Aristocracy, the Old World, the New World and the American Civil War

Posted by PITHOCRATES - December 6th, 2011

History 101

General Robert E. Lee represented the Old World, General Ulysses S. Grant represented the New World

General Robert E. Lee represented the Old World.  The last of a long line of wealthy landowners.  The finest of inherited wealth.  With a lineage that went back to George Washington.  The Father of our Country.  On his wife’s side.  Through the Custis ancestry.  Lee fought to continue the old ways.  Magnificent landholdings.  Grand mansions.  Servants.  Balls.  Gentlemen.  And ladies.  None who worked.  But who enjoyed the very best of lives.  Because of a very good last name.  And Lee wanted to pass this life on to his heirs.

General Ulysses S. Grant represented the New World.  His father was middle class.  A tanner.  And Grant worked in his father’s shop.  But hated the blood.  And the horrific odors.  He left and went to West Point.  Saw combat in the Mexican War.  After the war he served in some lonely posts.  Away from his family.  And started to drink.  He missed his family so much that he eventually left the Army.  Tried and failed in some business ventures.  And ended up a clerk back at his father’s tannery.  Working for his younger brother.  To support his family.

Grant and Lee actually met once in the Mexican War.  When Lee visited Grant’s unit.  Lee remembered the visit.  But he didn’t remember Grant.  For Grant was a rather plain soldier.  When war came between the states the North offered Lee command of all Union forces.  But Lee could not draw his sword against Virginia.  His beloved country/state.  So he resigned his commission and joined the Confederate Army.  Grant raised a regiment so he could rejoin the army.  Lee won many victories against the Army of the Potomac.  Grant advanced Union forces to a series of victories in the West.  His successes earned him command of all Union forces.  And he travelled east.  To ride with General George Meade and the Army of the Potomac.  As it pursued General Lee’s Army of the Northern Virginia.

The Planter Elite had Poor White Southerners who did not Own Any Slaves Fight to Maintain the Institution of Slavery

Until Grant took over Lee had many successes besting the Army of the Potomac.  In Virginia it became routine.  After the Union suffered yet another defeat the Army would turn and head back north.  Not so with Grant.  When he came to that fork in the road, he turned south.  To try and outflank Lee.  And face him in battle again.  And again.  Until Appomattox Courthouse.  Where Lee found himself outmanned.  And surrounded.  Lee and Grant met to discuss terms of surrender.  Lee arrived first.  Expecting to be taken prisoner and possibly hung for treason, he arrived resplendent in his finest uniform.  Grant arrived later.  Muddied.  And wearing a private’s jacket.

Grant offered very generous terms.  Which had a very positive effect on Lee.  And his men.  There would be an end to the war.  And there would be no guerilla war.  Instead, Lee would do everything within his power to help bring the South back into the Union.  With Lee being more important than the president of the Confederacy, this mattered.  The people respected Lee.  And if he said the war was over the war was over.  It was time to be good citizens of the United States again.

The South fought valiantly.  For what turned out to be a dying cause.  Old World aristocracy.  Based on the institution of slavery.  Which is why the cause failed.  But before we get to that consider who fought for the confederates.  Like in the Old World, the majority of the people in the South were those who worked the land.  Black slaves.  Unlike feudalism, though, these black slaves did not fill the ranks of the armies led by their landowners.  So those responsible for war, the Planter Elite, did not risk their ‘property’ during the war.  Instead, they had poor white southerners who did not own any slaves fight to maintain the institution of slavery.  Who they lied to.  By saying the war was about states’ rights.  Or that it was to repel the Northern aggressors who wanted to change the Southern way of life.  But that’s not why the Planter Elite seceded from the Union.  It was to maintain their way of life.  An Old World-style of aristocracy.  Perhaps the greatest lie in all U.S. history.  Considering the Planter Elite killed some 618,000 trying to maintain that way of life.  Which was 2% of the total population.  Today 2% of our approximate 312 million population would be 6.2 million dead.  Just to give you an idea of how big killing 2% of your population is.

