(Originally published January 26th, 2012)
English Catholics and Protestants were Fiercely Religious and willing to Kill or be Killed for their Faith
To understand the founding political structure of the United States you need to understand 17th century Britain. The run up to the 17th century. And the Protestant Reformation. When Christianity split into Protestants and Catholics. And their beliefs and practices.
Catholics are born with original sin. Protestants aren’t. All Catholics have a chance to go to Heaven. God sorts out the Protestant’s going to Heaven before birth. Doing good deeds can help Catholics make it to Heaven. They won’t make any difference for Protestants. Catholics burn away their sins in Purgatory. Then comes Judgment Day. Clean souls go to Heaven. Unclean souls go to Hell. Protestants go straight to Heaven or Hell when they die with no layover in Purgatory or judgment. Catholics believe priests have special powers and the Pope is infallible. Protestants don’t. Catholics have saints, altar rails, candles, pictures, statues and stained glass windows. Protestants don’t. Catholics believe priests change the wine and bread at Communion into the actual body and blood of Christ. Protestants think they just represent the body and blood of Christ.
These are some significant differences. Especially in a time when everyone was fiercely religious. And did everything in this life to prepare for the afterlife. Even buy an indulgence from the Catholic Church to buy their way through Purgatory and into Heaven. One of the pet peeves of Martin Luther that he included in his Ninety-Five Theses in 1517 Germany (which was then a collection of German princedoms). This was serious stuff for the laypeople. Who were willing to kill or be killed for their faith. Which they did a lot of in Britain.
When Queen Elizabeth died King James VI of Scotland became King James I of England
King Henry the VIII hated Martin Luther. Was a staunch defender of the faith. But he wanted a divorce. So he could marry a woman who would give him a son instead of more daughters. But he needed the Pope to grant him this. And the Pope refused. Henry VIII also wanted to get the Catholic Church out of his affairs. So he created an English church. The Church of England. With him as the guy in charge. At first his church was going to be protestant. Fully anti-Pope. But he had Parliament pass the Act of Six Articles that made his Protestant Church very Catholic. After Henry VIII died succeeding rulers pulled the Church back and forth between Protestantism and Catholicism.
Edward VI pulled it back to Protestantism. Then that bread and wine issue came up again. So they wrote a new prayer book that was deliberately vague. Which caused the Catholics to riot. When he died his sister, Queen Mary, took the throne. An ardent Catholic. Out went that new prayer book. In came Catholicism. And she arrested and burned Protestants at the stake. Then she died. And in came Queen Elizabeth. A Protestant. So the Church of England became Protestant again. With a little Catholicism mixed in. But it wasn’t Catholic enough. So the Pope excommunicated her in 1570. Angry, she oppressed the Catholics. Yet the Protestants weren’t happy, either. That little bit of Catholicism was just way too much for their liking. Especially those hardcore Calvinist Protestants (the people we call Puritans even though at the time it was more a derogatory term). Who Elizabeth then arrested and executed.
There was a Protestant uprising in Scotland and they, too, broke from the Catholic Church. Without consulting their very important friend and ally. Catholic France. Which was home for an exiled Mary Queen of Scots. A Catholic. But she didn’t have the power to fight against the Protestants. So she joined the fight against the Catholics. But she had some Catholic baggage the Scottish couldn’t forgive and they forced her to abdicate anyway. Her son, James VI, became king. The Church of Scotland was Presbyterian (Calvinist Protestantism). But Scotland had a lot of Catholics as well. The Scottish Parliament made James the head of the Scottish Church. The Kirk. Which was a problem for the Presbyterians. Because they said a king couldn’t be the head of their church. When Elizabeth died James became King James I of England. Changed the spelling of his name from ‘Stewart’ to ‘Stuart’. And became the head of the Church of England. Who the Presbyterians said was way too Catholic.
King James I believed in the Divine Right of Kings and Hated Parliament
When Mary Queen of Scots abdicated James VI was only a baby and raised by a Presbyterian handler. His Regent. Who ruled for James until he came of age. Who must have been strict for James did not like the Scottish Presbyterians. Who were very similar to English Puritans. Elizabeth had oppressed Catholics and Puritans. Who were now both looking for a little relief from King James I. James met with some Puritans and Catholic bishops. The bishops resented having to meet with Puritans. And the Puritans wanted to do away with the bishops. But James preferred Catholics over Puritans. So he persecuted the Puritans. Some of who embarked on a ship called the Mayflower and sailed to religious freedom in America. Where they would allow anyone to practice any religion they chose. As long as they chose Puritanism.
Now even though James preferred the Catholics there were a lot of Protestants in England. And a strong anti-Catholic sentiment. After all England’s two great enemies, Spain and France, were Catholic. So he continued some Catholic oppression. One Catholic took great offense to this and decided to do something about it. Blow up Parliament. And the king. Robert Catesby planned the Gunpowder Plot. But someone warned the government. And they caught Guy Fawkes in the cellar surrounded by gun powder just before he could light the fuse. They sentenced Fawkes and the other conspirators to death.
James was not a fan of Parliament, either. It was different in Scotland. There they did pretty much what he wanted. But the English Parliament didn’t. And this really bugged him. For he believed in the Divine Right of Kings. Parliament didn’t. And they told him so. Also, Parliament controlled the purse strings. If he wanted money, and he did, he would have to work with Parliament. Or find another means to pay for what he wanted. He chose to find another means. He forced people to loan him money. And even sold a new hereditary title. The baronet. But it was never enough. When he died the kingdom wasn’t as rich as Elizabeth left it for him. Worse, he left a political mess for his successor. King Charles I. Who became the first king whose subjects put on trial. And executed. Following the English Civil War. Which he, of course, lost.
The Radical New Ideas Sown in the 17th Century would have a Profound Impact on the American Founding Fathers
King Charles I ruled in 17th century Britain. A momentous time of change. In Britain. The Old World. And the New World. A king would be tried for the first time by the people. Religious scores would be settled far and wide. Attempted, at least. And new states would rise in the New World where they would live under the religion they chose. Governed by representatives of the people. Who governed at the consent of the people. Radical new ideas. That were sown in 17th century Britain. And would have a profound impact on the American Founding Fathers.
