No One is going to get Rich by Buying and Selling only one Share of Stock
It takes money to make money. I’m sure we all heard that before. If you want to ‘flip’ a house you need money for a down payment to get a mortgage first. If you want to start a business you need to save up some money first. Or borrow it from a family member. And if you want to get rich by playing the stock market you need money. A lot of money. Because you only make money by selling stocks. And before you can sell them you have to buy them.
Stock prices may go up and down a lot. But over a period of time the average stock price may only increase a little bit. So if you bought one share of stock at, say, $35 and sold it later at, say, $37.50 that’s a gain of 7.14%. Which is pretty impressive. Just try to earn that with a savings account at a bank. Of course, you only made a whopping $2.50. So no one is going to get rich by buying and selling only one share of stock.
However, if you bought 10,000 shares of a stock at $35/share and then sold it later at $37.50 that’s a whole other story. Your initial stock purchase will cost you $350,000. And that stock will sell for $375,000 at $37.50/share. Giving you a gain of $25,000. Let’s say you make 6 buys and sells in a year like this with the same money. You buy some stock, hold it a month or so and then sell it. Then you use that money to buy some more stock, hold it for a month or so and then sell it. Assuming you replicate the same 7.14% stock gain through all of these transactions the total gain will come to $150,000. And if you used no more than your original investment of $350,000 during that year that $350,000 will have given you a return on investment of 42.9%. This is why the rich get richer. Because they have the money to make money. Of course, if stock prices move the other way investors can have losses as big as these gains.
Rich Investors benefit most from the Fed’s Quantitative Easing that gives us Near-Zero Interest Rates
Rich investors can make an even higher return on investment by borrowing from a brokerage house. He or she can open a margin account. Deposit something of value in it (money, stocks, option, etc.) and use that value as collateral. This isn’t exactly how it works but it will serve as an illustration. In our example an investor could open a margin account with a value of $175,000. So instead of spending $350,000 the investor can borrow $175,000 from the broker and add it to his or her $175,000. Bringing the total stock investment to $350,000. Earning that $25,000 by risking half of the previous amount. Bringing the return on investment to 116.7%. But these big returns come with even bigger risks. For if your stock loses value it can make your losses as big as those gains.
Some investors borrow money entirely to make money. Such as carry trades. Where an investor will borrow a currency from a low-interest rate country to invest in the currency of a higher-interest rate country. For example, they could borrow a foreign currency at a near zero interest rate (like the Japanese yen). Convert that money into U.S. dollars. And then use that money to buy an American treasury bond paying, say, 2%. So they basically borrow money for free to invest. Making a return on investment without using any of his or her money. However, these carry trades can be very risky. For if the yen gains value against the U.S. dollar the investor will have to pay back more yen than they borrowed. Wiping out any gain they made. Perhaps even turning that gain into a loss. And a small swing in the exchange rate can create a huge loss.
So there is big money to make in the stock market. Making money with money. And investors can make even more money when they borrow money. Making money with other people’s money. Something rich investors like doing. Something rich investors can do because they are rich. For having money means you don’t have to use your money to make money. Because having money gives you collateral. The ability to use other people’s money. At very attractive interest rates. In fact, it’s these rich investors that benefit most from the Fed’s quantitative easing that is giving us near-zero interest rates.
People on Wall Street are having the Time of their Lives during the Obama Administration
We are in the worst economic recovery since that following the Great Depression. Yet the stock market is doing very well. Investors are making a lot of money. At a time when businesses are not hiring. The labor force participation rate has fallen to levels not seen since the Seventies. People can’t find full-time jobs. Some are working a part-time job because that’s all they can find. Some are working 2 part-time jobs. Or more. Others have just given up trying to find a full-time job. People the Bureau of Labor Statistics (BLS) no longer counts when calculating the unemployment rate.
This is the only reason why the unemployment rate has fallen. If you add the number of people who have left the labor force since President Obama took office to the number the BLS reports as unemployed it would bring the unemployment rate up to 13.7% ((10,459,000 + 10,854,000)/155,724,000) at the end of February. So the economy is still horrible. No secret to those struggling in it. And the median family who has seen their income fall. So why is the stock market doing so well when businesses are not? When profitable businesses operations typically drive the stock market? For when businesses do well they grow and hire more people. But businesses aren’t growing and hiring more people. So if it’s not profitable businesses operations raising stock prices what is? Just how are the rich getting richer when the economy as a whole is stuck in the worst economic recovery since that following the Great Depression?
Because of near zero interest rates. The Fed has lowered interest rates to near zero to purportedly stimulate the economy. Which it hasn’t. When they could lower interest rates no more they started their quantitative easing. Printing money to buy bonds on the open market. Flooding the economy with cheap money. But people aren’t borrowing it. Because the employment picture is so poor that they just aren’t spending money. Either because they don’t have a job. Only have a part time job. Or are terrified they may lose their job. And if they do lose their job the last thing they want when unemployed is a lot of debt they can’t service. And then there’s Obamacare. Forcing people to buy costly insurance. Leaving them less to spend on other things. And increasing the cost of doing business. Another reason not to hire people.
So the economy is going nowhere. And because of the bad economy businesses have no intentions of spending or expanding. So they don’t need any of that cheap money. So where is it going? Wall Street. The only people who are borrowing and spending money. They’re taking that super cheap money and they’re using it to buy and sell stocks. They’re buying and selling like never before. Making huge profits. Thanks to other people’s money. This is what is raising stock prices. Not profitable businesses operations. But investors bidding up stock prices with borrowed money. The people on Wall Street are having the time of their lives during the Obama administration. Because the Obama administration’s policies favor the rich on Wall Street. Whose only worry these days is if the Fed stops printing money. Which will raise interest rates. And end the drunken orgy on Wall Street. Which is why whenever it appears the Fed will taper (i.e., print less money each month) their quantitative easing because the economy is ‘showing signs of improvement’ investors panic and start selling. In a rush to lock in their earnings before the stock prices they inflated come crashing down to reality. For without that ‘free’ money from the Fed the orgy of buying will come to an end. And no one wants to be the one holding on to those inflated stocks when the bubble bursts. When there will be no more buyers. At least, when there will be no more buyers willing to buy at those inflated stock prices. Which is why investors today hate good economic news. For there is nothing worse for an investor in the Obama economy than a good economy.
