Week in Review
Before the Americans declared their independence from Great Britain they tried to reconcile their differences with Great Britain. For many believed Great Britain had the greatest form of government in the world. A constitutional monarchy. The form of government that vaulted the British Empire into a superpower. And gave her people more rights and liberties than any nation in the world.
The Americans, rather, the British Americans, were proud to be British. And would have remained proud members of the British Crown had it not been for the immense cost of the Seven Years’ War. That the Parliament tried to pay for by taxing the American colonists. For all the British Crown did to protect the Americans from the French and their Indian allies. Not asking for much, really. But the British taxpayers in Great Britain had representation in Parliament. And had a say in that taxation. But the British living in North America were not given that British right. Which was the source of all the friction between the British Americans and Great Britain. And what brought them to war.
Some of the fighting in the American Revolutionary War was brutal. But the worst of it was between Patriot and Loyalist. American against American. In the civil war that raged in the South. Which is why the United States and Great Britain resumed relations following the war. There had plenty of issues but the post-war relationship was far better than any other nation that fought a civil war. Why? Because there is a Special Relationship between the British and the Americans. We come from the same stock. We share the same values. And traditions. The countries around the world that were once part of the British Empire are some of the most advanced nations in the world. And their people have some of the greatest rights and liberties in the world today. All because of our British past.
We may never bow to British Royalty again. Because of our history. But we can embrace the Royal Family. Just as the British do. For it is their tradition. And a deep part of their glorious history. As it is ours. So we welcome the future king into the world. We wish the best for him and the Royal Family. And the British people. Joining them in spirit when they shout God Save the King (see America’s embrace of the Royal Family demonstrates the enduring strength of the Special Relationship by Nile Gardiner posted 7/23/2013 on The Telegraph).
Despite the lukewarm and often insulting approach of the Obama administration towards Britain over the past four and a half years, the Special Relationship between the United States and Great Britain remains extraordinarily strong in terms of defence, intelligence, cultural and trade ties, and is uniquely important to the American people. No other nation in the world holds a place in American hearts as special as Great Britain. And Americans hold an overwhelmingly positive view of the British Royal Family. The most recent poll conducted in the United States on the British Monarchy – a CBS/New York Times poll back in April 2011 – showed that 71 percent of Americans believe the Royal family “is a good thing” for the British people, with only 15 percent against. In the same poll, the Queen held a 61 percent approval rating, at the time about 15 points higher than that of the US president.
There are defeatists who argue that Britain hardly matters anymore to the world’s superpower, and that the UK can only maintain influence in Washington through the lens of the EU. The huge US interest today in events thousands of miles away in London, and the tremendous support for the Royal Family suggests that the Special Relationship is far from dead. With good reason Americans admire the British for their uncompromising defence of tradition, their warrior spirit, and their willingness to uphold national sovereignty.
Britain matters. And if the Eurozone collapsed as well as the EU they will matter more. Thanks to Margaret Thatcher. Who reversed their slide into Socialism. Unlike other European nations. And of late, the United States. Sadly.
President Obama insults our greatest friend and ally because Britain bucks the socializing of Europe. Britain is often the lone rational voice in the European Parliament. Currently that voice belongs to Daniel Hannan. Who knows the history of Britain. The United States. And our Special Relationship. Which is conservative. Not liberal. Which is why the Special Relationship is anathema to a liberal like President Obama.
God save the future king. The queen. The United States of America. And our Special Relationship.
Tags: American, American Revolutionary War, Britain, British, British Americans, British Crown, British Empire, British Royalty, God Save the King, Great Britain, liberties, North America, Parliament, President Obama, Revolutionary War, rights, Royal Family, Special Relationship, tax
The French claimed great Territories in the New World but they did not Settle them nor could they Defend Them
In the Age of Discovery the Old World discovered the New World. The Portuguese bumped into Brazil while sailing around Africa. And they stayed awhile. Which explains how the language from tiny Portugal is one of the top ten spoken languages in the world today. Because of Brazil. Population 205,716,890 in 2012. The Spanish pretty much discovered and settled the rest of South and Central America. Working their way up the Pacific coast of North America. And into Mexico, Texas and Florida. Because of this Spanish is now the 4th most spoken language in the world. The British discovered and settled North America east of the Appalachians between Maine and Georgia. They also settled parts of Canada south of the Hudson Bay. And some of the Maritime Provinces. Today English is the 2nd most spoken language in the world. The French also came to the New World. But they weren’t as successful. Today French is only the 10th most spoken language in the world.
