Suffolk Resolves, Galloway Plan of Union, Olive Branch Petition, Proclamation of Rebellion, Prohibitory Act, Common Sense and Declaration of Independence

Posted by PITHOCRATES - March 8th, 2012

Politics 101

In Response to the Declaration of Rights and Grievances George III condemned Massachusetts and the Suffolk Resolves

The Boston Tea Party (1773) and the subsequent passing of the Intolerable/Coercive Acts (1774) brought the several states together in Congress.  John Adams, Samuel Adams, Joseph Galloway, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington and other delegates from every state (except Georgia) convened the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September of 1774.  It sat for two months.  And began with a vote to endorse the Suffolk Resolves.  The Suffolk Resolves opposed the British oppression entailed in the Intolerable/Coercive Acts.  In Massachusetts.  (Other colonies passed similar resolves.)  The resolves included a boycott of British goods.  Demanded the resignation of the Crown’s representatives that displaced the elected colonial government.   They supported a new colonial government free from the Crown.  Refused to pay any further taxes until this happened.  And urged for the several states to raise militias.  But they did not talk of independence.  The Resolves even declared their loyalty to the British Crown.  Still, after learning of this action King George III said, “The die is cast.”

Joseph Galloway introduced the Galloway Plan of Union.  Calling for a federal union of the several states.  Where the king would appoint a president general.  Advised by a grand council.  With a representative from each state.  Chosen by each state’s legislative body.  A system of self-government.  But one still loyal to the Crown.  A move that made the British colonies more independent of the British Crown.  But not independent from the British Crown.  The Americans were to remain British Americans.  Subjects of the greatest country in the world.  The present trouble in Boston notwithstanding.  For Great Britain was the only constitutional monarchy at the time.  And the bastion of individual liberty.  Which the Americans were looking forward to enjoying once the present misunderstandings passed.  After a lengthy debate, the Galloway Plan of Union failed to pass.  But it wouldn’t be the last talk of union.

They then adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances.  Full of a lot of language the English used years earlier to redress previous issues with the Crown.  And some of the same words of the Enlightenment thinkers they used.  From Thomas Hobbes they wrote of their ‘right to life’.  From John Locke the ‘right to liberty and property’ and ‘ruling by the consent of those governed’.  From Baron Charles de Montesquieu the ‘separation of powers’ that eventually found its way into our Constitution.  They sent off their declarations and petitions to London.  Adjourned Congress.  Agreed to reconvene the following May if necessary.  And waited for King George to reply.  He gave it in Parliament in November.  In a speech to Parliament.  Where he condemned Massachusetts.  And the Suffolk Resolves.  Not the answer they were hoping for.  No.  Their king was not going to save the Americans from the hostile acts of Parliament.  Instead he was going to present a unified British opposition (King and Parliament) against these British subjects.  The once loyal British Americans were running out of reasons to remain loyal to the British Crown.  All they needed was one more push.

Thomas Paine’s Common Sense provided the Final Push towards Independence

The following April the battles of Lexington and Concord took place.  There was a shooting war, now.  With the Americans following the British back to Boston and laying siege.  The patriotic spirit was high.  And such was the spirit when the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in May of 1775.  Independence was in the air.  John Adams wanted it.  But kept quiet.  They prepared for war.  Choosing George Washington to lead them in war.  But this was plan ‘B’.  Plan ‘A’ was still reconciliation.  And to remain British.  Which is what many wanted.  Even Washington wasn’t all that keen on independence.  He detested the acts of Parliament.  But he and his officers were still toasting the health of the King at this time. 

John Dickinson led the reconciliation group in Congress.  And they drafted (with the help of Thomas Jefferson) the Olive Branch Petition.  Addressed to the King.  Expressing their desire to remain loyal to His Majesty.  All that they wanted was to redress these tax and trade issues.  That’s all.  Dickinson had hoped with the bloodshed at Lexington and Concord and a little bit of groveling the King would at least meet them halfway.  Open up the channels of dialog.  Settle their differences without additional bloodshed.  Which just exasperated John Adams.  He thought it was a waste of time.  That  independence was inevitable.  And he vented these feelings in a private letter.  That the British got hold of.  Arriving in London about the same time as did the Olive Branch Petition.  And after reading Adams’ letter George III refused to even read the petition.  His response was the Proclamation of Rebellion.  Issued in August.  Declaring that some of the British American colonies were in a state of ‘open and avowed rebellion’.  And followed that up with the Prohibitory Act in December.  Which placed a naval blockade against all American ports.  And declared all American shipping enemies of the British Crown.  An act of war.  To which the Americans responded by issuing letters of marque to privateers, authorizing them by an act of Congress to capture British ships.  John Adams declared that King George had declared what the Americans had not yet declared.  That the American colonies were independent.  Putting the Americans ever closer to declaring their independence.