The American Civil War was the Final Battle between the Old World and the New World in the United States

So why did the South lose?  Because the world changed.  There was now a middle class.  Creating and innovating.  Expanding the Industrial Revolution to the New World.  In the northern states.  Where factories hummed with efficiency.  And produced a modern economy.  Whereas the South stayed primarily an agricultural economy.  Based on King Cotton.  With the majority of their population being slaves working in the fields.

The northern population swelled as immigrants filled their factories.  Railroads crisscrossed the North.  Steam-powered ships plied the rivers and coastal waters.  There was economic activity everywhere.  And free laborers earning wages everywhere.  And spending their wages.  Taking part in economic exchanges.  The North became advanced.  Efficient.  And wealthy.  Whereas the only wealth in the South was on the plantations.  Confined to the landed aristocracy.  And King Cotton.  When war broke out there was no way that the economic powerhouse that was the North would not prevail.  Especially when their factories could make rifles and cannon.  And ships to bottle up Southern harbors.  Making all that cotton in the South worthless.  And irrelevant.  As the British just turned to India to feed their textile industry.

The American Civil War was the final battle between the New World and the Old World in the United States.  Between the middle class of Ulysses S. Grant and the aristocracy of Robert E. Lee.  Between free market capitalism and the landed aristocracy.  And capitalism won.  Because it was the better system.  To produce wealth.  And to improve the quality of life.  For those free laborers who participated.   Allowing anyone to have a  better life.  Unlike the peasants, serfs and slaves of the Old World.

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Civil War Sesquicentennial and Memorial Day, Honoring our War Dead

Posted by PITHOCRATES - May 30th, 2011

Union Armies Advance along the Mississippi, Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers into the Confederacy

While General Robert E. Lee and his right hand, General Stonewall Jackson, won battle after battle in the east, the Union Army won the war in the west.  A West Point graduate and veteran of the Mexican War was an unemployed failure at the beginning of the war.  In need of commanders, the Union Army gave Ulysses S. Grant a command.  He jumped off from Cairo, Illinois, nervous and lacking self-confidence.  As his army advanced to Fort Henry, protecting the Tennessee River, he found the fort already had surrendered after a naval bombardment.  His counterpart was just as nervous as he was.  Filled with a new sense of confidence, he advanced to Fort Donnellson, protecting the Cumberland River.  Assaulted it.  And took it.  Opening the Tennessee and the Cumberland rivers to Union navigation.  Grant then took the Tennessee to a place called Pittsburg Landing.  Near a one-room church at a little crossroads.  Shiloh.

The Confederate’s finest general would meet Grant in the 2-day Battle of ShilohAlbert Sidney Johnston.  Who won the first day of battle.  But did not live to see the second day.  With Johnston dying the night of the first day, the attack was not pressed.  A mistake.  For the Army of the Ohio reinforced Grant that night.  And turned defeat into victory.  It was the first of the bloody, big battles that would define the Civil War.  Over 23,000 dead and wounded, stunning a nation that expected some Napoleonic battle charges, one army retiring from the field of battle and a victory parade.  Not four years of battles where they count the dead and wounded by the tens of thousands.

The Union armies advanced in the west.  General William Rosecrans won a bloody battle near Murfreesboro (called the Battle of Stones River in the North).  And then went on to take Chattanooga without a fight with some well executed marches, leaving the enemy on unwinnable ground.  So they abandoned Chattanooga.  Rosecrans followed.  To a career-ending battle called Chickamauga in northern Georgia, the Gettysburg of the West.  The Confederates exploited a hole in the Union line and sent the Union Army running all the way back to Chattanooga.  The only thing saving the army from annihilation was the great stand at Horseshoe Ridge on Snodgrass Hill by General George Thomas, keeping the door open to Chattanooga long enough to save the army.  With the Union army back in Chattanooga, the Confederates laid siege.  This time, they had the high ground.  If you ever traveled on I-75 near Chattanooga, you probably saw billboards for Lookout Mountain and Ruby Falls.  This is the high ground the Confederates held during the siege.