The Age of Discovery was also the age of mercantilism. Which is why the Old World was racing to settle the New World. So they could establish colonies. And ship back raw materials to the mother country. And in Spain’s case, all the gold and silver they could find. Which they found a lot of. Mercantilism is a zero-sum game. To maximize the export of manufactured goods. And to maximize the import of raw materials and bullion. To always maintain a positive balance of trade. And whoever had the most overseas colonies sending raw material back to the mother country won. And as they expanded throughout the New World they eventually began to bump into each other. As well as the Native Americans. Who weren’t mercantilists. But hunters and gatherers. Like all Europeans were some 5,000 years or so earlier. Before they became farmers. Moved into cities. Where they took control of their environment. And became more efficient. Growing ever larger populations on smaller tracts of land. Which proved to be a great threat to the Indians. For when these Europeans took their land they also increased their numbers. Greatly. And this fast growing population had the latest in war-fighting technology.
Soon they were stepping on each others’ toes in the New World. The British and the Spanish north of Florida. The British and the French between the Mississippi River and the Appalachians. In New Brunswick. And large parts of Ontario and Quebec. A lot more territory was in dispute between the British and the French. And that’s because the French claimed so much territory in North America. Their claims included the lands around the St. Lawrence Seaway. All the land around the Great Lakes. And pretty much the total watershed into the Mississippi River. The French had profitable business in the fur trade. They used the rivers in North America for that trade. With a few forts scattered along the way. Where they traded with the Indians. But the big difference between the French and everyone else is that the French claimed the land. But they didn’t settle it. Which made the Native Americans tolerate them more than the other Europeans in the New World. But in the days of the mercantilist empires that was a problem. Because everyone wanted everyone else’s land. And if it wasn’t settled with large and growing populations, someone else was just going to take it.
The Proclamation of 1763 and the Quebec Act of 1774 tried to make Peace with the Indians but Inflamed the Americans
And that’s what happened in the French and Indian War (1754–1763). The European powers came into conflict with each other over their North American territories. The British came out the big winners. And the French were the big losers. Losing pretty much everything east of the Mississippi to the British. And everything west of the Mississippi to Spain. The various Indian tribes fought alongside the various European powers. But it is the fighting on the side of the French that we know them for in this war. Where their fighting against the British Americans was some of the cruelest fighting in the war. For the Indians liked the non-settling ways of the French. While they didn’t care for the settling ways of the American colonists at all. Who kept encroaching on their hunting grounds. So at the conclusion of the French and Indian War the Native Americans were restless. Something the British were keenly aware of. And after the long and expensive war they just fought they didn’t want a return to hostilities. So King George III issued the Royal Proclamation of 1763. Setting the border between the British American colonists and the Indian lands along the watershed of Appalachia. Lands where the rivers flowed to the Atlantic Ocean were the American colonists’ lands. Lands where the rivers flowed into the Mississippi River and its tributaries (east of the Mississippi) were Indian lands.
This did not go very well with the American colonists. For they planned to expand west until they could expand west no further. At the shore of the Pacific Ocean. Especially Virginia. Who wanted to expand into Kentucky. And into the Ohio Country (across the Ohio River from Kentucky). Before the Proclamation of 1763 could even go into affect the Indians rose up in the Great Lakes region, the Illinois Country and Ohio Country. Where the British displaced the French. Pontiac’s Rebellion (1763–66). A rather nasty and brutal war where the Indians killed women and children as well as prisoners. And the British used biological warfare against the Indians. Giving the Indians smallpox-infested blankets. In 1774 Parliament passed the Quebec Act. Which did a lot to further annoy the American colonists. Especially that part about extending the province of Quebec (the former French territory from Labrador all the way to the Great Lakes region) south into the Ohio and Illinois country. Many lumped the Quebec act in with the Intolerable Acts of 1774 which were to punish the colonists for the Boston Tea Party. All these acts of Parliament and proclamations of the Crown failed in one of their main objects. Maintaining the peace on the frontier. One year later there was another shooting war in North America. And this one did not end well for the British.