Tags: borrow, borrowing, buy, carry trade, cheap money, collateral, economic recovery, Fed, full-time jobs, gain, interest rate, investment, investor, jobs, loss, making money with money, margin, margin account, money, near zero interest rate, Obama administration, part-time jobs, printing money, profitable businesses operations, profits, quantitative easing, return, return on investment, rich, rich get richer, rich investors, risk, sell, share, spending, stock, stock market, stock price, unemployment rate, Wall Street, worst economic recovery
Week in Review
The ‘capitalism’ we have today isn’t our Founding Father’s capitalism. Yet critics of today’s ‘capitalism’ act as if it is. And point to the inherent flaws of this ‘capitalism’. As an excuse to bring in more governmental regulations to fix the problems of ‘capitalism’. Which is the reason why today’s ‘capitalism’ isn’t capitalism. It’s not the same economic system that made the United States the number one economic power in the world. No. It’s moved more towards European social democracy. The system that gave the European nations their sovereign debt crises. But those learned intellectuals speaking from their ivory towers still talk about fixing the problems of ‘capitalism’. Without really understanding what the real problem is. And it ain’t capitalism. It’s the interference of capitalism and free markets. This is the source of all our problems today. And unless you address these problems you’re just wasting your time (see How to Reduce ‘Infant Entrepreneur Mortality’ by Sramana Mitra posted 6/10/2013 on the Harvard Business Review Blog).
Ever since the 2008 financial crisis, intellectuals have had to ask themselves, ‘Does Capitalism Still Work..?’
Two particular problems stand out. First, Capitalism has been hijacked by speculators. Second, the system enables amassing wealth at the tip of the pyramid, leaving most of society high and dry. Both problems have resulted in a highly unstable, volatile world order that jitters and shocks markets periodically, leaving financial carnage and mass scale human suffering.
The first problem with ‘capitalism’ today is that intellectuals are trying to fix it. There isn’t anything wrong with capitalism. The problems we have today have nothing to do with capitalism. Because what we have today is state capitalism. Crony capitalism. European social democracy. We have too much government in capitalism. Who are favoring their big corporate friends in exchange for big corporate campaign donations. And the only reason we have these speculators is because of the government. Who is pumping so much cheap money into the economy for the speculators to speculate with. And when their crony capitalist friends fail the government bails them out with tax dollars. Because there is no downside to speculation when you have friends in government speculators will speculate.
People like to blame the banks and Wall Street for the subprime mortgage crisis. But they didn’t create that crisis. They just played their part. The government created it. By pumping cheap money into the economy to keep interest rates artificially low. To encourage people to buy houses. Even those who weren’t even considering buying a house. Or those who simply couldn’t afford to buy a house. These people changed their behavior based on the government’s manipulation of the interest rates. As the government intended to do. And they made everything worse with policies to encourage more and more home ownership. The big one being Bill Clinton’s Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending. Where the government threatened lenders to lend to the unqualified or else. So they did. Using the subprime mortgage to qualify the unqualified. And then the government-sponsored enterprises, Fannie May and Freddie Mac, bought those toxic subprime mortgages from these lenders, chopped and diced them into investments called collateralized debt obligations. And sold them to unsuspecting investors as high-yield, low-risk investments. Because they were backed by the safest investment of all time. The home mortgage. Only they didn’t tell these investors that these mortgages were toxic subprime mortgages being paid by people who couldn’t qualify for a conventional mortgage. The safest investment of all time. The conventional home mortgage. So these lenders were able to clear these toxic mortgages off of their balance sheets. Allowing them to issue more toxic subprime mortgages. They were making money by writing these risky subprime mortgages. But incurred no risk. So they kept qualifying the unqualified for more and more mortgages. Which was profitable. Safe. And kept the government off of their backs as threatened in Bill Clinton’s Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending.
This isn’t capitalism. This is government and their crony capitalist friends using their power, privilege and influence to game the system. To enrich themselves. This is what caused the mess we have today. Where speculators and those in government get richer. While Main Street America sees its median income fall. And entrepreneurs struggle to stay in business.
Everybody talks about the role small businesses play in growing economies and creating jobs. However, as it stands, in America alone, 600,000 businesses die in the vine every year. This colossal infant entrepreneur mortality is a product of colossal levels of ignorance about how to build and sustain businesses.
And a myriad of governmental regulations, taxes and a litigious society. Entrepreneurs today have to spend a lot of money and time protecting their money and time. They need accountants and tax lawyers to help them comply with an ever growing regulatory environment. And a boatload of insurances to keep the sharks at bay who all want a piece of their wealth and will sue if given the least opportunity. It’s so complex that if they try to navigate their own way through these enormous burdens places on business they often make mistakes. Or simply overlook something that they shouldn’t have. Often times they just don’t charge enough to cover all of these costs they never expected when starting their businesses. So when, say, a tax bill comes due they simply don’t have the cash on hand to pay it. And then the downward death spiral begins. This is why restaurants and construction companies are the number one and number two business to fail. Where we have brilliant chefs and trades people who can cook or build something better than anyone else. But are so out of their element when dealing with the business side of their trade. The regulatory costs, taxes, insurance, etc. And find they spend more of their time not doing what they love—cooking or building—but pushing paper through a labyrinth of red tape. And often don’t find out they are not charging enough to cover all of the regulatory costs, taxes, insurance, etc., until it’s too late.
There is actually a method to the madness of entrepreneurship. And while the ‘character traits’ that support entrepreneurship — courage, tolerance for risk, resilience, persistence — cannot be taught, the method of building businesses can and should be taught.
In fact, it should be taught not just at elite institutions, but at every level of society, en masse.