Then came that final push.  In the form of a pamphlet.  Very popular reading during the time.  It was because of these pamphlets that most Americans knew of the ideas of Hobbes, Locke and Montesquieu.  Where their ideas were presented in the language of the common man.  Then came along an author who wrote from the get-go in the language of the common man.  Thomas Paine.  Who wrote Common Sense.  Published in January 1776.  Which tore into the King.  And the whole system of hereditary monarchy.  Blamed George III for all the wrongs done to the Americans.  Making a strong and impassioned case for independence.  Without further delay.  That fired up Patriots everywhere.  Providing that final push.

The Several States united in Treason and became the United States of America

During the spring of 1776 states began discussing independence.  Some authorized their delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence.  Others need more prodding.  On June 11, 1776 the Continental Congress appointed John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Robert R. Livingston of New York and Roger Sherman of Connecticut to draft a declaration of independence.  The Committee of Five.  The committee (including Jefferson) wanted Adams to write it.  Adams wanted Jefferson to write it.  Because he was a Virginian.  Someone more distant from the passions in Massachusetts.  And was rather likeable.  Unlike Adams.  And Jefferson was pretty good with the quill.  Eloquent.  And had a flair for words.

John Dickinson still argued for reconciliation.  Adams argued for independence.  The debate heated up. The New York legislation had to flee from the British advance in New York.  So they could not authorize their delegates to vote for independence.  Dickinson couldn’t agree to let Pennsylvanian vote for independence.  But he agreed to abstain.  It came down to a tie.  Until Caesar Rodney rushed in from Delaware just in time to vote for independence.  And on July 2, 1776, they committed the final act of treason.  And voted the American colonies independent of the British Crown.  Then put their name to the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, 1776.  Or some of them.  The others adding their names some time thereafter.

The several states became united.  In treason.  A confederacy of independent states joined in union.  Not quite along the lines of the Galloway plan.  But in union nonetheless.  Now locked in mortal combat with the world’s greatest superpower.  To escape their oppression.  In order to win the same liberty and freedom enjoyed by the subjects of that very same superpower.  For in the end that’s all the Americans wanted.  And had King George redressed their grievances instead of choosing to punish them everyone would have lived happily ever after as British subjects.  But he didn’t.  And we now remember him as the British king that lost America.

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Oliver Cromwell, New Model Army, Charles II, the Restoration, British Army, Colonial Empire, Townshend Acts and the Boston Massacre

Posted by PITHOCRATES - February 23rd, 2012

Politics 101

The Restoration brought Charles II to the Throne and gave him a Standing Army

Before the English Civil War there were no standing armies in England.  During Medieval times everyone was a soldier.  A ‘citizen’ soldier.  Fighting in a part-time militia.  You answered your lord’s call “to arms.”  Fought.  Usually to protect your lord’s land from intruders.  Or to join a higher noble or king to fight an opposing noble or king.  But mostly you fought near your home.  And when you were done fighting you went back to your day job.  If you survived.  The sooner the better because there was usually a lot of work to do.  And family to take care of.  But this all changed during the English Civil War.  Thanks to Prince Rupert of the Rhine.  A dashing cavalier commander and veteran of some European fighting.  He brought his professional military skills to England.  And fought for his uncle, King Charles I, during the English Civil War.

His skill won a lot of battles for Charles I.  And impressed Oliver Cromwell.  Who was fighting for Parliament.  So impressed him that he copied from Prince Rupert.  And created the New Model Army.  A professional army.  Trained.  Well disciplined.  And paid.  That fought anywhere.  Ultimately winning the war for Parliament.  Then marching on London for back pay.  They held the power.  And installed Oliver Cromwell as Lord Protector of the new commonwealth (no monarchy or hereditary power).  Who used the New Model Army to keep the peace.  Rather brutally.  Especially in Ireland.  Where they had no family.  And had no problem in being brutal.

After Cromwell executed his father, Charles I, the Scots crowned Charles II king.  For Charles I was a Scott.  And they were none too pleased that the English killed him.  Charles marched south and tried to restore the monarchy.  Failed.  And Cromwell chased him all the way to France.  Where he lived during the English commonwealth.  In Louis XIV’s court.  An absolute monarchy.  The way it used to be in England.  Before Parliament.  And King Louis had something new.  A standing army.  Even in times of peace.  And the French people didn’t bitch about the costs.  Like Parliament did about every cost the royals incurred.  When Cromwell died his son inherited his office of Lord Protector.  So much for the elimination of heredity power.  But he was weak.  Couldn’t control the army.  And didn’t last.  Without a better option they talked to Charles II.  Who said he would offer some pardons if they made him king.  He would not seek any retribution for the killing of his dad.  And he’d pay the army.  And that fast England (and Scotland and Ireland) had a king again.  (The Restoration.)  And a standing army.