Tags: bishops, Britain, Catholic Church, Catholicism, Catholics, Christ, Christianity, Church of England, divine right of kings, Elizabeth, England, English, faith, Henry the VIII, Martin Luther, Mary Queen of Scots, Parliament, Pope, Presbyterians, Protestant Reformation, Protestantism, Protestants, Puritans, Scotland, Scottish, The Kirk, wine and bread
Ukraine is a Nation with Farmland so Fertile it earned the Moniker the ‘Breadbasket of Europe’
All roads may have led to Rome. But all rivers led to Byzantium. The city Constantine the Great of the Roman Empire turned into Constantinople. Modern day Istanbul. The great city on the Bosporus. One-time trade crossroads of the world. Where East met West. And Europe met Asia. Where goods from the Far East traveling on the Silk Road passed through on their way to Europe. And where grain grown in the fertile river valleys of Eastern Europe passed through to feed the great empires.
Rivers created civilizations. For they provided fertile farmland in their valleys. And the rivers provided avenues for trade. Which is why our great cities first appeared on rivers. Like Kiev. The Ukrainian capital. On the Dnieper River. Which flows from Smolensk through Russia, Belarus and Ukraine. Emptying into the Black Sea. Along with the Danube. The Don. And via a short portage from the Don, trade flowed to the Black Sea on the Volga, too. (But the waters flowed into the Caspian Sea.) And across the Black Sea lay Constantinople. One-time trade crossroads of the world.
Ukraine is a nation with a lot of fertile farmland. It is so fertile that it earned the moniker the ‘breadbasket of Europe’. Making Ukraine some very valuable real estate. Because of their grain production. And the access the Dnieper River provided. Opening trade between Scandinavia and the Byzantine Empire in Constantinople. Providing Ukraine with a lot of north-south movement via the Dnieper. As well as a lot of east-west movement via land between the Germanic tribes to the west. And the Turkic people to the east.
To improve Relations with the Rus’ the Byzantine Patriarch converted the Rus’ and the Slavs to Christianity
Kiev was a crossroads. Varangians (i.e., Vikings) moved south from Scandinavia. The Greeks from Byzantine moved north. As they did they bumped into the indigenous Slavs. And the Khazars (one of those Turkic people). Kiev was geographically in the Khazar Empire. But the Varangians ruled Kiev. As it was on their trade route with the Greeks in Constantinople. It was the Varangians who ruled Kiev during the Golden Age (11th to early 12th centuries). Which saw the rise of Kievan Rus’. Which in time and much change gave us modern day Russia.
As the Rus’ expanded south they encroached on Khazar territory. The Khazars allied with the Byzantine Empire and fought against the Persians and Arabs. Who wanted that rich crossroads. Constantinople. As did the Rus’. So there were all kinds of war with all kinds of people. Which wasn’t good for trade. So the Byzantines established a division of their empire on the Crimean peninsula on the northern shore of the Black Sea. Near the mouth of the Dnieper. The Theme of Cherson. To ward off those raids by the Rus’. And to protect the grain coming to Constantinople from the breadbasket of Europe. The Theme of Cherson became the center of Black Sea commerce.
But to improve relations with the Rus’ the Byzantine Patriarch Photius sent emissaries to convert the Rus’ and the Slavs to Christianity. In 863 brothers Cyril and Methodius headed north. They could speak the Slavonic language. Which was then only a spoken language. They created an alphabet for them. The Glagolitic alphabet. Which became the Cyrillic alphabet. And gave them a written language. Translated scripture so they could read it. And extended the Greek culture of the Byzantine Empire to these lands. As well as Orthodox Christianity. Which is why today many of the lands radiating out from the rivers flowing to the Black Sea are Orthodox Christian (Russian Orthodox, Ukrainian Orthodox, Serbian Orthodox, etc.).
Russian Migration into Ukraine helped make her less Ukrainian and more Russian
Kiev was one of the largest cities in the world. Then came the invasions. First from the Asian steppes to the east. The Pechenegs in 968. And then the Mongols in 1240. Who completely destroyed Kiev. Then the Lithuanians from the north (1320s). Then the Crimean Tatars sacked and burned Kiev (1482). Then Kiev passed to Poland (1569). Then the Russians took it over. In the 18th and 19th centuries the city was full of Russian soldiers. And ecclesiastical authorities. From the Russian Orthodox Church. Making the Ukrainian people more Russian. Some Ukrainians tried to change that in the 1840s but Russia put a stop to that.
The Russian Empire kept pushing south. For they wanted a warm-water port. Which they could have on the Black Sea. All they had to do was fight through the Ukrainians. Which they did. By this time the Muslim Ottoman Turks had long conquered the Christian Byzantine Empire. Which left the Ottomans open to Russian aggression once the Russians took Ukraine. Of course, if the Russians conquered the Ottoman Empire that would give Russia open access to the Mediterranean Sea. Where they could threaten the British Empire holdings. Also, the Russians could free their fellow Orthodox Christians from Muslim rule.
This aggression exploded into one of the bloodiest wars in history. The Crimean War (October 1853 – February 1856). Much like the American Civil War the technology was well ahead of the tactics. The Russian Empire took on the French Empire, the British Empire, the Ottoman Empire and the Kingdom of Sardinia. Russia lost. And she lost what she most coveted. That warm-water port. But that didn’t last for long. Changes elsewhere allowed Russia to reject portions of the peace treaty that ended that war. And built a navy she operated out of the Black Sea port of Sevastopol (first founded in 1783 by Rear Admiral Thomas Mackenzie then fortified by Catherine the Great in 1784). On the Crimea peninsula. And the Russians have been there ever since.
But the beating the Russians took led Tsar Alexander II to free the serfs. And try to advance the backward Russia to be more like the advanced nations that had beaten her. But it was too late. For this marked the beginning of the end for Tsarist Russia. The war left her in great debt. So much debt that Russia sold Alaska to the United States. While creating social unrest that would eventually lead to the October Revolution. And the Soviet Union. All the while Russian migration into Ukraine continued. Making Ukraine less Ukrainian and more Russian. With the Russian language taking over in Kiev and other large Ukrainian cities. Pushing the Ukrainian language and culture to the country. Leading to a divided Ukraine. Under the boot of the Soviet regime. Until the collapse of the Soviet Union. When Ukraine finally got her independence. Which Russian president and former KGB officer of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Putin, is now currently taking away.
Tags: Black Sea, breadbasket of Europe, Byzantine, Byzantine Empire, Christianity, Constantinople, Crimea, Crimean peninsula, Crimean War, crossroads of the world, Dnieper, Dnieper River, farmland, fertile, fertile farmland, Greeks, Khazar, Kiev, Kievan Rus', Orthodox, Orthodox Christianity, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, rivers, Rus', Russia, Russian, Russian Empire, Russian Orthodox, Scandinavia, Slavs, Soviet Union, Theme of Cherson, trade, Turkic people, Ukraine, Ukrainian, Varangians, warm-water port
Christians believe in the Reward of Hard Work and Shun Idleness for it tends to Invite Trouble
Liberals are very confident people. As well as arrogant. Narcissistic. And condescending. Which is why they are so secular. Wanting to take the separation of church and state argument to the extreme. Attacking and mocking Christianity every chance they get. As they don’t like anyone judging them. Or setting some moral standard. For liberals are a sinful people.