If we can democratize the education and incubation of entrepreneurs on a global scale, I believe that it would not only check the infant entrepreneur mortality, it would create a much more stable economic system.
No. That’s not the answer. The reason why a lot of people remain employees instead of going into business themselves is that these people don’t want to deal with all the regulatory headaches their bosses have to deal with. A tradesperson would rather work their 8-hour shift and go home. They don’t want to deal with payroll taxes, workers’ compensation insurance, liability insurance, vehicular insurances, health insurance, real property taxes, personal property taxes, quarterly tax filings, business income tax, use tax, OSHA requirements, environmental requirements, city and state inspections, permits and licenses, etc. If a tradesperson could just throw his or her tools in a truck and go into business they would. But they can’t. So they won’t. Because it’s just so much easier being an employee than an employer. Who are always guaranteed a paycheck if they work. While an employer only gets paid after everyone, and everything, else gets paid.
You want to reduce infant entrepreneur mortality rates? Get the government out of the private sector. And give these entrepreneurs a chance. You’d be surprised at what they can do if the government just leaves them alone. Just like Andrew Carnegie, John Rockefeller, Henry Ford, etc., did. Who probably couldn’t do what they did today. Not in today’s anti-business environment.
Tags: Bill Clinton, capitalism, cheap money, crony capitalism, crony capitalist, entrepreneur, European social democracy, financial crisis, governmental regulations, infant entrepreneur mortality rates, insurance, interest rates, jobs, lenders, Policy Statement on Discrimination in Lending, regulatory costs, regulatory headaches, social democracy, speculators, state capitalism, subprime mortgage, subprime mortgage crisis, taxes, toxic subprime mortgages
Week in Review
The stock market is doing well. Thanks to the Federal Reserve’s flooding the economy with new money. Which rich people are borrowing to get even richer in the stock market. But all this monetary stimulus is not creating real economic activity. Like Keynesian economics says it’s supposed to. For the Keynesians believe the only thing needed to create economic activity is cheap money. And government spending. Which the government is doing. Running record trillion dollar deficits. But there is no new economic activity. They are not creating new, good-paying jobs. No, it’s quite the contrary. Some of the most anti-business policies has frozen job creation. With Obamacare doing much of that freezing.
The problem is that governments embrace Keynesian economics to expand the government. Not the economy. They hope the economy will follow. But if it doesn’t, that’s okay. For they are more interested in taxing, borrowing, printing and spending. Because you can get a lot of people to vote for you when you do. And when stimulus spending fails, why, it just gives them an excuse to pass more stimulus spending legislation.
But businesses aren’t stupid. They know that when the government expands the money supply they will depreciate the dollar. So they’re not borrowing any of that cheap money. Because they know inflation will soon follow. Raising prices. And bringing on another recession. Or keeping us in a perpetual recession. At most you get a surge of consumer spending. But that’s it. Retailers may draw down inventories at wholesalers. But the wholesalers aren’t increasing their orders with manufacturers. And the manufacturers aren’t increasing their orders with their raw material suppliers. So there is no job creation above the retail level. And very little at the retail level. So while rich people are taking advantage of the Federal Reserve’s quantitative easing to get rich in the stock market, the rest of us are just seeing flat and stagnant economic growth of a jobless recovery (see Demand for space in U.S. strip malls still weak in first quarter by Ilaina Jonas posted 4/4/2013 on Reuters).
With retail sales struggling to recover and muted demand for space, new construction for neighborhood strip centers remained near record low levels during the quarter, according to the report by real estate research firm Reis Inc…
The data adds to recent evidence that without a stronger labor recovery, the rebound of the U.S. economy continues at a glacial pace, rather than gaining momentum.
“Until the economy begins to create more and better jobs, retail sales will remain listless, demand will remain at low levels, and the vacancy compression will be slow and tedious,” Reis economist Ryan Severino said…
Since the United States began to drag itself out of recession, the national vacancy for neighborhood strip centers is just half a point below the 1990 all-time high of 11.1 percent that was also reached in 2011. Vacancies remain well above their 2005 low of 6.7 percent.
The unemployment rate fell in March from 7.7% to 7.6% with the economy adding only 88,000 jobs. Horrible economic numbers. And an unemployment rate that is meaningless. For 496,000 people disappeared from the civilian labor force in March. Which is the only reason why the unemployment rate fell. They didn’t count these 496,000 people who don’t have a job as unemployed.
The economy is horrible. It is far more horrible than the official government numbers tell us. And it’s not going to get better anytime soon. Not with these anti-business policies freezing hiring and hindering new job creation. Especially Obamacare. Whose onslaught of new taxes will snuff out whatever life is left in this anemic recovery.
But the Keynesians play with the economic data. Telling us, as they have been telling us the past 4 years, that we’ve turned the corner. But the only improvement in the unemployment rate is due to people disappearing from the civilian labor force. Since Obama became president there has been a permanent decline in the labor force participation rate. Because President Obama is a Keynesian. And cares more about the power these horrible policies give him than the economy.
Tags: anti-business policies, cheap money, consumer spending, Federal Reserve, inflation, jobless recovery, jobs, Keynesian, Keynesian economics, monetary stimulus, money, money supply, Obamacare, recession, retail level, stimulus, stimulus spending, stock market
Merchants raise their Prices when the Monetary Authority depreciates the Currency
What is inflation? A depreciation of the currency. By adding more money into the money supply each piece of currency becomes less valuable. Let’s assume our currency is whiskey. In bottles. Whiskey has value because people are willing to pay for it. And because we are willing to pay for it we are willing to accept it as legal tender. Because we can always trade it to others. Who can drink it. Or they can trade it with others.
Now let’s say the monetary authority wants to stimulate economic activity. Which they try to do by expanding the money supply. So there is more money available to borrow. And because there is more money available to borrow interest rates are lower. Hence making it easy for people to borrow money. But the monetary authority doesn’t want to make more whiskey. Because that is costly to do. Instead, they choose an easier way of expanding the money supply. By watering down the bottles of whiskey.