The American Revolutionary War evolved into a World War. Once the Americans defeated a British army at Saratoga the French joined the American cause and declared war on Great Britain. Eager to get back their North American territories. The Spanish would join the French in alliance and declared war on Great Britain. Primarily to settle some old scores in the Old World as opposed to helping the American cause. They had the lands west of the Mississippi and control of that same river. They had no desire to see the Americans advance any further west. In fact, they wanted to expand their territory at the expense of both the Americans and the British. The Indians, meanwhile, saw the Americans as the greatest threat and allied with their two-time past enemy. The British.
The Indians were Little More than Bystanders while the Europeans Traded their Land with each Other
The war in the frontier lands of the West was as nasty and brutal as ever. The British coordinated their war effort against the Americans from their frontier outposts. Where they traded with their Indian allies. Some even paying the Indians for each scalp they brought back from their raids. And so the Indians crossed the Ohio River into Kentucky. Throughout the war. And attacked these frontier settlements. While the Americans fought a defensive war. Until one man arose. Who believed the strongest defense was a strong offense. And he took the war to the Indians and the British in the West. Saving Kentucky. And conquered the Northwest Territory.
George Rogers Clark’s plan for conquering the Northwest was bold. First take Vincennes (in southern Indiana near the Illinois border). Travel up the Wabash River. Down the Maumee River. And then on to Detroit. After taking Detroit head north to Michilimackinac (on the northern tip of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula). The Virginian authorities liked the plan. And commissioned him colonel in the Virginian forces. And authorized him to conquer the Northwest. For Virginia. So Clark led his men down the Ohio River. And traveled all the way to Kaskaskia near the Mississippi River in southern Illinois. Not far from St. Louis. Took it. And marched to Vincennes. And took Fort Sackville at Vincennes. Shortly thereafter Henry Hamilton (who had a reputation for buying scalps from the Indians), governor of Detroit, Left Detroit and headed to Vincennes. Gathering Indians along the way. Recaptured Vincennes. Then Clark returned and in one of the most fabled actions of the entire Revolutionary War took back Vincennes. Despite the British and Indians greatly outnumbering Clark’s force. Detroit lay open. But Clark did not have the men or provisions for that conquest.
Meanwhile the Spanish were looking to cash in on their alliance with France. And moved against British outposts from New Orleans. Taking Baton Rouge. Natchez. Mobile. And Pensacola. To turn back the Spanish Governor Sinclair of Michilimackinac gathered a force and headed to the Spanish outpost St. Louis. With the ultimate goal of taking New Orleans. It did not go well. The following year the Spanish launched an offensive of their own to take Detroit. They got as far as St. Joseph on the other side of Michigan’s Lower Peninsula. Around the bottom of Lake Michigan from Chicago. A lot of land changed hands in the Northwest. But thanks to Clark much of it remained in American hands at the end of the war. Who came out the big winners in this war. The British ceded all their claims east of the Mississippi to the Americans. Including all of the Illinois and Ohio country. Including Michigan and the lands surrounding the Great Lakes south of Canada. The French did not drive the peace as they had hoped. And recovered none of their North American territories. The Spanish emerged with pretty much what they had when they entered. Only with the Americans across the Mississippi instead of the British. Who were much more interested in westward expansion than the British. But they didn’t have to worry about the Americans crossing the Mississippi. For Napoleon strong-armed the Louisiana Territory from the French in exchange for some land in Tuscany. Who would later sell it to the Americans. While being rather vague on the exact boundaries. Which the Spanish would have to worry about in the years to come as the Americans headed west. Towards Spanish country on the west coast.