The Seven Deadly Sins are wrath, greed, sloth, pride, lust, envy, and gluttony. Christians try to avoid these. They forgive their enemies instead of getting angry at them. They tithe to their church instead of keeping all of their money greedily for themselves. They believe in the reward of hard work and shun idleness for it tends to invite trouble. They are humble and don’t strive for attention. They have strong self-control and make sacrifices for a better future instead of giving in to current wants and desires. They tend to be happy with what they have however modest their lives may be. Instead of being envious of others. They don’t eat, drink or live to excess, preferring to do everything in moderation. Things you just don’t associate with liberals.
Now think of some liberals you know of. Think of the vicious things liberal Democrats say about Republicans (such as a campaign commercial showing a Republican pushing ‘Grandma’ off a cliff). The vulgar things some liberal commentators say about Republican women. And the ridicule of conservatives on late-night television. Rich liberals who want to raise taxes on the rich (which includes the middle class) to pay for a generous welfare state while giving little to charity themselves. As they are far more generous with other people’s money than with their own. And never risk their own money in risky investments such as Solyndra. Preferring to risk the taxpayers’ money.
Liberals attack the Rich because they are Envious of their Hard Work and Success
Liberals always want a bigger federal government with an ever-growing bureaucracy. So they can be career politicians without ever getting a real job where they have to work hard to earn a living. Liberals like to brag about how smart they are and how brilliant their legislation is. Taking credit for things they didn’t even do. Such as President Obama taking credit for the surge in natural gas production done on private land by private companies. Or boasting how their economic policies are working even though the real unemployment rate is in excess of 13% (when you count those who have left the labor force and those who can only find a part-time job). And their refusal to admit they wrote a terrible law. Such as Obamacare.
Liberals never want to wait for anything. They don’t believe in hard work. They believe in early retirement and generous pensions. For their friends in the union. Like the UAW. In the public sector unions. And those in government jobs. They attack the rich because they resent their hard work and success. Are envious of them. And want to punish them because they were never as good as they are. With higher tax rates. And punishing regulations. Hollywood celebrities and the Washington elite live the most extravagant lives. In some of the most expensive homes which are filled with the finest food, drink and toys. And when that’s not enough some further their excess with drugs.
These are things you just don’t associate with Christians. In fact, these are things Christians frown upon. Even telling their congregation not to live lives like these in their church services. For these are not Christian lives. Some people could have everything they could possibly want or desire but are still not happy. Or are bored because it came too easily. Or too soon. Turning to other outlets to excite them. Alcohol and drugs. Drag-racing in expensive sports cars on neighborhood streets. Partying all night in the hottest clubs. Or blowing a lot of money gambling. Anything to escape the boredom of an idle life.
For a Better Life we should Shun Liberalism and Embrace Free Market Capitalism
This is why liberals attack Christianity so much. As well as one other reason. Because they don’t like believing in a higher being. For they are so arrogant and narcissistic that they can’t stand the thought of some being that is greater than themselves. For they hold liberalism sacred. And if anyone worships anything they want the people to worship them. Because they believe they are the smartest and the most insightful people in the universe. Yes, vanity, thy name is liberalism. Which is why they believe they should control government. And our lives. Because they’re smarter and wiser than business owners. Bankers. Entrepreneurs. And market forces. For they are the higher being. Not what those silly Christians worship.
A lot of people have felt like this throughout history. Adolf Hitler. Mao Zedong. Saddam Hussein. Benito Mussolini. Muammar Gaddafi. Kim Il-sung. Kim Jong-il. Kim Jong-un. Fidel Castro. Supreme leaders and ruthless dictators who preferred their people to worship them like a god. And imposed socialism, fascism or communism on their people. Using their supreme intelligence and insight to make the state a better place for the people. Making the state supreme. While subordinating the individual. And elevating the supreme leader above everyone. Something liberals have been trying to do all their lives. Only without the torture and genocide.
But their efforts share a similar trend with these ruthless dictators. The quality of life declines under their rule. Some of the worst places to live when it comes to human rights have been in Nazi Germany, the People’s Republic of China, Iraq, Fascist Italy, Libya, North Korea and Cuba. While some of the best countries to live in are the United States, Canada, the United Kingdom, Australia and Hong Kong. All once part of the Christian British Empire. An empire that embraced free market capitalism. And when people practice self-control and make sacrifices for the future engage in free market capitalism they make a better place to live. At least this is what history has shown us. So if we want a better life we should shun liberalism. And embrace free market capitalism. For liberty, thy name is capitalism.
Tags: arrogant, capitalism, Christianity, Christians, conservatives, Democrats, dictators, drugs, envious, excess, free market, free-market capitalism, hard work, higher being, human rights, idle life, liberalism, liberals, liberty, narcissistic, Republicans, sacrifice, self-control, sin, vanity
The Pope kept European Rulers from Oppressing their People lest they get Excommunicated from the Church
In 39 AD the Romans crucified Jesus of Nazareth. Because they said he called himself the King of the Jews. Or rather those with political power who felt threatened by Jesus’ popularity said this. His death was to protect power and privilege of those who had it. Ultimately, though, His death would do more to destroy power and privilege. For the Golden Rule allowed people to live together in peace. To build communities. And to help one another.
Emperor Diocletian split up the vast Roman Empire into four parts. The tetrarchy. The rulership by four. Each of the four parts had its own emperor. When Diocletian stepped down from power those emperors began vying for power. By 312 two emperors were in open war with each other. Constantine. And Maxentius. On October 28, 312, they met in battle near the Milvian Bridge over the Tiber. On the eve of battle Constantine had a vision. The Christian God would help him win the upcoming battle if he placed the Christian symbol on his soldiers’ shields (accounts differ it was either the Chi-Rho sign or the Latin cross). He did. He won. And became Constantine the Great. Sole ruler of the Roman Empire. And because of his victory in the Battle of the Milvian Bridge he began his conversion to Christianity. Making the Roman Empire Christian.
Christianity spread throughout and united Europe. And the Pope kept European rulers from oppressing their people. Lest they get excommunicated from the Church. In time, though, some resented rule from Rome. In particular when Pope Leo X sold indulgences (a way to help purify one from sin) to fund the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. This was one of many problems that had many calling for a reform of the Church. One in particular, Martin Luther, published his The Ninety-Five Theses in 1517. Kicking off the Protestant Reformation.
