international trade on the high seas. Or even protect their own people from each other. For if the British constitutional protections no longer applied to them, what did? Anything? Or would anarchy rule?
The Americans declared independence because they were not getting equal treatment under British law. Much of which they liked. The execution of it is what they had a problem with. That and the built-in privileges for some. And, of course, the established state religion. Which made many of them come to the colonies to escape in the first place. So there was a lot in British law they could use. And some that could do with a little tweaking. Which is something they could do now that they were starting from scratch.
They had just renounced the royal authority in their states. Which left these states without a formal framework of law. And the opportunity to make new law. Based on the principles in the Declaration of Independence. That government should be by the people, of the people and for the people. So when the Continental Congress adjourned after committing their high treason (declaring their independence) the delegates went home. Back to their states. To begin the building process of the new order.
The Vehicle for Peaceful Change of Government was and is the Constitutional Convention
Virginia was first. George Mason drafted their new constitution. And included a Bill of Rights. George Mason was a leading mind of the day. And produced a document that served as a template for other states. As well as other countries. It did away with privilege. And the state established Anglican religion. Among other reforms. In Massachusetts the process was a little different.
Thomas Jefferson wrote the Declaration of Independence. He voted for independence. And supported the violent revolution that followed. For he believed when a government harms the people that these people have a right and a duty to abolish that government. But that didn’t mean a violent revolution whenever the people disagreed with government policy. Because that would lead to anarchy. And this was an issue that weighed heavily on the brilliant mind of John Adams. Who created the procedure of overthrowing a government without suffering through a period of anarchy. The vehicle for this peaceful change of government was the constitutional convention. Which provided the framework for the states to develop their constitutions.
The Massachusetts House appointed a committee to draft their constitution. When they finished their draft they submitted it to a constitutional convention made up of elected state delegates. Who approved it and sent it to the towns for approval. They rejected it. For it lacked a bill of rights. Among other required features. So they started the process again. They called another constitution convention. This one included John Adams. Who had just returned from France. He took an active part of the deliberations. And the drafting of the second constitution. They then submitted this constitution to the towns for approval. The towns approved it. And the state of Massachusetts had a new government. New Hampshire followed this process. As did the other states. But it just wasn’t in the American states. Nations throughout the world have adopted this process ever since.
The Founding Fathers gave their People Great Power and hoped their Religious Institutions would help them act with Great responsibility
Most colonies disestablished the Anglican Church. Including the taxes that supported it. And the oaths of Anglican faith required for public office. But that didn’t mean the states wouldn’t establish their own religions. Or force the support of it through taxation. Which is what Massachusetts did. Either for the preferred Congregational Church. Or any other Christian religion. As long as everyone attended church. For as the Massachusetts Bill of Rights states, “the happiness of a people and the good order and preservation of civil government essentially depend upon piety, religion, and morality…”
Of course the Quakers and Baptists in Massachusetts objected to paying taxes for what they saw as a violation of conscience. In Virginia the Anglican Church of England was still supported by the state. Supported by taxation. And the state penalized dissenters. Particularly the Baptists (something James Madison remembered well when later working for the passage of the Bill of Rights to the U.S. Constitution). In direct violation of their own Virginian Bill of Rights. The Virginian Assembly would subsequently pass an act exempting all dissenters from taxation and abuse. Thomas Jefferson would take this a step farther with his Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom in 1786. A piece of legislation that he was particularly proud of. Even included it on his gravestone.
With great power comes great responsibility. The Founding Fathers gave their people great power. Representative government. And a means to overthrow that government. The constitutional convention. That they hoped their religious institutions would protect. And help their people act with great responsibility.
Tags: Adams, American, anarchy, Anglican, Anglican Church, Baptists, Bill of Rights, British law, Church of England, Constitution, Constitutional Convention, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, George Mason, Great Britain, independence, Jefferson, John Adams, Massachusetts, privileges, Religion, taxation, taxes, Thomas Jefferson, Virginia, Virginia Statue of Religious Freedom
In Response to the Declaration of Rights and Grievances George III condemned Massachusetts and the Suffolk Resolves
The Boston Tea Party (1773) and the subsequent passing of the Intolerable/Coercive Acts (1774) brought the several states together in Congress. John Adams, Samuel Adams, Joseph Galloway, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington and other delegates from every state (except Georgia) convened the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September of 1774. It sat for two months. And began with a vote to endorse the Suffolk Resolves. The Suffolk Resolves opposed the British oppression entailed in the Intolerable/Coercive Acts. In Massachusetts. (Other colonies passed similar resolves.) The resolves included a boycott of British goods. Demanded the resignation of the Crown’s representatives that displaced the elected colonial government. They supported a new colonial government free from the Crown. Refused to pay any further taxes until this happened. And urged for the several states to raise militias. But they did not talk of independence. The Resolves even declared their loyalty to the British Crown. Still, after learning of this action King George III said, “The die is cast.”
Joseph Galloway introduced the Galloway Plan of Union. Calling for a federal union of the several states. Where the king would appoint a president general. Advised by a grand council. With a representative from each state. Chosen by each state’s legislative body. A system of self-government. But one still loyal to the Crown. A move that made the British colonies more independent of the British Crown. But not independent from the British Crown. The Americans were to remain British Americans. Subjects of the greatest country in the world. The present trouble in Boston notwithstanding. For Great Britain was the only constitutional monarchy at the time. And the bastion of individual liberty. Which the Americans were looking forward to enjoying once the present misunderstandings passed. After a lengthy debate, the Galloway Plan of Union failed to pass. But it wouldn’t be the last talk of union.