Of course the Indians were the greatest losers. For they were little more than bystanders while the Europeans traded their land with each other. Making the Native Americans ever more restless. And unwilling to give up their hunting and gathering ways. Which sealed their faith. For while they retreated west the American population exploded. Due to their efficient use of the land. It was the New World against the Very Old World. Modern farming civilizations displaced the hunters and gatherers everywhere in the world. A trend that started some 5,000 years earlier. And the history of North America would be no different. The Indian ways since then have been fast disappearing. The Indian languages were so rarely spoken in the 20th century that the code based on it was the one code the Japanese couldn’t crack during World War II.
Tags: Age of Discovery, American cause, American Revolutionary War, Americans, Appalachia, Appalachian, Britain, British, British Americans, Clark, colonies, Detroit, English, Europeans, France, French, French and Indian War, frontier, frontier outposts, George Rogers Clark, Great Britain, Great Lakes, hunters and gatherers, hunting grounds, Illinois country, Indian allies, Indians, Kentucky, Louisiana Territory, Lower Peninsula, mercantilism, Michilimackinac, Mississippi, Mississippi River, Native Americans., New Orleans, New World, North America, Northwest Territory, Ohio Country, Ohio River, Old World, Parliament, Proclamation of 1763, Quebec, Quebec Act, Quebec Act of 1774, Revolutionary War, Spain, Spanish, St. Louis, Vincennes, Virginia
In Response to the Declaration of Rights and Grievances George III condemned Massachusetts and the Suffolk Resolves
The Boston Tea Party (1773) and the subsequent passing of the Intolerable/Coercive Acts (1774) brought the several states together in Congress. John Adams, Samuel Adams, Joseph Galloway, Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, George Washington and other delegates from every state (except Georgia) convened the Continental Congress in Philadelphia in September of 1774. It sat for two months. And began with a vote to endorse the Suffolk Resolves. The Suffolk Resolves opposed the British oppression entailed in the Intolerable/Coercive Acts. In Massachusetts. (Other colonies passed similar resolves.) The resolves included a boycott of British goods. Demanded the resignation of the Crown’s representatives that displaced the elected colonial government. They supported a new colonial government free from the Crown. Refused to pay any further taxes until this happened. And urged for the several states to raise militias. But they did not talk of independence. The Resolves even declared their loyalty to the British Crown. Still, after learning of this action King George III said, “The die is cast.”
Joseph Galloway introduced the Galloway Plan of Union. Calling for a federal union of the several states. Where the king would appoint a president general. Advised by a grand council. With a representative from each state. Chosen by each state’s legislative body. A system of self-government. But one still loyal to the Crown. A move that made the British colonies more independent of the British Crown. But not independent from the British Crown. The Americans were to remain British Americans. Subjects of the greatest country in the world. The present trouble in Boston notwithstanding. For Great Britain was the only constitutional monarchy at the time. And the bastion of individual liberty. Which the Americans were looking forward to enjoying once the present misunderstandings passed. After a lengthy debate, the Galloway Plan of Union failed to pass. But it wouldn’t be the last talk of union.
They then adopted a Declaration of Rights and Grievances. Full of a lot of language the English used years earlier to redress previous issues with the Crown. And some of the same words of the Enlightenment thinkers they used. From Thomas Hobbes they wrote of their ‘right to life’. From John Locke the ‘right to liberty and property’ and ‘ruling by the consent of those governed’. From Baron Charles de Montesquieu the ‘separation of powers’ that eventually found its way into our Constitution. They sent off their declarations and petitions to London. Adjourned Congress. Agreed to reconvene the following May if necessary. And waited for King George to reply. He gave it in Parliament in November. In a speech to Parliament. Where he condemned Massachusetts. And the Suffolk Resolves. Not the answer they were hoping for. No. Their king was not going to save the Americans from the hostile acts of Parliament. Instead he was going to present a unified British opposition (King and Parliament) against these British subjects. The once loyal British Americans were running out of reasons to remain loyal to the British Crown. All they needed was one more push.
Thomas Paine’s Common Sense provided the Final Push towards Independence
The following April the battles of Lexington and Concord took place. There was a shooting war, now. With the Americans following the British back to Boston and laying siege. The patriotic spirit was high. And such was the spirit when the Second Continental Congress convened in Philadelphia in May of 1775. Independence was in the air. John Adams wanted it. But kept quiet. They prepared for war. Choosing George Washington to lead them in war. But this was plan ‘B’. Plan ‘A’ was still reconciliation. And to remain British. Which is what many wanted. Even Washington wasn’t all that keen on independence. He detested the acts of Parliament. But he and his officers were still toasting the health of the King at this time.