Plymouth Colony succeeded when Communal Property became Private Property
Henry VIII, King of England, was a good Catholic. But his wife wasn’t giving him any sons. And he wanted a male heir. So he asked the Pope for an annulment from his wife. Catherine. So he could marry Anne Boleyn. The Pope refused. So Henry left the Catholic Church. And initiated the English Reformation. Making England Protestant. England would swing back and forth between Catholicism and Protestantism without being either but something in between. Making a group of Protestants very unhappy. As they felt the English Reformation did not go far enough. A group referred to derisively as Puritans. They were so hated that they were being persecuted along with the Catholics. So they left England. Landing in the Netherlands first. Then they sailed across the Atlantic. They sighted land on November 9, 1620. They eventually came ashore and established Plymouth Colony.
About half of Plymouth Colony died within the first few years. From disease. And hunger. The economic system they were using was killing them. Communal property. Everything the colonists produced belonged to everyone. People produced according to their ability and took from the common store according to their needs. A sort of Marxism. Before there was even a Karl Marx. To save the colony Governor William Bradford abandoned the idea of communal property in 1623. Communal property became private property. And the colony was saved. As people worked twice as hard to produce more on their land than they did on communal land. And because they did they replaced famines with bumper crops. So instead of dying off the American colonies became the prosperous New World.
The Seven Years’ War (1756–1763) came to the New World. By the time it ended Catholic France lost its North American possessions to Protestant Great Britain. To pay off the enormous debt of that war Parliament decided to tax their British American colonists. Who made out very well in the conflict without the costs the British incurred. But they did this without discussing it with the colonists. Treating them as second-class citizens in the British Empire. Who had no representation in Parliament. Which led to anger over taxation without representation. Leading to the Boston Tea Party (December 16, 1773). Which led to the Intolerable Acts and the Quebec Act (1774-1775). Which led to the shot heard ’round the world. The Battles of Lexington and Concord (April 19, 1775). Which ultimately led to July 2, 1776. When the Continental Congress voted to adopt the Declaration of Independence. After a few revisions it was formally passed 2 days later. On July 4, 1776. Known forever after as Independence Day in the United States.
In the United States your Last Name does not Determine the Quality of your Life
The American Revolutionary War did not start out well. As the British pushed them back with little effort. Until Benedict Arnold (future traitor) did some superb soldiering. Impeding the advance of General Burgoyne. The Americans met him in battle for the last time on October 7, 1777. On the second day of fighting in the Battle of Saratoga. And won. Forcing an army in the mightiest empire in the world to surrender. Shocking the world. And getting the French to take notice. Who then entered the American War of Independence. The turning point of the war. And world history. For France was anxious to get back what they had lost to the British. As was Spain. Who joined the conflict as France’s ally. Turning the American War of Independence into a world war. And a war of attrition. As their new foes forced them to send British forces all around the globe. Leaving fewer to fight in North America. With a British public growing weary of the war in North America.
America won. Eventually. Taking 8 years until the Treaty of Paris officially ended the conflict (September 3, 1783). And peace and prosperity followed. Thanks in large part to Jay’s Treaty (ratified by the Senate in November 1794). Which improved relations between Great Britain and the new United States of America. And began a Special Relationship between two nations of a common people, culture, religion and tradition. When the treaty expired there was a minor hiccup in that Special Relationship that resulted in war. The War of 1812 (1812-1815). But peace and prosperity soon resumed. With the South having a larger say in the national direction thanks to the Three-Fifths Compromise in the United States Constitution (1787). Giving the South greater representation in the House of Representatives as they counted 3/5 of each slave to determine their number of representatives. As the North industrialized and immigration filled their factories and swelled her population the South was losing that larger say. One thing led to another that eventually resulted in the American Civil War (1861-1865).
The agrarian South had more in common with feudal England than they did with the industrial North. Rich landowners (the planter elite) comprised an aristocracy that controlled politics. While peasants/slaves worked the land. The South was holding onto the Old World. Where there was power and privilege. While the North was building the New World. Though the South talked about states’ rights they used the power of the federal government wherever they could. Such as the Fugitive Slave Act (1850). When war broke out the South won most battles. Until General Grant started his great advance down the Mississippi River. With the Vicksburg Campaign (May 18 – July 4, 1863) culminating in the capture of Vicksburg. And control of the Mississippi River. Severing the Confederacy into two. Pretty much guaranteeing a Union victory. It was just a matter of time. In the east the Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863) also ended in a Union victory. President Lincoln went to the Gettysburg battlefield for the dedication of the Soldiers’ National Cemetery there. Where he gave his Gettysburg’s Address (November 19, 1863). Which ended with “we here highly resolve that these dead shall not have died in vain—that this nation, under God, shall have a new birth of freedom—and that government of the people, by the people, for the people, shall not perish from the earth.” And so far it hasn’t. Remaining that shining city upon a hill. The destination of people everywhere yearning liberty. And a better life. Where all men are created equal. And your last name does not determine the quality of your life.
Tags: British Empire, Catholic, Christian, Christianity, Church, communal property, Constantine, Declaration of Independence, Diocletian, England, English Reformation, France, Gettysburg, Great Britain, Jesus, Marx, Milvian Bridge, New World, North, Old World, Parliament, Plymouth Colony, Pope, power, private property, privilege, Protestant, Reformation, Revolutionary War, Roman Empire, Romans, Rome, South, Special Relationship, Vicksburg
(Originally published December 25th, 2012)
If Jesus were to pick up His Mortal Life where He left it He would go to the Nearest Synagogue
Some on the Left have tried to advance their agenda by appealing to the religion they hate. Christianity. Or, rather, the many religions based on the teachings of Jesus Christ, the New Testament and the Old Testament. They hate the religions of Christianity because they frown on a more fun and libertine lifestyle. And judge those who participate in a more fun and libertine lifestyle. In particular those who use birth control and abortion to engage in sex outside of marriage.
So they are no fans of these Christian religions. But they do try to use Jesus to advance some of their causes. Such as their campaign to get rid of the gas-guzzling and air-polluting SUV. Where they ask, “What car would Jesus drive?” With the implication that Jesus would choose to drive a car that would not pollute the planet that He created. Or, if you don’t believe in the Trinity (where Jesus is Father, Son and Holy Spirit), the planet His Father created. Which is a silly question to ask Christians as they believe that Jesus is everywhere as well as within them and would not need to drive anywhere. Still, they ask the question to try and make Christians feel that they are doing something that would make Jesus sad. Driving an SUV.