Now pretend you are a merchant. And people are coming in with the new watered-down whiskey. What do you do? You know the whiskey is watered down. And that if you go and try to resell it you’re not going to get what you once did. For people typically drink whiskey for that happy feeling of being drunk. But with this water-downed whiskey it will take more drinks than it used to take to get drunk. So what do you as a merchant do when the money is worth less? You raise your prices. For it will take more bottles of lesser-valued whiskey to equal the purchasing power of full-valued whiskey. And if they water down that whiskey too much? You just won’t accept it as legal tender. Because it will be little different from water. And you can get that for free from any well or creek. Yes, water is necessary to sustain life. But no one will pay ‘whiskey’ prices for it when they can drink it from a well or a creek for free.
It was while in the Continental Army that Alexander Hamilton began thinking about a Central Bank
During the American Revolutionary War we had a very weak central government. The Continental Congress. Which had no taxing authority. Which posed a problem in fighting the Revolutionary War. Because wars are expensive. You need to buy arms and supplies for your army. You have to feed your army. And you have to pay your army. The Continental Congress paid for the Revolution by asking states to contribute to the cause. Those that did never gave as much as the Congress asked for. They got a lot of money from France. As we were fighting their long-time enemy. And we borrowed some money from other European nations. But it wasn’t enough. So they turned to printing paper money.
This unleashed a brutal inflation. Because everyone was printing money. The central government. And the states. Prices soared. Merchants didn’t want to accept it as legal tender. Preferring specie instead. Because you can’t print gold and silver. So you can’t depreciate specie like you can paper money. All of this just made life in the Continental Army worse. For they were hungry, half-naked and unpaid. And frustrating for men like Alexander Hamilton. Who served on General Washington’s staff. Hamilton, and many other officers in the Continental Army, saw how the weakness of the central government almost lost the war for them.
It was while in the army that Hamilton began thinking about a central bank. But that’s all he did. For there was not much support for a central government let alone a central bank. That would change, though, after the Constitutional Convention of 1787 created the United States of America. And America’s first president, George Washington, chose his old aide de camp as his treasury secretary. Alexander Hamilton. A capitalist who understood finance.
Despite the Carnage from the Subprime Mortgage Crisis the Fed is still Printing Money
At the time the new nation’s finances were in a mess. Few could make any sense of them. But Hamilton could. He began by assuming the states’ war debts. Added them to the national war debt. Which he planned on paying off by issuing new debt. That he planned on servicing with new excise taxes. And he would use his bank to facilitate all of this. The First Bank of the United States. Which faced fierce opposition from Thomas Jefferson and James Madison. Who opposed it for a couple of reasons. For one they argued it wasn’t constitutional. There was no central bank enumerated in the Constitution. And the Tenth Amendment of the Constitution stated that any power not enumerated to the new federal government belonged to the states. And that included banking. A central bank would only further consolidate power in the new federal government. By consolidating the money. Transferring it from the local banks. Which they feared would benefit the merchants, manufacturers and speculators in the north. By making cheap money available for them to make money with money. Which is the last thing people who believed America’s future was an agrarian one of yeoman farmers wanted to do.
They fought against the establishment of the bank. But failed. The bank got a 20 year charter. Jefferson and Madison would later have a change of heart on a central bank. For it helped Jefferson with the Louisiana Purchase. And like it or not the country was changing. It wasn’t going to be an agrarian one. America’s future was an industrial one. And that required credit. Just as Alexander Hamilton thought. So after the War of 1812, after the charter of the First Bank of the United States had expired, James Madison signed into law a 20-year charter for the Second Bank of the United States. Which actually did some of the things Jefferson and Madison feared. It concentrated a lot of money and power into a few hands. Allowing speculators easy access to cheap money. Which they borrowed and invested. Creating great asset bubbles. And when they burst, great depressions. Because of that paper money. Which they printed so much of that it depreciated the dollar. And caused asset prices to soar to artificial heights.
Andrew Jackson did not like the bank. For he saw it creating a new noble class. A select few were getting rich and powerful. Something the Americans fought to get away from. When the charter for the Second Bank of the United States was set to expire Congress renewed the charter. Because of their friends at the bank. And their friends who profited from the bank. But when they sent it to Andrew Jackson for his signature he vetoed the bill. And Congress could not override it. Sensing some blowback from the bank Jackson directed that they transfer the government’s money out of the Second Bank of the United States. And deposited it into some state banks. The president of the bank, Nicholas Biddle, did not give up, though. For he could hurt those state banks. Such as calling in loans. Which he did. Among other things. To try and throw the country into a depression. So he could blame it on the president’s anti-bank policies. And get his charter renewed. But it didn’t work. And the Second Bank of the United States was no more.
National banks versus local banks. Hard money (specie) versus paper money. Nobility versus the common people. They’ve argued the same arguments throughout the history of the United States. But we never learn anything. We never learn the ultimate price of too much easy money. Even now. For here we are. Suffering through the worst recession since the Great Depression. Because our current central bank, the Federal Reserve System, likes to print paper money. And create asset bubbles. Their last being the one that burst into the subprime mortgage crisis. And despite the carnage from that they’re still printing money. Money that the rich few are borrowing to invest in the stock market. Speculators. Who are making a lot of money. Buying and selling assets. Thanks to the central bank’s inflationary policies that keep increasing prices.
Tags: Alexander Hamilton, Andrew Jackson, asset bubbles, banks, central bank, central government, cheap money, Continental Army, Continental Congress, currency, depreciation, depressions, federal government, Federal Reserve System, First Bank of the United States, Hamilton, inflation, interest rates, James Madison, Jefferson, legal tender, Madison, merchant, monetary authority, money, money supply, paper money, prices, printing money, Revolutionary War, Second Bank of the United States, specie, speculators, subprime mortgage crisis, Thomas Jefferson
Douglas MacArthur brought some American Institutions into Japan and unleashed a lot of Human Capital
At the end of World War I the allies really screwed the Germans. The Treaty of Versailles made for an impossible peace. In a war that had no innocents the Allies heaped all blame onto Germany in the end. And the bankrupt Allies wanted Germany to pay. Placing impossible demands on the Germans. Which could do nothing but bankrupt Germany. Because, of course, to the victors go the spoils. But such a policy doesn’t necessarily lead to a lasting peace. And the peace following the war to end all wars wasn’t all that long lasting. Worse, the peace was ended by a war that was worse than the war to end all wars. World War II. All because some corporal with delusions of grandeur held a grudge.