John Dickinson led the reconciliation group in Congress. And they drafted (with the help of Thomas Jefferson) the Olive Branch Petition. Addressed to the King. Expressing their desire to remain loyal to His Majesty. All that they wanted was to redress these tax and trade issues. That’s all. Dickinson had hoped with the bloodshed at Lexington and Concord and a little bit of groveling the King would at least meet them halfway. Open up the channels of dialog. Settle their differences without additional bloodshed. Which just exasperated John Adams. He thought it was a waste of time. That independence was inevitable. And he vented these feelings in a private letter. That the British got hold of. Arriving in London about the same time as did the Olive Branch Petition. And after reading Adams’ letter George III refused to even read the petition. His response was the Proclamation of Rebellion. Issued in August. Declaring that some of the British American colonies were in a state of ‘open and avowed rebellion’. And followed that up with the Prohibitory Act in December. Which placed a naval blockade against all American ports. And declared all American shipping enemies of the British Crown. An act of war. To which the Americans responded by issuing letters of marque to privateers, authorizing them by an act of Congress to capture British ships. John Adams declared that King George had declared what the Americans had not yet declared. That the American colonies were independent. Putting the Americans ever closer to declaring their independence.
Then came that final push. In the form of a pamphlet. Very popular reading during the time. It was because of these pamphlets that most Americans knew of the ideas of Hobbes, Locke and Montesquieu. Where their ideas were presented in the language of the common man. Then came along an author who wrote from the get-go in the language of the common man. Thomas Paine. Who wrote Common Sense. Published in January 1776. Which tore into the King. And the whole system of hereditary monarchy. Blamed George III for all the wrongs done to the Americans. Making a strong and impassioned case for independence. Without further delay. That fired up Patriots everywhere. Providing that final push.
The Several States united in Treason and became the United States of America
During the spring of 1776 states began discussing independence. Some authorized their delegates in the Continental Congress to vote for independence. Others need more prodding. On June 11, 1776 the Continental Congress appointed John Adams of Massachusetts, Benjamin Franklin of Pennsylvania, Thomas Jefferson of Virginia, Robert R. Livingston of New York and Roger Sherman of Connecticut to draft a declaration of independence. The Committee of Five. The committee (including Jefferson) wanted Adams to write it. Adams wanted Jefferson to write it. Because he was a Virginian. Someone more distant from the passions in Massachusetts. And was rather likeable. Unlike Adams. And Jefferson was pretty good with the quill. Eloquent. And had a flair for words.
John Dickinson still argued for reconciliation. Adams argued for independence. The debate heated up. The New York legislation had to flee from the British advance in New York. So they could not authorize their delegates to vote for independence. Dickinson couldn’t agree to let Pennsylvanian vote for independence. But he agreed to abstain. It came down to a tie. Until Caesar Rodney rushed in from Delaware just in time to vote for independence. And on July 2, 1776, they committed the final act of treason. And voted the American colonies independent of the British Crown. Then put their name to the Declaration of Independence on July 4th, 1776. Or some of them. The others adding their names some time thereafter.
The several states became united. In treason. A confederacy of independent states joined in union. Not quite along the lines of the Galloway plan. But in union nonetheless. Now locked in mortal combat with the world’s greatest superpower. To escape their oppression. In order to win the same liberty and freedom enjoyed by the subjects of that very same superpower. For in the end that’s all the Americans wanted. And had King George redressed their grievances instead of choosing to punish them everyone would have lived happily ever after as British subjects. But he didn’t. And we now remember him as the British king that lost America.