Here’s a question for the Left. If Jesus was walking the planet today as the man He was before His crucifixion which Christian church would He attend? An Orthodox church? A Catholic church? Or a Protestant church? The answer? None of the above. For this is a trick question. If Jesus were to pick up His mortal life where He left it He would go to the nearest synagogue as Jesus Christ was a practicing Jew. And a rabbi.
The Roman Province of Judea was a Complicated Place between the Roman Occupation and King Herod
It was being Jewish that got Jesus into so much trouble. From the moment of his birth. Joseph, Jesus’ father, came from Bethlehem. While engaged to Mary she became pregnant. Before their wedding. And not by him. Turns out God blessed her to bring Jesus into the world. Joseph had some trouble believing that but after a visit by an angel Joseph was convinced that she did not cheat on him. That the Immaculate Conception story was legitimate. At least according to the Gospels. Written many years later and may not be a literal historical narrative. But they do include historical fact. Where history becomes more a matter of faith is difficult at times to determine for the historical record is rather sparse at times.
Joseph and Mary lived in Nazareth. In Galilee near the border with Samaria. During the time of the Roman occupation. Who were pagans. Herod was an Edomite. Born in the Kingdom of Edom just south of the Kingdom of Judah. Though he practiced Judaism he was not considered Jewish by the powers-that-be in Judea, the Jewish lands that became a Roman province. Herod was governor of Galilee. With Rome’s approval. He lost his throne. Rome helped him get it back. The Roman Senate then voted him King of the Jews. Three years later he and the Romans conquered Jerusalem. And elevated him to king of all of Judea.
So the Roman province of Judea was a complicated place. The Romans tolerated the Jews as long as they did not cause too much trouble. The Jews did not like living under Roman occupation. And they were none too keen with King Herod who wasn’t religiously pure, lived a decadent lifestyle and was a brutal tyrant. It was this world Mary was about to bring Jesus into.
The Last Thing you want to tell the Current King of the Jews was the Location of the New King of the Jews
According to the Gospels Roman emperor Augustus ordered a census. The Census of Quirinius. Requiring all residents of Judea to return to their ancestral lands for counting in a census. Though this may not have been Roman custom they may have called for this in Judea. That complicated place where the Jews kept their religion and customs. So Joseph had to return to Bethlehem. Worried about leaving Mary behind in a land where others may not be so open minded about her Immaculate Conception he took her along. Which is why she made that great trek so close to her delivery time.
With everyone else returning to Bethlehem the only shelter they could find was in a stable. Mary gave birth and they placed Jesus in a manger. A food trough for the animals. As the word got out about the son of God being born it attracted a lot of attention. Some were overjoyed that the prophecy in the Old Testament was being fulfilled. Some were not quite that happy. Some in the Jewish hierarchy. Who didn’t foresee this event. And King Herod. Who when he heard that a new king had been born to rule over mankind felt nothing but a challenge to his power. So when the three wise men from the East, the Magi, came to Herod to ask where this new king was King Herod couldn’t tell them. But when they found Him they were to send word back so he could come and worship Jesus himself.
Of course the last thing you want to tell the current King of the Jews was the location of this new King of the Jews, this son of God. Jesus Christ. Because he would want to kill Him. Well, the Magi got the message in a dream and went back East without telling Herod after delivering their gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. (The frankincense and myrrh were aromatic gum resins used as incense.) King Herod took this betrayal as another challenge to his power. So to protect his power he ordered that all male children in the Greater Bethlehem area 2 years old and younger were to be slaughtered. The Massacre of the Innocents. There is no record of this outside the Gospels. Though it would be something King Herod would have done. For he killed his own children when they were a threat to his power. Based on the size of Bethlehem the number of children falling in Herod’s criteria may have been about 20. The slaughter of which would be a tragedy. But the number may not have been large enough to enter the historical record.
An angel warned Joseph of Herod’s plan in a dream. Telling him to take Mary and Jesus to Egypt until the dust settled. Returning to Galilee after Herod’s death. Where he grew up. Jesus of Nazareth. But his problems with the politically connected Jewish hierarchy and the Romans weren’t over. He would have about 30 years on earth, though, before that trouble would catch up with Him.
Tags: Bethlehem, Christ, Christianity, frankincense, Galilee, gold, Gospels, Herod, Immaculate Conception, Jesus, Jesus Christ, Jewish, Jewish hierarchy, Joseph, Judea, King Herod, King of the Jews, Magi, Mary, Massacre of the Innocents, myrrh, Nazareth, Old Testament, Roman, Roman occupation, synagogue
(Originally published December 24th, 2012)
Christians may not like the Crass Commercialization of Christmas but the Left Loves It
The Left does not have a war on Christmas per se. For they love the consumer spending part of Christmas. Which is pure Keynesian. People go into debt to spend more money at retailers. They love that part of Christmas. What they don’t like is the religious stuff. Especially Jesus.
They don’t like Jesus because He is the God the Christians worship. Their Lord and Savior. It’s these Christians that bother the Left. Because of their opposition to birth control (mostly Catholics), abortion and having fun in general. The kind of fun adults enjoy. The kind of things Christians frown on. Premarital sex. Gay love. Drinking and using drugs. Coarse language and sexual situations on television shows and in the movies. Things they champion on the Left. Which makes the Left hate Christianity. Which they see as nothing but a great killjoy.
It’s the moralizing the Left does not like. But the one thing Christians don’t like about Christmas, its crass commercialization, they do like. So the Left will try to band images of Christ from Christmas displays wherever they can. Despite Christmas being the celebration of Christ’s birth. But they will gather in Rockefeller Center to party when they light the Christmas tree. Though they would prefer that we call it the holiday tree.
Retailers often become Profitable for the Year only because of this Temporary Spending Surge at Christmas
So there are two Christmases. The one where Christians celebrate the birth of Christ. Wish for peace on earth. And good will towards man. And the other Christmas. The one marked by the orgy of consumer spending. Much of it funded by one-time Christmas bonuses. A celebration of demand-side Keynesian economics. Where people spend their hard earned money instead of saving it. And when their money runs out they spend even more using their credit cards.
Keynesians have a bunch of charts and graphs showing how great a stimulus this Christmas spending is to the economy. And mathematical formulas. They can tell you about the velocity of money. How fast money travels through the economy when it goes from consumer to seller. The seller then becomes consumer. And spends the money they just received. Then the person who receives this money in a sales transaction goes out and spends it as a consumer. And on and on it goes. Flying through though the economy at breakneck speed. Generating a whole lot of economic activity.