The Americans wouldn’t repeat the same mistake the Allies made after World War II. Instead of another Versailles Treaty there was the Marshal Plan. Instead of punishing the vanquished the Americans helped rebuild them. The peace was so easy in Japan that the Japanese grew to admire their conqueror. General Douglas MacArthur. The easy peace proved to be a long lasting peace. In fact the two big enemies of World War II became good friends and allies of the United States. And strong industrial powers. Their resulting economic prosperity fostered peace and stability in their countries. And their surrounding regions.
MacArthur changed Japan. Where once the people served the military the nation now served the people. With a strong emphasis on education. And not just for the boys. For girls, too. And men AND women got the right to vote in a representative government. This was new. It unleashed a lot of human capital. Throw in a disciplined work force, low wages and a high domestic savings rate and this country was going places. It quickly rebuilt its war-torn industries. And produced a booming export market. Helped in part by some protectionist policies. And a lot of U.S. investment. Especially during the Korean War. Japan was back. The Fifties were good. And the Sixties were even better.
By the End of the Seventies the Miracle was Over and Japan was just another First World Economy
Helping along the way was the Ministry of International Trade and Industry (MITI). The government agency that partnered with business. Shut out imports. Except the high-tech stuff. Played with exchange rates. Built up the old heavy industries (shipbuilding, electric power, coal, steel, chemicals, etc.). And built a lot of infrastructure. Sound familiar? It’s very similar to the Chinese economic explosion. All made possible by, of course, a disciplined workforce and low wages.
Things went very well in Japan (and in China) during this emerging-economy phase. But it is always easy to play catch-up. For crony capitalism can work when playing catch-up. When you’re not trying to reinvent the wheel. But just trying to duplicate what others have already proven to work. You can post remarkable GDP growth. Especially when you have low wages for a strong export market. But wages don’t always stay low, do they? Because there is always another economy to emerge. First it was the Japanese who worked for less than American workers. Then it was the Mexicans. Then the South Koreans. The three other Asian Tigers (Hong Kong, Singapore and Taiwan). China. India. Brazil. Vietnam. It just doesn’t end. Which proves to be a problem for crony capitalism. Which can work when economic systems are frozen in time. But fails miserably in a dynamic economy.
But, alas, all emerging economies eventually emerge. And mature. By the end of the Seventies Japan had added automobiles and electronics to the mix. But it couldn’t prevent the inevitable. The miracle was over. It was just another first world economy. Competing with other first world economies. Number two behind the Americans. Very impressive. But being more like the Americans meant the record growth days were over. And it was time to settle for okay growth instead of fantastic growth. But the Japanese government was tighter with business than it ever was. In fact, corporate Japan was rather incestuous. Corporations invested in other corporations. Creating large vertical and horizontal conglomerates. And the banks were right there, too. Making questionable loans to corporations. To feed Japan Inc. To prop up this vast government/business machine. With the government right behind the banks to bail them out if anyone got in trouble.
Low Interest Rates caused Irrational Exuberance in the Stock and Real Estate Markets
As the Eighties dawned the service-oriented sector (wholesaling, retailing, finance, insurance, real estate, transportation, communications, etc.) grew. As did government. With a mature economy and loads of new jobs for highly educated college graduates consumption took off. And led the economy in the Eighties. Everyone was buying. And investing. Businesses were borrowing money at cheap rates and expanding capacity. And buying stocks. As was everyone. Banks were approving just about any loan regardless of risk. All that cheap money led to a boom in housing. Stock and house prices soared. As did debt. It was Keynesian economics at its best. Low interest rates encouraged massive consumption (which Keynesians absolutely love) and high investment. Government was partnering with business and produced the best of all possible worlds.
But those stock prices were getting way too high. As were those real estate prices. And it was all financed with massive amounts of debt. Massive bubbles financed by massive debt. A big problem. For those high prices weren’t based on value. It was inflation. Too much money in the economy. Which raised prices. And created a lot of irrational exuberance. Causing people to bid up prices for stocks and real estate into the stratosphere. Something Alan Greenspan would be saying a decade later during the dot-com boom in the United States. Bubbles are bombs just waiting to go off. And this one was a big one. Before it got too big the government tried to disarm it. By increasing interest rates. But it was too late.
We call it the business cycle. The boom-bust cycle between good times and bad. During the good times prices go up and supply rushes in to fill that demand. Eventually too many people rush in and supply exceeds demand. And prices then fall. The recession part of the business cycle. All normal and necessary in economics. And the quicker this happens the less painful the recession will be. But the higher you inflate prices the farther they must fall. And the Japanese really inflated those prices. So they had a long way to fall. And fall they did. For a decade. And counting. What the Japanese call their Lost Decade. A deflationary spiral that may still be continuing to this day.
As asset prices fell out of the stratosphere they became worth less than the debt used to buy them. (Sound familiar? This is what happened in the Subprime Mortgage Crisis.) Played hell with balance sheets throughout Japan Inc. A lot of debt went bad. And unpaid. Causing a lot problems for banks. As they injected capital into businesses too big to fail. To help them service the debt used for their bad investments. To keep them from defaulting on their loans. Consumption fell, too. Making all that corporate investment nothing but idle excess capacity. The government tried to stop the deflation by lowering interest rates. To stimulate some economic activity. And a lot of inflation. But the economy was in full freefall. (Albeit a slow freefall. Taking two decades and counting.) Bringing supply and prices back in line with real demand. Which no amount of cheap money was going to change. Even loans at zero percent.