The British Subjects in North America did not have the same Rights as British Subjects in Great Britain

The British put that army to use during the 18th century.  Fighting a lot of wars.  In Europe.  And elsewhere.  With lots of soldiers serving garrison duty throughout the world to protect their colonial interests.  Costing a pretty penny.  The very reason why people don’t like standing armies.  They’re very costly.  In war.  As well as in peace.  Especially the peace that followed the Seven Years’ War (1756-1763).  Great Britain won a lot of colonial land from the French.  Particularly in North America.  Where French Quebec became British.  Giving the British nearly the entire North American continent.  Full of Native Americans none too happy with the outcome of the Seven Years’ War.  (Chief Pontiac of the Ottawa nearly threw the British out in 1763.)  Or their French Allies.  And the job of keeping the peace fell to the British Army.  Those infamous Red coats.

During the 18th century Great Britain was a constitutional monarchy with a representative government.  The king was still sovereign but he ruled with the consent of Parliament.  And their money.  During this time William Pitt the Elder, British Secretary of State, had built up a large and prosperous colonial empire.  Over this century the balance of power tilted away from Spain and France and towards Great Britain.  The Seven Years’ War in particular ended economically favorable for the British at the expense of the French.  This meant a lot of money for those in commerce.  Which made the taxpayers agreeable to some of these military costs.  But at the same time this last war left Great Britain broke and in debt.  Worse, she needed a larger military to garrison all that territory she had just won.  And those taxpayers, represented in Parliament, weren’t going to say yes to any more taxes.  Because they could.  In constitutional Great Britain there was no taxation without the consent of those British subjects taxed.  Well, for some of those British subjects.

The British subjects in North America did not have the same rights as British subjects in Great Britain.  The British Empire needed revenue.  And Parliament turned to the American colonies to collect it.  Without their consent.  Something not allowed by the Bill of Rights.  A 1689 act of English Parliament.  So the British Americans took some offense.  And then the anti-American legislation came.  The Sugar Act of 1764 taxing sugar.  The Quartering Act of 1765 forcing Americans to provide quarters for and to feed British troops.  The Stamp Act of 1765 taxing printed materials.  The Declaratory Act of 1766 which repealed the Stamp Act due to fierce opposition but made all laws passed by Parliament legal and binding in the colonies.  The Townshend Acts starting in 1767 which tried to make the taxes more palatable by taxing only imports.  They didn’t.  It also raised revenue for the British to pay judges and custom officials to keep them loyal to the distant Crown rather than the local populace.  The Commissioners of Customs Act of 1767 that established an administrative board to enforce these new acts.  Headquartered in Boston.  America’s leading port.  This caused a lot of resentment and open hostility to the Crown’s representatives in Boston.  To protect them and to maintain order the British occupied Boston in 1768.  Sending in the Red coats.

Parliament sued for Peace after Cornwallis surrendered in Yorktown because the War had grown too Costly to Continue 

This was all very un-English.  Not since the days of the New Model Army had English subjects lived under the tyranny of a standing army.  A very costly standing army.  Paid for by all of those revenue acts.  So here they were.  British subjects.  Who lost centuries of hard-earned rights.  Some going back to Magna Carta in 1215.  While their British brethren were living under a constitutional monarchy in Great Britain.  Enjoying all of their rights.  Where life in North America was turning into an absolute monarchy.  Like their most hated enemy.  The French.

This all boiled over in Boston in 1770.  Beginning with a British sentry.  Some kid forced to stand guard among a hostile populace.  It started with a misunderstanding.  But the hatred of the British helped to escalate it.  Until a mob had gathered.  Taunting the sentry to fire his weapon.  British reinforcements arrived.  Someone struck and knocked down a private.  Who grabbed his weapon and fired.  Then other shots rang out.   Even though the commanding officer did not give the order to fire.  Killing 3.  And wounding 8.  The infamous Boston Massacre.  Patriot and future Founding Father John Adams actually represented the British in court.  Where they got a fair trial.  And the case Adams presented convinced a Boston jury to find most of those on trial not guilty.  Including the commanding officer.  Which was the last act of civility between these two British peoples.

Hostilities would only grow.  And within 5 years there would be a shooting war.  That would take 8 years before a peace would finally end it.  A war won, interestingly, not by a part-time militia.  But by a professional standing army.  That thing the Americans so hated.  But whose very existence prevented an American defeat.  Something General George Washington fully understood.  Who may have lost more battles than he won.  But he won the most important battle of them all.  Keeping that army in the field.  Until the point where Parliament said enough was enough.  Sinking ever further into debt they sued for peace after Cornwallis surrendered in Yorktown.  The war had simply grown too costly to continue.  And the taxpayers no longer gave their consent to continue to pay for it.

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