Retailers often become profitable for the year only because of this spending surge at Christmas. In fact, to handle this surge in business they hire a lot of people at Christmas time. Part-time people. Proving again that pumping money into the economy creates jobs. The main tenet of Keynesian monetary policy. Pump cash into the economy and people will spend it. Something the Keynesians have been doing since Richard Nixon decoupled the dollar from gold in 1971. Ending any semblance of responsible monetary policy. And recessions forever. At least, that was the plan.
Keynesian Stimulus is nothing more than an Orgy of Temporary Consumer Spending just like at Christmas Time
When the economy slows down and people stop buying stuff businesses have to lay off workers. So they won’t build stuff that no one will buy. Laid off workers no longer have money to buy things. Which causes other business to lay off workers. So THEY won’t build stuff that no one will buy. It’s a vicious cycle. In fact, we call it the business cycle. The boom-bust cycle. From expansion to contraction. From an economy hiring people to an economy laying off people.
Keynesian economics was supposed to remove the contraction side of the business cycle. By picking up the spending slack. When consumers stopped spending money the government would step in and replace their spending. We call it stimulus spending. Often spending money the government doesn’t have. So they run a deficit (i.e., borrow money). Or simply print money. Which they did a lot of in the Seventies. Unfortunately, as it turns out, you just can’t do that. For when you print money you devalue it. Which raises prices. As it takes more of these devalued dollars to buy what they once did.
And this is why Keynesian economics doesn’t work. Because a Keynesian stimulus is nothing more than an orgy of consumer spending. Just like at Christmas time. Which happens only for a limited time. Businesses hire temporary part-time workers at Christmas because this spending does not last. As it does not last during a Keynesian stimulus. It doesn’t create any full-time jobs. Because employers know it is only temporary. And they know that higher prices will soon follow. As they do after Christmas when the discounting ends. Which will reduce future economic activity. As it does after Christmas. Once the deals end so too ends the orgy of consumer spending. Leaving people to deal with the aftermath. Depleted bank accounts. A lot of credit card debt. And a little buyer’s remorse.
Tags: birth of Christ, business cycle, Christ, Christianity, Christians, Christmas, consumer spending, crass commercialization, Jesus, Keynesian, Keynesian economics, Keynesian stimulus, monetary policy, money, orgy of consumer spending, part-time workers, spending, stimulus, stimulus spending, temporary
Week in Review
The left keeps saying that the Republicans have a war on women. Because they are a bunch of Christian extremist who want to take away birth control and abortion from women. They take every opportunity to attack Christianity as the great oppressor of women. Warning women of the hell they’ll be subjected to if we elect Republicans with their Christian agenda. But they will never say anything about the oppression of women under Islam. Which is very real (see Afghan woman flown to Turkey after husband ‘slices off her nose’ by Rob Crilly, Islamabad, and Zubair Babakarkhail posted 12/18/2013 on The Telegraph).
An Afghan woman has been flown to Turkey for emergency surgery after her husband sliced off her nose and lips apparently in punishment for refusing to sell her jewellery.
Sitara, 30, was found lying unconscious in her home on Friday when neighbours in Herat province were alerted by the cries of her four children.
The attack has been seized on by women’s rights campaigners as evidence that not enough is being done to protect fragile progress made since the Taliban was ousted from power in 2001…
Her mother Naseema said he was addicted to heroin and had regularly beaten her daughter in the past for failing to give birth to a son. On Friday evening she said he asked her daughter – who was engaged at the age of 11 – for money and then demanded her gold ring when she said she had no cash.
“She told him that this ring was given to her by her father – Azim did not buy it for her,” she said.
He turned violent, knocking the mother-of-four unconscious with a rock collected from outside before taking a knife to her nose and top lip, said Naseema. It was all witnessed by her four young daughters, aged three to 12…
A United Nations paper published earlier this month showed reported violence against women was on the rise – an increase of 28% in the past year.
In November, officials floated the idea of reintroducing stoning for the adultery before quickly withdrawing it amid an international outcry.
If anyone has a war on women it’s Islam. Some will say these are isolated incidences and don’t represent the true Islamic faith. But these isolated incidences far outnumber the zero number of Christians cutting off women’s noses and lips. Or stoning women for adultery. But you never hear the left who is supposedly fighting for women in the war on women express the same level of outrage over these abuses of Islam that they reserve for Christians. All they do is help Islam attack Christianity. Making Islam’s power greater. Putting more women at risk for these horrible abuses.
Will Democrats ever put their politics aside to protect women from real dangers? Or will they continue to exploit women for their politics? And create phantom dangers where none exist? As they will sacrifice anything for their insatiable quest for power?
Women are oppressed by Islam and they remain silent. Calling Christianity the real danger. Which is more tolerant of birth control, abortion (and homosexuality) than Islam is by far. But they attack Christianity. And not Islam. Because the enemy of my enemy is my friend. Even though this ‘friend’ will oppress them in a heartbeat if given the chance. For Democrats may like Islam because they annoy Christians but Muslims hate everything liberals stand for. And would prefer to eradicate them like all enemies of Islam.
Tags: abortion, adultery, Afghan woman, birth control, Christianity, Democrats, Islam, Republicans, stoning, stoning women for adultery, Taliban, violence against women, war on women
The East-West Schism of 1054 gave us the Roman Catholic Church and the Eastern Orthodox Church
Constantine the Great won the Battle of the Milvian Bridge (312 AD) thanks to divine intervention. Or so the story goes. The Christian God communicated to Constantine and his soldiers in a vision on the eve of battle. If they put the first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek on their shields they would be victorious in battle. So they did. And they were. Thus beginning Constantine’s transformation from paganism to Christianity.
Christianity was illegal in the Roman Empire. And persecuting Christians was a national pastime. But Constantine changed all that. By first decreeing religious tolerance with the Edict of Milan (313). And following that up with the First Council of Nicaea (325). Where Christian bishops met to resolve some of their differences. And try for the first time to reach a consensus for the Christian church.
In time Christianity would spread throughout the empire. Through northern Europe. And all the way to Britannia (Roman Britain). But things were a little different going east. Where the eastern Christians did not see things the same way the western Christians did. Leading to the East-West Schism (1054). Giving us the Roman Catholic Church in the west. And the Eastern Orthodox Church in, of course, the east.
King Henry VIII was no fan of Martin Luther and he defended the Catholic Faith
The schism between east and west would prove to be a costly one. The Fourth Crusade (1202-1204) went to free the Holy Land from Islam. The European Crusaders were from the Latin Catholic Church. Who never made it to the Holy Land. But they did sack Constantinople. Where the Latin Crusaders slaughtered Orthodox Christians. Weakening the Eastern Roman Empire. Opening the door for Ottoman conquest (1453). And making the way clear for Islam to spread into Europe. So instead of freeing the Holy Land from Islam they brought Islam into Christian Europe. But that wouldn’t be the last Christian-on-Christian fighting.