Lincoln Promotes Grant Commander of all Union Armies after his Successes in the West

Meanwhile, Grant was making progress down the Mississippi River, trying to cut the Confederacy in half.  And the biggest obstacle on the river was the impregnable Fort Vicksburg.  Sitting high on a bluff on a hairpin turn of the river.  It commanded the river.  As traffic slowed to negotiate the turn Vicksburg cannon could plink them out of the water.  Grant tried numerous ways to best Vicksburg.  Even building a ship canal through the bayou on the west side of the river.  Nothing worked.  So with the help of Admiral David Porter and the Union Navy, some gunboats ran the Vicksburg gauntlet while the army marched through the bayou.  They got south of Vicksburg.  Crossed the river.  And attacked.  First took Jackson, Mississippi.  Then marched back towards the river and laid siege to Vicksburg.  The fort fell on the Fourth of July.  A day after Picket’s Charge at Gettysburg.  And the day Lee began his retreat from Gettysburg.  With the fall of Vicksburg, Grant had cut the Confederacy in half.

They promoted Grant.  Grant promoted William Tecumseh Sherman in his place.  And left to lift the siege of Chattanooga.  Which he did.  And then the Union Army drove the Confederates from Lookout Mountain.  And sent them in a retreat that never ended.  Abraham Lincoln promoted Grant to commander of all Union armies.  Grant then left for the Eastern Theater.  While Sherman and Thomas took over in the west.  Sherman advanced and took Atlanta.  A vital rail junction.  Then marched unopposed through Georgia to the sea.  Shrinking the size of the Confederacy into an island of Union-held territory.  He made the South “howl.”  And he made it hungry and in want of the necessities of life.  The war wasn’t over.  But the outcome was now inevitable.

Meanwhile, Grant now advanced with General George Meade who commanded the Army of the Potomac.  And followed Lee.  Looking to outflank Lee and force him onto some favorable ground for one last battle to end the war.  For his forces outnumbered Lee’s.  He just needed one open battle to end it all.  They soon squared off in battle.  Not on open ground.  But in a tangle of forest.  The Battle of the Wilderness.  Both sides suffered heavy losses.  But Lee no doubt sensed impending doom.  Where all the previous commanders retreated after suffering such losses, Grant didn’t.   He was relentless.  He took a lot of casualties.  But he inflicted more.  Worse, Lee had run out of replacements.  It was a battle of attrition in the bloodiest sense. 

Grant, Sherman, Lee and Johnston Win the Peace

This kicked off the Overland Campaign.  A series of bloody battles that pushed the Confederates back towards Richmond.  But it was a costly campaign.  Losses were high.  On both sides.  Lee, having been an engineer during the Mexican War, used his engineering skills in building defensive fortifications.  To even the odds against a numerically superior attacking force.  And did.  Grant’s bloodiest days were at Cold Harbor.  Veterans by then were writing their names on scraps of paper and pinning them inside their uniforms.  So if they fell in battle someone could identify their bodies and send them home for burial.  After the last assault, days passed before they called a truce to tend to the dead and wounded between their lines.  Most of the wounded by then had died.  One wrote in his diary presumably as he lay dying from a mortal wound.  When they found his diary, the last entry read, “June 3. Cold Harbor. I was killed.”

Though paying a high price for every inch of ground, Grant did what no other commander had done.  Push Robert E. Lee back.  All the way to Richmond and Petersburg.  Where his army was besieged by Grant’s.  The Confederacy had nothing left to give Lee.  Sherman had emerged from Georgia and was now attacking up the coast.  Lee broke from the besieged lines and made it as far as Appomattox Courthouse.  Grant had him surrounded.  They met.  Grant’s terms were so favorable that Lee accepted them.  Surrendered his army.  Ending the specter of a protracted guerilla war.  Sherman later met with General Joseph Johnston.  Who surrendered his forces after receiving favorable terms, too.  Lee and Johnston’s actions were followed by other commanders who laid down their arms and gave up the fight.  Even the feared General Nathan Bedford Forest.  Whose cavalry still ran at will within Union controlled territory. 

The war was over.  And the easy peace Abraham Lincoln wanted and discussed with Grant and Sherman before his assassination prevailed.  Not without a few hiccups.  But it prevailed.  Thanks to Grant, Sherman, Lee and Johnston.  There would be no guerilla war.  Instead, there would be reunification.  But still soldiers died.  The last being a Union soldier.  John Jefferson Williams, a private in Company B of the 34th Regiment Indiana Infantry.  Killed on May 13, 1865.  In a battle occurring after the official end of the Civil War.  The Battle of Palmito Ranch.  Ironically, a Confederate victory.  On the banks of the Rio Grande.  Near Brownsville Station in Texas.  Little over a month after Lee’s surrender.