Tags: Adams, Americans, Benjamin Franklin, Boston, British, British Americans, British colonies, British Crown, British subjects, Common Sense, Constitution, constitutional monarchy, Continental Congress, Declaration of Independence, Declaration of Rights and Grievances, Dickinson, Franklin, Galloway, Galloway Plan of Union, George III, George Washington, Great Britain, Hobbes, independence, Jefferson, John Adams, John Dickinson, Joseph Galloway, King George, King George III, Lexington and Concord, liberty, Locke, Massachusetts, Montesquieu, Olive Branch Petition, Parliament, Patrick Henry, Philadelphia, Proclamation of Rebellion, Prohibitory Act, reconciliation, Richard Henry Lee, Samuel Adams, Suffolk Resolves, Thomas Jefferson, Thomas Paine, union, Washington
As Parliament passed additional Revenue Acts Anger grew in the Colonies, especially in Boston
Prior to 1775 the American colonies were many things. But there was one thing they were not. United. Many people went to America to escape religious persecution. To live with people of their own faith. To practice their faith without fear of reprisal or oppression. And that’s exactly what they did. Often oppressing fellow colonists who didn’t practice the established faith of the colony. But they were united in one area. Their hatred of Catholics. Papists. Those who lost their way and began to worship not Jesus Christ but the Pope. That Whore of Babylon. The seller of indulgences to buy your way out of purgatory. And virtue. So they had that to unite them. But not much else.
Live and let live, they said. As long as you worshipped Jesus Christ you were okay. And weren’t a Jew. Or a Catholic. So the different denominations of the Protestant faith lived among their own. In their own colony. Their country. The only sense of country they had. Virginians weren’t American colonists. They were Virginians. Who didn’t much care what was going on up there in Massachusetts. In fact, they didn’t much like what was happening up there in Massachusetts. For Virginians were planters. Yeoman farmers. People who put their back into their living. Not like those northern merchants. And money handlers. Who reeked just a little too much of the Old World they left. Sitting on their backsides and making money just by buying and selling the products of other’s labors.
Life in the New World was good. Yes, there was famine. Disease. And the occasional massacre. But they could live with that. As long as they had the freedom to worship as they pleased. But then all that trouble started up there in Boston. Over taxed and broke Parliament turned to their American colonies to raise some revenue. Which angered the British Americans. Because they didn’t sit in Parliament. The Americans had no representation. And according to British law taxpayers had to approve all new taxes. Giving consent to those taxes in Parliament. The problem with the Americans, apparently, was that they were on the ‘wrong’ side of the Atlantic. For Britons living on the far side of the Atlantic had those rights. They didn’t. As Parliament passed additional revenue acts anger grew in the colonies. Especially in Boston. Where Parliament installed British administrators to enforce these new revenue acts. To protect their agents the British sent in the Red coats. A peacetime occupying army. Something very un-English that the British Americans did not like.
In Response to the Boston Tea Party Parliament passed the Intolerable Acts and closed the Port of Boston
But the trouble didn’t end there. The British made further attempts to raise revenue from the American colonists. And from the British East India Company. By taxing their tea. Making it more expensive than the tea you could buy in the Netherlands. Where there was no such tax. So people did what people do with high taxes. They didn’t pay them. And smuggled Dutch tea into Great Britain. And the American colonies. Which left the East India Company with some warehouses full of tea. So Parliament cut the tea tax due in Britain to help them. And tried to make up for these lost revenues by taxing the Americans. One of the new taxes included in the Townshend Revenue Act of 1767. In response to the new tea tax the Americans boycotted tea. Which didn’t help sell any of that warehoused tea. So Parliament repealed the Townshend Revenue Act. Well, all of it except the tea tax. For they didn’t want to appear that they didn’t have the right to tax their subjects. Represented or not. And Parliament taxed the tea in Britain again. This, of course, resulted in lower tea sales. And the mighty East India Company, that made Britain so wealthy with its vast trade network, was in some serious financial peril.
Lord North, British Prime Minister, didn’t much like this uppity attitude of the Americans. The East India Company desperately wanted to see those tea taxes cut. But Lord North did not want to give the Americans that victory. It was a matter of principle. At least for him and his fellow Tories in Parliament. As well as the Crown. For King George III and Lord North were pretty close. The Whig opposition was much more sympathetic to their British Brethren on the other side of the Atlantic. But Lord North was adamant. They had the right to tax the Americans. And tax they would. Besides, cutting the taxes in the Townshend Act caused other problems. It would also eliminate the revenue it raised to pay the salaries of the colonial officials enforcing these new acts. And it was important to keep them loyal to the Crown. No. The taxes in America would remain. So their answer was, instead, the Tea Act of 1773. Which removed the taxes due in Britain. And allowed the East India Company to ship directly to the America colonies. Cutting out the middleman. And bringing the price of British tea below that of the smuggled Dutch tea. Problem solved.