In 1517 Martin Luther posted his Ninety-Five Theses attacking the Roman Catholic Church. In particular its selling of indulgences to buy your way into heaven. A funding scheme by Pope Leo X to pay for the rebuilding of St. Peter’s Basilica in Rome. Thus kicking off the Protestant Reformation. A schism in Western Christianity. Splitting up Christianity in Europe between the Catholics and Protestants. Leading to centuries of warfare. Especially between Catholic Spain & France and Protestant England & Germany.
In England King Henry VIII was no fan of Martin Luther. And he defended the Catholic faith. But he had a problem with the Pope. For he wanted a divorce from his queen. Katherine of Aragon. So he would be free to marry Ann Boleyn. Well, the Pope said ‘no’. So Henry said goodbye to the Roman Catholic Church. And set up the Church of England. With Henry himself as the head of the church. Soon England was full of Catholics and Protestants. And they fought each other to maintain the true faith. Bitterly. And cruelly. The Church of England would swing between Catholicism and Protestantism through these turbulent times. From Henry VIII to Edward VI to Queen Mary to Elizabeth to James I.
James continued Elizabeth’s Persecution of Catholics which led to the Gunpowder Plot
James I was King James VI of Scotland. On the death of Elizabeth he moved south and took the English throne. Becoming James I of England. Scotland was Presbyterian (which fell in the Protestant camp). The Presbyterians did not like the Church of England for they felt it was virtually Catholic. Something the Catholics would disagree with. The Puritans (basically Protestants) also criticized the Church of England for being too Catholic. Which annoyed Elizabeth. So she persecuted both Puritans and Catholics. James was raised a Presbyterian but he hated Presbyterians. And Puritans. Who he thought were nothing more than Presbyterians who spoke more eloquently.
So the Puritans were a thorn in James’ side. This animosity between the Puritans and James would lead to the Puritans leaving England and eventually landing in the New World. James hated Puritans so much that he preferred Catholics over them. However, Elizabeth had taken England into a very anti-Catholic direction. And he did not want to appear to be soft when it came to Catholics. So he made life unpleasant for them. Even banished Catholic priests. Sick of this persecution of Catholics someone did something about it.
Remember, remember, the 5th of November
The gunpowder treason and plot
I know of no reason why the gunpowder treason
Should ever be forgot
Robert Catesby planned the Gunpowder Plot. To rid England of anti-Catholic rule. The plan was to blow up Parliament by filling a cellar beneath the House of Lords with barrels of gunpowder. But someone tipped off Lord Monteagle. Authorities arrived in the cellar to find Guy Fawkes surrounded by barrels of gunpowder, a fuse in one hand and a match in the other. Leading to a new holiday in Britain. Guy Fawkes Day. Where people burned effigies of the Pope. To celebrate the Protestant victory over the ‘Catholic’ plot that tried to topple the government on the 5th of November in 1605. And providing even more animosity between Protestants and Catholics in England. Which would later erupt in the English Civil War (1642–1651). But today Guy Fawkes Day is just about fireworks and celebrations. Without the religious overtones it once had.
Tags: 5th of November, Catholic Church, Catholics, Christian, Christianity, Church of England, Constantine, East-West Schism, Eastern Orthodox Church, Elizabeth, England, Gunpowder Plot, Gunpowder Treason, Guy Fawkes, Guy Fawkes Day, Henry VIII, Holy Land, Islam, James I, Latin, Martin Luther, Pope, Presbyterian, Protestants, Puritans, Roman Catholic Church, Roman Empire, Scotland
Week in Review
American English is now the language international of aviation. Not British English. But American English. Because so many people speak it in the world. Which is why international pilots must be able to speak American English. So there is a common language for pilots and air traffic controllers to converse in. Making it easier to safely route airborne aircraft between countries.
What was another international language? Before there was a United States? What was the international language of diplomacy. Was it British English? No. It was French. The diplomats of the world spoke French. Making France a center of international diplomacy. Which is why if you look up ‘Treaty of Paris’ you will see more than one entry. France united Europe following the fall of the Roman Empire under Charlemagne. Helped made Europe Christian. And was a leading player in the Enlightenment.
French culture refined the world. And their food and drink made the world a more enjoyable place. In a word France was great. And being French meant something. Today the French are still fiercely proud of their history. And their culture. So proud that they have even expunged American words from their language. To keep the French language pure. Their French culture pure. So they take great offense when people come to their country and try to change their ways (see Second night of riots in Paris over ‘burka ban’ fine by Peter Allen posted 7/21/2013 on The Telegraph).
On both Friday and Saturday night heavily armed riot police could be seen taking part in running skirmishes with youths, while there were reports of flash guns being used to disperse the crowd.
The violence is the latest in a string of incidents related to the controversial “burka ban” which was introduced across France in 2011.
It means that women found guilty of wearing veils in public can be fined the equivalent of £130 and be forced to attend citizenship classes.
The French have no problem with people immigrating to their country. They have just one requirement. If you move into France then you must be French. That is you assimilate to the culture you join. You don’t try to assimilate the French into the culture you left. The way immigration should be. For if your country is so bad that you leave it for a better life you don’t bring what you’re leaving behind with you.
France made Europe Christian. And held to their Catholicism all during the Protestant Reformation and the religious wars that followed. It was hard to find more devout Catholics than the French. Then they made France secular during the French Revolution. As their religion had grown into an oppressor of the people. So the French don’t take kindly to public displays of religion. Especially any that infringe on the rights of the people. Choosing to wear a crucifix is one thing. Forcing women to wear a burka is another. That does not define the liberté of French Society. And doesn’t assimilate these immigrants into the French Culture.
So while the French are trying to save their culture the Americans are doing nothing to preserve theirs. They have porous borders. They don’t require immigrants to speak English. We must speak to them in their language. And we attack the religions of our Founders. While treating the Muslim faith with great reverence. Bending over backwards to accommodate the immigrant culture. While doing nothing to preserve the home culture. For apparently the Americans don’t love their culture as much as the French love theirs.
It’s a pity they Americans can’t be more like the French.
Tags: abortion, birth control, Christianity, Dubai, Islam, Muslim nations, political left, rape, war on women
With the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 Islam spread Unchecked into Christian Lands
Constantine the Great moved the capital of the Roman Empire to a place on the Bosporus. Where the ancient city of Byzantium once sat. Where Asia met Europe. Where the Mediterranean Sea met the Black Sea. And the great rivers beyond. The Danube. Dnieper. And the Don. Constantine named his new city Constantinople. And made it a jewel. With great Christian churches. To celebrate his new conversion to Christianity. Which started following the Battle of the Milvian Bridge. Where on the eve of battle Constantine and his soldiers had a vision of the Christian God. Promising them victory if they placed His symbol on their shields. Which they did. And they won.