The Civil War changed the United States from an ‘Are’ to an ‘Is’

Over 620,000 died during the Civil War.  It was America’s deadliest war.  A war that started with the cessation of the South over the issue of slavery.  That was the political reason for the war.  But that wasn’t why most fought.  To free the slaves.  Or keep them enslaved.  For those fighting the battles had other reasons. 

Some started out with thoughts of military glory.  But those thoughts soon vanished after their first battle.  Instead, what kept them fighting after that first battle was one simple thing.  They wanted to go home.  To the family they left.  To the life they left.  And the way home was through one bloody battle after another.  Which they fought with grim determination.  Accepting that the odds were not in their favor of ever going home.  But the war would end one day.  It had to.  After they fought enough battles.  And those still standing could then go home.  Of course, what that home would be like depended on the outcome of the war.

Before the war people identified their country by their home state.  Especially in the South.  People were Virginians.  Georgians.  South Carolinians.  They weren’t Americans.  We were a nation of united states (small ‘u’ and small ‘s’).  Foreign nations, when addressing the United States would ask, “Are the United States…”  After the war, they would start asking, “Is the United States…”  As the historian Shelby Foote said, the Civil War changed the nation from an ‘are’ to an ‘is’.  Singular.  Which is more the way the North felt.  The South preferred the ‘are’ interpretation.  So that’s another reason why they fought.  To keep the country like it was before the war.  The way their homes were.  So they could go home.  To the way it was.  For the North it meant keeping it an ‘is’.  For the South, it meant keeping it an ‘are’.

I want to go Home

Home is the most powerful force in the world.  When those soldiers pinned their names inside their uniforms before those ill-fated assaults at Cold Harbor, they were thinking of home.  Some would make it.  Many would not.  It’s what made them form ranks and charge into that withering fire.  Because that was the way home.

For every Grant, Sherman, Lee and Johnston, there are thousands of names we will never know.  Like the men who fell at Cold Harbor.  And all those who died in Civil War battles few will ever know the name of.  Or battles since.  Leyte GulfOmaha Beach.  The Hürtgen Forest.  The Battle of the BulgeOkinawa.  The Chosin ReservoirKhe SanhHuếFallujahKandahar.  And the list goes on.  So many battles.  And so many dead.  Whose last thoughts were probably a single word.  Home.

Many of us are fortunate enough to be home this Memorial Day.  Be thankful for that.  And think of those who never made it back home.  Think of them.  If you drink, raise a toast in their honor.  The bravest of the brave.  Who knew the way home was through yet another battle.  They may not have survived that last battle, but their spirit lived on.  And returned home.  Where it lives on.  Forever part of the home they once left.

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Does Obama Know Who Kept the Slaves Enslaved?

Posted by PITHOCRATES - October 2nd, 2010

Your People Did Not Free the Slaves, Mr. President

From Mark Knoller, White House Correspondent, Radio, CBS News:

Obama says people are impatient but “now’s not the time to quit…it took time to free the slaves…ultimately we’ll make progress.”

We would have freed the slaves a whole lot sooner if it weren’t for people like him.  Democrats.

The Southern States and Slavery – A Packaged Deal

Democrats descend from the southern planter elite.  These slaveholders formed a small minority of the population.  But they held the majority of political power.  There was a north-south divide at the founding over slavery.  Franklin, Adams, Hamilton and Washington were against slavery.  Jefferson and Madison were for it.  Rather, they were for the southern states.  And that meant the planter elite (which they were part of).  Which was for slavery.

Slavery was a taboo subject.  You won’t find it in our founding documents.  The North wanted to abolish slavery.  But any discussion of the taboo subject and the South would walk.  So they tabled the subject.  To get the South to join the Union.  And they didn’t speak about it to keep the South in the Union.  (When I say the ‘South’, think the planter elite, the ruling minority power in the South.  This elite few had the majority of slaves.  Most southerners couldn’t afford slaves and worked their own small farms.  The yeoman farmers Jefferson would wax philosophical about.)