Tags: Asian Tigers, asset bubbles, banks, bubbles, business cycle, cheap money, Chinese, consumption, corporations, crony capitalism, debt, deflationary spiral, demand, disciplined work force, Douglas MacArthur, Economics, Eighties, emerging economy, export market, Germany, house prices, human capital, inflation, interest rates, investing, irrational exuberance, Japan, Japan Inc., Japanese, Keynesian, loans, lost decade, low wages, Marshall Plan, mature economy, MITI, prices, real estate, recession, stocks, supply, Versailles Treaty, World War II
Week in Review
It takes a long time to build buildings. Especially tall ones. It takes large sums of money. Environmental impact studies. Lots of time to design it and produce contract documents. Then there’s the bidding process. Contracts. All of this before they even break ground. So it’s a very long process. Then the building starts. Which can take years. So that’s a lot of years between financing commitments and occupancy. This is why the construction industry is typically the last industry to enter a recession. And the last to emerge from a recession. So knowing this what can we learn from a skyscraper boom (see Skyscrapers ‘linked with impending financial crashes’ posted 1/10/2012 on BBC News Business)?
There is an “unhealthy correlation” between the building of skyscrapers and subsequent financial crashes, according to Barclays Capital…
“Often the world’s tallest buildings are simply the edifice of a broader skyscraper building boom, reflecting a widespread misallocation of capital and an impending economic correction,” Barclays Capital analysts said…
Investors should be most concerned about China, which is currently building 53% of all the tall buildings in the world, the bank said.
A lending boom following the global financial crisis in 2008 pushed prices higher in the world’s second largest economy.
In a separate report, JPMorgan Chase said that the Chinese property market could drop by as much as 20% in value in the country’s major cities within the next 12 to 18 months.
We get skyscraper booms during good economic times. When interest rates are low. And real estate bubbles are beginning to grow. Cheap money gives us housing booms and high housing prices. Then the inflation kicks in. Inflating those real estate bubbles. As inflation fears build they increase interest rates. This increases the cost of buying those new homes. Which, of course, leaves a lot of those new homes unsold. With more homes for sale that there are buyers looking to buy only one thing can happen. Prices fall. Bubbles burst. And recession sets in to correct prices.
While the economy collapses into recession those skyscrapers limp along. Too late to stop. And too costly to cancel. Instead they’ll complete them. On the exterior, at least. And there they’ll stand as monuments to the folly of cheap money. With thousands of square feet of empty office space. Or rents slashed to get enough people into them to at least pay for the maintenance of these great buildings.
China has some problems. Some big ones. They have a shrinking trade surplus thanks to the weak demand in Europe and America. Some inflation fears. And now what looks like a real estate bubble being primed to burst. Which may very well bring a recession China. And it will be an economic crash heard round the world.
Tags: building, cheap money, China, housing boom, housing prices, inflation, inflation fears, interest rates, real estate bubble, recession, recession indicator, skyscraper, skyscraper boom
Great Depression vs. Great Recession
Ben Bernanke is a genius. I guess. That’s what they keep saying at least.
The chairman of the Federal Reserve is a student of the Great Depression, that great lesson of how NOT to implement monetary policy. And because of his knowledge of this past great Federal Reserve boondoggle, who better to fix the present great Federal Reserve boondoggle? What we affectionately call the Great Recession.
There are similarities between the two. Government caused both. But there are differences. Bad fiscal policy brought on a recession in the 1920s. Then bad monetary policy exasperated the problem into the Great Depression.
Bad monetary policy played a more prominent role in the present crisis. It was a combination of cheap money and aggressive government policy to put people into houses they couldn’t afford that set off an international debt bomb. Thanks to Fannie Mae and Freddie Mac buying highly risky mortgages and selling them as ‘safe’ yet high-yield investments. Those rascally things we call derivatives.
The Great Depression suffered massive bank failures because the lender of last resort (the Fed) didn’t lend. In fact, they made it more difficult to borrow money when banks needed money most. Why did they do this? They thought rich people were using cheap money to invest in the stock market. So they made money more expensive to borrow to prevent this ‘speculation’.
The Great Recession suffered massive bank failures because people took on great debt in ideal times (low interest rates and increasing home values). When the ‘ideal’ became real (rising interest rates and falling home values), surprise surprise, these people couldn’t pay their mortgages anymore. And all those derivatives became worthless.
The Great Depression: Lessons Learned. And not Learned.
Warren G. Harding appointed Andrew Mellon as his Secretary of the Treasury. A brilliant appointment. The Harding administration cut taxes. The economy surged. Lesson learned? Lower taxes stimulate the economy. And brings more money into the treasury.
The Progressives in Washington, though, needed to buy votes. So they tinkered. They tried to protect American farmers from their own productivity. And American manufacturers. Also from their own productivity. Their protectionist policies led to tariffs and an international trade war. Lesson not learned? When government tinkers bad things happen to the economy.
Then the Fed stepped in. They saw economic activity. And a weakening dollar (low interest rates were feeding the economic expansion). So they strengthened the dollar. To keep people from ‘speculating’ in the stock money with borrowed money. And to meet international exchange rate requirements. This led to bank failures and the Great Depression. Lesson not learned? When government tinkers bad things happen to the economy.
Easy Money Begets Bad Debt which Begets Financial Crisis
It would appear that Ben Bernanke et al learned only some of the lessons of the Great Depression. In particular, the one about the Fed’s huge mistake in tightening the money supply. No. They would never do that again. Next time, they would open the flood gates (see Fed aid in financial crisis went beyond U.S. banks to industry, foreign firms by Jia Lynn Yang, Neil Irwin and David S. Hilzenrath posted 12/2/2010 on The Washington Post).
The financial crisis stretched even farther across the economy than many had realized, as new disclosures show the Federal Reserve rushed trillions of dollars in emergency aid not just to Wall Street but also to motorcycle makers, telecom firms and foreign-owned banks in 2008 and 2009.
The Fed’s efforts to prop up the financial sector reached across a broad spectrum of the economy, benefiting stalwarts of American industry including General Electric and Caterpillar and household-name companies such as Verizon, Harley-Davidson and Toyota. The central bank’s aid programs also supported U.S. subsidiaries of banks based in East Asia, Europe and Canada while rescuing money-market mutual funds held by millions of Americans.