Constantine spared no expense in his new city. Which was easy to do because it was a very wealthy city. For the greatest trade routes went through the Bosporus. Which is why when the western half of the Roman Empire fell the eastern half, or the Byzantine Empire, carried on for another thousand years. Give or take. As it thrived on that trade pouring through it. Especially from the Far East. Along the Silk Road. Which peaked during the Byzantine Empire. Bringing the exotic goods of the Far East west. From silk to porcelain to spices. Which flowed unhindered to Christian Europe while the Christians still controlled the Byzantine Empire.
But all good things must come to an end. Thanks to the Seljuk Turks. And the rise of the Ottoman Empire. Islam had united the Arab people. And with the fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans in 1453 Islam spread unchecked into Christian lands. Up through the Balkans into southern Europe. Lands they would contest for time and again. Making for some bitter Christian-Muslim animosity that continues into modern times. But more crucially at the time was the loss of control over that trade from the Far East. Making those goods not as reasonably priced as they once were. Which proved to be quite the problem. As the European Christians had grown quite fond of them. Luckily for them, they could do something about that. Thanks to all of those wars they fought with the Muslims. The Crusades. Which brought back a lot of Greek books of science that were collecting dust in some of the old great Greek cities all around the Mediterranean. Founded during the Hellenistic period. Which came before the Roman Empire. Thanks to a fellow by the name of Alexander the Great. Who spread Greek learning throughout the known world after he conquered it.
Christopher Columbus sailed West to establish Far East Trade without going through Muslim-Controlled Constantinople
From those books the Europeans were able to become better sailors. On ships that could catch the wind and navigate their way great distances. Portugal and Spain led the way. Prince Henry (1394-1460), the Navigator, trained navigators in Portugal. His students pushed further and further down the African coast until Bartholomeu Dias rounded the Cape of Good Hope (1486). Vasco de Gama would round the Cape of Good Hope and sail up the eastern coast of Africa all the way to India (1498). Pedro Álvares Cabral was heading south to round the Cape of Good Hope in (1500). Swung out too far west. And ran into Brazil in South America.
Spain then financed the voyages of Christopher Columbus. Who had read that the earth was round. And wanted to prove it. As well as spread Christianity. Columbus wanted to find a way west to the Far East. Sure it was just beyond the horizon of the Atlantic Ocean. After a voyage longer than his near mutinous crew expected they finally landed on San Salvador Island in the Bahamas (1492). Thinking he found an ocean passage to the Far East. Around the Muslim controlled land route. He would later understand that he had found the New World. Which we would be calling Columbia. Had his dispatches beat a Florentine passenger’s on a Portuguese ship who wrote about what he saw. Amerigo Vespucci. Which is why there is not a North Columbia, a Central Columbia and a South Columbia. Instead, there is a North America, a Central America and a South America.
With Columbus’ success Spain financed others. Vasco Núñez Balboa. Who crossed the Isthmus of Panama and reached the Pacific Ocean (1513). Ferdinand Magellan. Who sailed around South America through the Straits of Magellan and into the Pacific Ocean. Sailing on to the Far East. And back home. Being the first to circumnavigate the globe (1519-1522). Hernán Cortés. Who conquered the brutal Aztec regime in Mexico (1521). Eventually the Spanish would bring great riches of gold and silver back to the Old World. Meanwhile France financed Jacques Cartier in his attempt to find a Northwest Passage to the Pacific. Who sailed up the St. Lawrence River to Montreal (1534). Then Samuel de Champlain founded Quebec (1608). Where they established a lucrative fur trade with the native Indians.
Cultivating Tobacco took Large Tracts of Farmland which required more Laborers that they had in the Colonies
Queen Elizabeth of England financed Walter Raleigh. Who explored the coast of North America (1584). Looking for a place to settle a colony. On a subsequent voyage he brought 100 settlers with him. And settled a colony at Roanoke, North Carolina (1585). Which became the Lost Colony of Roanoke (1591). The Virginia Company of London, a joint-stock company, would have better luck. They raised financing by selling stock shares to investors who would share in any profits of the colony. Christopher Newport led a voyage that established the first permanent English settlement in the New World. At Jamestown (1607).
Though the Americas were not the Far East it was a vast landmass with inexhaustible resources. And endless tracts of fertile soil. The possibilities were endless. The marriage of John Rolfe to Pocahontas (1614) provided an uneasy peace between the settlers and their Indian neighbors. Then Rolfe figured out how to cure tobacco (1612). Something the English began smoking after Columbus observed the Cubans sticking burning rolls of tobacco in a nostril. The English refined smoking with a pipe. And they really enjoyed it. Importing vast quantities from the Spanish colonies in America. Thanks to Rolfe, though, the English could produce their own tobacco. Once they worked out a few problems.
Cultivating tobacco took large tracts of farmland. But to put large tracts of farmland into production you needed laborers. And in 1612 Virginia there just weren’t a lot of colonists living there yet. The demand for labor far outstripped the supply. So they tried to satisfy that demand with indentured servants. Preferably from Europe. Even criminals from English jails. As well as from Africa. Who worked in bondage during their indentures. Then went free. Until around the 1660s. When things changed. Starting in the southern colonies. Where slavery became hereditary. For Africans, at least. Like it was in the Old World. Where peasants and serfs were bonded to the land. Once a slave. Always a slave. And if your parent was a slave so were you. Like it was in ancient Athens. At the end of the Western Roman Empire. And in the Muslim world.
Muslim didn’t only enslave Christians. They also established slave markets with African slave traders. Who opened their markets to the Portuguese, the Spanish, the French and the English. To help them meet that soaring demand for labor during the early days of the New World colonies. When there were so few colonists. Who found their way to the New World in the first place because of the Muslim conquest of Constantinople. Which sent the Europeans to the seas to find a western way to the Far East. And when they did they discovered the New World. Creating the largest market ever for African slaves. And the greatest convulsions in the New World as they struggled to end slavery in the Americas.
Tags: African slaves, America, Bosporus, Byzantine Empire, Cape of Good Hope, Christian, Christianity, Christopher Columbus, colonies, colonists, Columbia, Columbus, Constantine, Constantinople, England, Far East, France, Islam, Mediterranean, Muslim, New World, North America, Old World, Ottoman, Ottoman Empire, Portugal, Roanoke, Rolfe, Roman Empire, slave, slavery, South America, Spain, tobacco, trade, Virginia
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