The majority of slaves were in the south.  They also were the majority of the southern population.  This was a sticking point at the Constitutional Convention.  The South wanted to count slaves in determining congressional representation.  But you count citizens to determine your number of representatives.  Not property.  The northerners did not get to count their cattle in determining their number of representatives.  So the South shouldn’t count their slaves.  The South, of course, disagreed.  For if they were to be a part of the Union, not simply a region ruled by the North, it was necessary to count their slaves.  And if they couldn’t?  No union.  So they compromised.  With the Three-Fifths Compromise.  They would count a slave as 3/5 a citizen.  It gave the South a greater representation in Congress than their citizenry allowed.  But it ‘balanced’ the political power between the North and the South.  And brought the southern states into the Union.

When the Democrats Did Not Like Immigration

After winning our independence, we got the Northwest Territories (the land north of the Ohio River) from the British.  The northerners got their way with this northern land.  The Northwest Ordinance of 1787 forbade slavery in this territory.

Then came the Louisiana Purchase.  The North wanted to exclude slavery from all of this land.  The South didn’t.  That would tip the balance of power in favor of the North.  So they compromised.  With the Missouri Compromise of 1820.  There would be some slavery in the new territory.  But not above the bottom border of Missouri (the 36th parallel).  Except in Missouri (a slave-state).  Which they added at the same time with Maine (a free-state).  To maintained the balance of power.

But the population continued to grow in the North.  Those in the South could see the writing on the wall.  The immigration into the northern states would tip the balance of power in the House to the North.  So they focused on controlling the judiciary.  The president (who nominated).  And the Senate (which confirmed).  What they couldn’t win by popular vote they’d simply legislate from the bench.  And dirty, filthy party politics was born.  The party machine.  And the Democratic Party.

It Takes a Republican

Martin Van Buren created it.  And, at the time, he had but one goal.  To keep the issue of slavery from ever being an issue again.  Which the Democrats did until the outbreak of the Civil War in 1861.  The North wanted to abolish slavery from the founding.  But the planter elite, then the Democrats, fought them every step of the way.  So they could maintain their power. 

But it was more than just power.  It was that elite status.  That they were superior.  It had gone beyond King Cotton.  The south had manufacturing.  Some of which was even more profitable than cotton.  But manufacturing couldn’t give you what cotton could.  An aristocratic planter elite that was so elite that it could own human life.  This was Old World aristocracy alive and well in the New World.

Anyway, all the legislation and court cases that led up to the Civil War had one thing in common.  All people trying to maintain the institution of slavery were Democrats.  The big ones, the Compromise of 1850, the Kansas-Nebraskan Act of 1854 and the Dred Scott ruling of 1854 were all pushed/won by Democrats.  The new Republican Party finally denied the Democrats.  A Republican president (Abraham Lincoln) made slavery a moral issue in the Civil War with his Emancipation Proclamation (which didn’t free a single slave but it made it politically impossible for France or Great Britain to recognize the Confederacy or enter the war on her behalf).  Four years of war and some 600,000 dead later, the North prevailed and the Union sounded the death knell for slavery in America.  Then the Republican Congress passed and the states ratified the Thirteenth Amendment in 1865.  The Republicans had, finally, abolished slavery.

Ignorance or Arrogance?

The Democrats can talk about Civil Rights Act of 1964.  Well, a little.  More Democrats voted against it than did Republicans.  And a Democrat, segregationist and KKK Exalted Cyclops, Robert Byrd, filibustered for 14 hours during an 83-day Democrat filibuster.  But a lot of Democrats did vote for the Civil Rights Act.  So, yeah, they can talk about that.  But they had absolutely nothing to do with the freeing of the slaves.  They call slavery America’s original sin.  But that’s not fair.  It was only the planter elite and then the Democrat Party that practiced that sin.  And they fought hard to keep their sinful ways.

A Democrat should not invoke the struggle to end slavery to help his cause.  Especially a black Democrat.  For to do so marks the height of ignorance.  Or arrogance.

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