Well, not exactly. Because the one thing they did share on both sides of the Atlantic was principle. And even though British tea was cheaper they didn’t want anything to do with it. On principle. Because those Townshend tea taxes were still in force. And paying them was a tacit admission that Parliament had the right to tax the Americans. Despite not having any representation in that esteemed assembly. And this they could not do. Then came the day three little ships came to Boston harbor in 1773. Their holds full of that detested British tea. And a mob in the guise of Mohawk Indians descended to the docks. Boarded these ships. And tossed the tea overboard. In what we call the Boston Tea Party. Infuriating Lord North, Parliament and King George III. Who all agreed it was time to act against these uppity Americans. And act they did. Passing the punitive Intolerable Acts of 1774. That closed the Port of Boston. Replaced the Colonial government in Massachusetts with representatives of the Crown. Royal officials accused of committing a crime against any American would receive a ‘fair’ trial…in Great Britain (pretty much giving them a license to kill). Forced the Americans to find room and board for the British Army occupying their cities. And gave large swaths of land around the Great Lakes and Ohio River Valley to the Province of Quebec. Recently added to the British Empire during the Seven Years’ War. After they defeated their most hated and foul enemy. The French. Who were very, very Catholic. As were their colonists who remained in these once French lands that were now British lands. So to keep them from causing trouble the Quebec Act made things very comfortable for Catholics. Right in the backyard of Protestant British North America.
It was in the Continental Army the Country united and fulfilled the Words of the Declaration of Independence
In April of 1775 General Gage heard that there were some arms stored in Concord, Massachusetts. So he sent some Red coats to go capture or destroy these arms. Things did not go well for the British. Militia gathered and stood their ground. Shots rang out. No one is sure who fired first. But whoever did fired the shot heard ’round the world. On the march back to Boston the British were harassed and picked off by sharpshooters. Until they limped back into the safety of their Boston garrison. Where the militia fell upon them and laid siege. These uppity Americans for all intents and purposes had just declared war against the world’s greatest superpower. And there was no going back.
In response to the British actions in Boston the colonies assembled in congress. The Continental Congress. To discuss what they as a united people should do. For if these outrages could happen in Boston they could happen in any of the colonies. And now that they spilled blood they needed someone to lead the American forces in their fight against the Crown. They selected George Washington. Who left the Congress to take charge in Boston. And as he walked the lines at Boston he saw Americans. And when his army marched to Quebec (to get the now British French-Canadians to join in the good fight) he saw Americans. It was in the Continental Army the country united. Fighting alongside in the ranks Washington saw Virginians. Massachusetts men. Farmers. Merchants. Puritans. Baptists. Catholics. Jews. Even free blacks.
There was nothing a British American enjoyed more than burning an effigy of the Pope. That would change in the Army. And the Army would change the country. Especially the men who served in the Army. Men like Washington. Who first glimpsed a new nation. A united nation. That transcended religion. The states. Even race. Which really brought home the words of the Declaration of Independence. That all men are created equal. And there’s nothing that makes men more equal than suffering the privations and horrors of war. Sadly, after the war when the common enemy was no more the spirit of these words became a little more symbolic for some. But these army veterans would leave their mark. And their vision would eventually become reality for everyone.
Tags: American, American colonies, Atlantic, Boston, Boston Tea Party, Britain, British, British American, British Americans, British Army, British tea, Catholic, Continental Army, Crown, Dutch tea, East India Company, faith, freedom to worship, French, Great Britain, Intolerable Acts, King George III, Lord North, Massachusetts, occupying army, Parliament, Pope, Port of Boston, Protestant, Quebec, Red coats, religious persecution, representation, taxes, taxpayers, Tea Act, tea tax, Townshend Revenue Act, uppity Americans, Virginians, Washington