They then adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances. Full of a lot of language the English used years earlier to redress previous issues with the Crown. And some of the same words of the Enlightenment thinkers they used. From Thomas Hobbes they wrote of their ‘right to life’. From John Locke the ‘right to liberty and property’ and ‘ruling by the consent of those governed’. From Baron Charles de Montesquieu the ‘separation of powers’ that eventually found its way into our Constitution. They sent off their declarations and petitions to London. Adjourned Congress. Agreed to reconvene the following May if necessary. And waited for King George to reply. He gave it in Parliament in November. In a speech to Parliament. Where he condemned Massachusetts. And the Suffolk Resolves. Not the answer they were hoping for. No. Their king was not going to save the Americans from the hostile acts of Parliament. Instead he was going to present a unified British opposition (King and Parliament) against these British subjects. The once loyal British Americans were running out of reasons to remain loyal to the British Crown. All they needed was one more push.
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense provided the Final Push towards Independence
The following April the battles of Lexington and Concord took place. There was a shooting war, now. With the Americans following the British back to Boston and laying siege. The patriotic spirit was high. And such was the spirit when the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in May of 1775. Independence was in the air. John Adams wanted it. But kept quiet. They prepared for war. Choosing George Washington to lead them in war. But this was plan ‘B’. Plan ‘A’ was still reconciliation. And to remain British. Which is what many wanted. Even Washington wasn’t all that keen on independence. He detested the acts of Parliament. But he and his officers were still toasting the health of the King at this time.
John Dickinson led the reconciliation group in Congress. And they drafted (with the help of Thomas Jefferson) the Olive Branch Petition. Addressed to the King. Expressing their desire to remain loyal to His Majesty. All that they wanted was to redress these tax and trade issues. That’s all. Dickinson had hoped with the bloodshed at Lexington and Concord and a little bit of groveling the King would at least meet them halfway. Open up the channels of dialog. Settle their differences without additional bloodshed. Which just exasperated John Adams. He thought it was a waste of time. That independence was inevitable. And he vented these feelings in a private letter. That the British got hold of. Arriving in London about the same time as did the Olive Branch Petition. And after reading Adams’ letter George III refused to even read the petition. His response was the Proclamation of Rebellion. Issued in August. Declaring that some of the British American colonies were in a state of ‘open and avowed rebellion’. And followed that up with the Prohibitory Act in December. Which placed a naval blockade against all American ports. And declared all American shipping enemies of the British Crown. An act of war. To which the Americans responded by issuing letters of marque to privateers, authorizing them by an act of Congress to capture British ships. John Adams declared that King George had declared what the Americans had not yet declared. That the American colonies were independent. Putting the Americans ever closer to declaring their independence.
Then came that final push. In the form of a pamphlet. Very popular reading during the time. It was because of these pamphlets that most Americans knew of the ideas of Hobbes, Locke and Montesquieu. Where their ideas were presented in the language of the common man. Then came along an author who wrote from the get-go in the language of the common man. Thomas Paine. Who wrote Common Sense. Published in January 1776. Which tore into the King. And the whole system of hereditary monarchy. Blamed George III for all the wrongs done to the Americans. Making a strong and impassioned case for independence. Without further delay. That fired up Patriots everywhere. Providing that final push.
The Several States united in Treason and became the United States of America
During the spring of 1776 states began discussing independence. Some authorized their delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence. Others need more prodding. On June 11, 1776 the Continental Congress appointed John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Robert R. Livingston of New York and Roger Sherman of Connecticut to draft a declaration of independence. The Committee of Five. The committee (including Jefferson) wanted Adams to write it. Adams wanted Jefferson to write it. Because he was a Virginian. Someone more distant from the passions in Massachusetts. And was rather likeable. Unlike Adams. And Jefferson was pretty good with the quill. Eloquent. And had a flair for words.
John Dickinson still argued for reconciliation. Adams argued for independence. The debate heated up. The New York legislation had to flee from the British advance in New York. So they could not authorize their delegates to vote for independence. Dickinson couldn’t agree to let Pennsylvanian vote for independence. But he agreed to abstain. It came down to a tie. Until Caesar Rodney rushed in from Delaware just in time to vote for independence. And on July 2, 1776, they committed the final act of treason. And voted the American colonies independent of the British Crown. Then put their name to the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, 1776. Or some of them. The others adding their names some time thereafter.
The several states became united. In treason. A confederacy of independent states joined in union. Not quite along the lines of the Galloway plan. But in union nonetheless. Now locked in mortal combat with the world’s greatest superpower. To escape their oppression. In order to win the same liberty and freedom enjoyed by the subjects of that very same superpower. For in the end that’s all the Americans wanted. And had King George redressed their grievances instead of choosing to punish them everyone would have lived happily ever after as British subjects. But he didn’t. And we now remember him as the British king that lost America.
Tags: Adams, Americans, Benjamin Franklin, Boston, British, British Americans, British colonies, British Crown, British subjects, Common Sense, Constitution, constitutional monarchy, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Rights and Grievances, Dickinson, Franklin, Galloway, Galloway Plan of Union, George III, George Washington, Great Britain, Hobbes, independence, Jefferson, John Adams, John Dickinson, Joseph Galloway, King George, King George III, Lexington and Concord, liberty, Locke, Massachusetts, Montesquieu, Olive Branch Petition, Parliament, Patrick Henry, Philadelphia, Proclamation of Rebellion, Prohibitory Act, reconciliation, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, Suffolk Resolves, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, union, Washington
« Previous Entries