The Fed learned its lesson. Their easy money gave us all that bad debt. And we all learned just how bad ‘bad debt’ can be. They wouldn’t make that mistake again.
The data also demonstrate how the Fed, in its scramble to keep the financial system afloat, eventually lowered its standards for the kind of collateral it allowed participating banks to post. From Citigroup, for instance, it accepted $156 million in triple-C collateral or lower – grades that indicate that the assets carried the greatest risk of default.
Well, maybe next time.
You Don’t Stop a Run by Starting a Run
With the cat out of the bag, people want to know who got these loans. And how much each got. But the Fed is not telling (see Fed ID’s companies that used crisis aid programs by Jeannine Aversa, AP Economics Writer, posted 12/1/2010 on Yahoo! News).
The Fed didn’t take part in that appeal. What the court case could require — but the Fed isn’t providing Wednesday — are the names of commercial banks that got low-cost emergency loans from the Fed’s “discount window” during the crisis.
The Fed has long acted as a lender of last resort, offering commercial banks loans through its discount window when they couldn’t obtain financing elsewhere. The Fed has kept secret the identities of such borrowers. It’s expressed fear that naming such a bank could cause a run on it, defeating the purpose of the program.
I can’t argue with that. For this was an important lesson of the Great Depression. When you’re trying to stop bank runs, you don’t advertise which banks are having financial problems. A bank can survive a run. If everyone doesn’t try to withdraw their money at the same time. Which they may if the Fed advertises that a bank is going through difficult times.
When Fiscal Responsibility Fails, Try Extortion
Why does government always tinker and get themselves into trouble? Because they like to spend money. And control things. No matter what the lessons of history have taught us.
Cutting taxes stimulate the economy. But it doesn’t buy votes. You need people to be dependent on government for that. So no matter what mess government makes, they NEVER fix their mess by shrinking government or cutting taxes. Even at the city level.
When over budget what does a city do? Why, they go to a favored tactic. Threaten our personal safety (see Camden City Council Approves Massive Police And Fire Layoffs Reported by David Madden, KYW Newsradio 1060, posted 12/2/2010 on philadelphia.cbslocal.com).
Camden City Council, as expected, voted Thursday to lay off almost 400 workers, half of them police officers and firefighters, to bridge a $26.5 million deficit.
There’s a word for this. And it’s not fiscal responsibility. Some would call it extortion.
It’s never the pay and benefits of the other city workers. It’s always the cops and firefighters. Why? Because cutting the pay and benefits of a bloated bureaucracy doesn’t put the fear of God into anyone.
Here we go Again
We never learn. And you know what George Santayana said. “Those who cannot remember the past are condemned to repeat it.” And here we are. Living in the past. Again.
Tags: aggressive government policy, bad debt, bad fiscal policy, bad monetary policy, bank, bank failures, bank runs, Ben Bernanke, buy votes, cheap money, cut taxes, derivatives, easy money, economic activity, economic expansion, extortion, Fannie Mae, Federal Reserve, financial crises, financial crisis, fiscal policy, fiscal responsibility, Freddie Mac, Great Depression, Great Recession, home values, interest rates, international debt bomb, international trade war, lender of last resort, lessons of history, lower taxes stimulate the economy, monetary policy, money supply, protectionist policies, recession, risky mortgages, stimulate the economy, tariffs, the Fed, weakening dollar
WHAT GAVE BIRTH to the Federal Reserve System and our current monetary policy? The Panic of 1907. Without going into the details, there was a liquidity crisis. The Knickerbocker Trust tried to corner the market in copper. But someone else dumped copper on the market which dropped the price. The trust failed. Because of the money involved, a lot of banks, too, failed. Depositors, scared, created bank runs. As banks failed, the money supply contracted. Businesses failed. The stock market crashed (losing 50% of its value). And all of this happened during an economic recession.
So, in 1913, Congress passed the Federal Reserve Act, creating the Federal Reserve System (the Fed). This was, basically, a central bank. It was to be a bank to the banks. A lender of last resort. It would inject liquidity into the economy during a liquidity crisis. Thus ending forever panics like that in 1907. And making the business cycle (the boom – bust economic cycles) a thing of the past.
The Fed has three basic monetary tools. How they use these either increases or decreases the money supply. And increases or decreases interest rates.
They can change reserve requirements for banks. The more reserves banks must hold the less they can lend. The less they need to hold the more they can lend. When they lend more, they increase the money supply. When they lend less, they decrease the money supply. The more they lend the easier it is to get a loan. This decreases interest rates (i.e., lowers the ‘price’ of money). The less they lend the harder it is to get a loan. This increases interest rates (i.e., raises the ‘price’ of money).
The Fed ‘manages’ the money supply and the interest rates in two other ways. They buy and sell U.S. Treasury securities. And they adjust the discount rate they charge member banks to borrow from them. Each of these actions either increases or decreases the money supply and/or raises or lowers interest rates. The idea is to make money easier to borrow when the economy is slow. This is supposed to make it easier for businesses to expand production and hire people. If the economy is overheating and there is a risk of inflation, they take the opposite action. They make it more difficult to borrow money. Which increases the cost of doing business. Which slows the economy. Lays people off. Which avoids inflation.
The problem with this is the invisible hand that Adam Smith talked about. In a laissez-faire economy, no one person or one group controls anything. Instead, millions upon millions of people interact with each other. They make millions upon millions of decisions. These are informed decisions in a free market. At the heart of each decision is a buyer and a seller. And they mutually agree in this decision making process. The buyer pays at least as much as the seller wants. The seller sells for at least as little as the buyer wants. If they didn’t, they would not conclude their sales transaction. When we multiply this basic transaction by the millions upon millions of people in the market place, we arrive at that invisible hand. Everyone looking out for their own self-interest guides the economy as a whole. The bad decisions of a few have no affect on the economy as a whole.
Now replace the invisible hand with government and what do you get? A managed economy. And that’s what the Fed does. It manages the economy. It takes the power of those millions upon millions of decisions and places them into the hands of a very few. And, there, a few bad decisions can have a devastating impact upon the economy.
TO PAY FOR World War I, Woodrow Wilson and his Progressives heavily taxed the American people. The war left America with a huge debt. And in a recession. During the 1920 election, the Democrats ran on a platform of continued high taxation to pay down the debt. Andrew Mellon, though, had done a study of the rich in relation to those high taxes. He found the higher the tax, the more the rich invested outside the country. Instead of building factories and employing people, they took their money to places less punishing to capital.
Warren G. Harding won the 1920 election. And he appointed Andrew Mellon his Treasury secretary. Never since Alexander Hamilton had a Treasury secretary understood capitalism as well. The Harding administration cut tax rates and the amount of tax money paid by the ‘rich’ more than doubled. Economic activity flourished. Businesses expanded and added jobs. The nation modernized with the latest technologies (electric power and appliances, radio, cars, aviation, etc.). One of the best economies ever. Until the Fed got involved.
The Fed looked at this economic activity and saw speculation. So they contracted the money supply. This made it hard for business to expand to meet the growing demand. When money is less readily available, you begin to stockpile what you have. You add to that pile by selling liquid securities to build a bigger cash cushion to get you through tight monetary times.
Of course, the economy is NOT just monetary policy. Those businesses were looking at other things the government was doing. The Smoot-Hartley tariff was in committee. Across the board tariff increases and import restrictions create uncertainty. Business does not like uncertainty. So they increase their liquidity. To prepare for the worse. Then the stock market crashed. Then it got worse.
It is at this time that the liquidity crisis became critical. Depositors lost faith. Bank runs followed. But there just was not enough money available. Banks began to fail. Time for the Fed to step in and take action. Per the Federal Reserve Act of 1913. But they did nothing. For a long while. Then they took action. And made matters worse. They raised interest rates. In response to England going off the gold standard (to prop up the dollar). Exactly the wrong thing to do in a deflationary spiral. This took a bad recession to the Great Depression. The 1930s would become a lost decade.
When FDR took office, he tried to fix things with some Keynesian spending. But nothing worked. High taxes along with high government spending sucked life out of the private sector. This unprecedented growth in government filled business with uncertainty. They had no idea what was coming next. So they hunkered down. And prepared to weather more bad times. It took a world war to end the Great Depression. And only because the government abandoned much of its controls and let business do what they do best. Pure, unfettered capitalism. American industry came to life. It built the war material to first win World War II. Then it rebuilt the war torn countries after the war.
DURING THE 1980s, in Japan, government was partnering with business. It was mercantilism at its best. Japan Inc. The economy boomed. And blew great big bubbles. The Keynesians in America held up the Japanese model as the new direction for America. An American presidential candidate said we must partner government with business, too. For only a fool could not see the success of the Japanese example. Japan was growing rich. And buying up American landmarks (including Rockefeller Center in New York). National Lampoon magazine welcomed us to the 90s with a picture of a Japanese CEO at his desk. He was the CEO of the United States of America, a wholly owned subsidiary of the Honda Motor Company. The Japanese were taking over the world. And we were stupid not to follow their lead.
But there was no invisible hand in Japan. It was the hand of Japan Inc. It was Japan Inc. that pursued economic policies that it thought best. Not the millions upon millions of ordinary Japanese citizens. Well, Japan Inc. thought wrong.
There was collusion between Japanese businesses. And collusion between Japanese businesses and government. And corruption. This greatly inflated the Japanese stock market. And those great big bubbles finally burst. The powerful Japan Inc. of the 1980s that caused fear and trembling was gone. Replaced by a Japan in a deflationary spiral in the 1990s. Or, as the Japanese call it, their lost decade. This once great Asian Tiger was now an older tiger with a bit of a limp. And the economy limped along for a decade or two. It was still number 3 in the world, but it wasn’t what it used to be. You don’t see magazine covers talking about it owning other nations any more. (In 2010, China took over that #3 spot. But China is a managed economy. Will it suffer Japan’s fate? Time will tell.)
The Japanese monetary authorities tried to fix the economy. Interest rates were zero for about a decade. In other words, if you wanted to borrow, it was easy. And free. But it didn’t help. That huge economic expansion wasn’t real. Business and government, in collusion, inflated and propped it up. It gave them inflated capacity. And prices. And you don’t solve that problem by making it easier for businesses to borrow money to expand capacity and create jobs. That’s the last thing they need. What they need to do is to get out of the business of managing business. Create a business-friendly climate. Based on free-market principles. Not mercantilism. And let that invisible hand work its wonders.
MONETARY POLICY CAN do a lot of things. Most of them bad. Because it concentrates far too much power in too few hands. The consequences of the mistakes of those making policy can be devastating. And too tempting to those who want to use those powers for political reasons. As we can see by Keynesian ‘stimulus’ spending that ends up as pork barrel spending. The empirical data for that spending has shown that it stimulates only those who are in good standing with the powers that be. Never the economy.
Sound money is important. The money supply needs to keep pace with economic expansion. If it doesn’t, a tight money supply will slow or halt economic activity. But we have to use monetary policy for that purpose only. We cannot use it to offset bad fiscal policy that is anti-business. For if the government creates an anti-business environment, no amount of cheap money will encourage risk takers to take risks in a highly risky and uncertain environment. Decades were lost trying.
No, you don’t stimulate with monetary policy. You stimulate with fiscal policy. There is empirical evidence that this works. The Mellon tax cuts of the Harding administration created nearly a decade of strong economic growth. The tax cuts of JFK were on pace to create similar growth until his assassination. LBJ’s policies were in the opposite direction, thus ending the economic recovery of the JFK administration. Ronald Reagan’s tax cuts produced economic growth through two decades.
THE EVIDENCE IS there. If you look at it. Of course, a good Keynesian won’t. Because it’s about political power for them. Always has been. Always will be. And we should never forget this.
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