Tunnels

Posted by PITHOCRATES - January 22nd, 2014

Technology 101

A Bridge is a Fixed Structure that requires no Active Systems to Function

Bridges are dumb.  While tunnels are smart.  You can build a bridge and walk away from it.  And it will still work.  That is, you can still cross the bridge without anyone at the bridge doing anything.  It can even work in a power outage.  Even at night.  It may be dark.  But a car’s headlights will let a person cross safely.  Because a bridge doesn’t have to do much for people to use it.  All it has to do is stand there.  A tunnel, on the other hand, needs smart systems to make the tunnel passable and safe.

Bridges are high in the air.  Where there is plenty of fresh air to breathe.  If there is a car fire on the bridge all of that fresh air will allow other drivers to breathe as they drive around it.  And for first responders to breathe as they put that fire out.  They can use all the water they bring onto the bridge, too.  Even in a driving downpour.  For that water will just run off of that bridge without causing a drowning hazard.  Visibility doesn’t change driving onto or off of the bridge.  Unlike with tunnels.  Where you can go from bright daylight into a dark hole.  And from a dark hole into bright daylight.

A bridge is a fixed structure that requires no active systems to function.  Just some maintenance.  Painting and roadway lighting.  Maybe some traffic control signals.  But that’s about it.  Tunnels, on the other hand, need machinery.  Equipment.  Systems.  And people.  Because tunneling below grade causes a whole host of problems.  Problems that have to be addressed with machinery, equipment and systems.  And if they don’t work people can die in a tunnel.

Powerful fans at each end of the tunnel pull in fresh air and blow it through the duct under the roadway

Cars have internal combustion engines.  They exhaust carbon monoxide after combustion.  Which is poisonous if we breathe it.  A big problem in tunnels filled with cars with internal combustion engines.  Which is why if you look at a cross-sectional view of a tunnel you will see that the biggest section of these underground structures are used for moving air.

If you have driven through a tunnel you probably remember driving through a rectangular tube.  Little bigger than the vehicles driving through it.  What you don’t see is the air duct beneath the roadway.  And the air duct above the roadway.  Powerful fans at each end of the tunnel pull in fresh air from the atmosphere and blow it through the duct under the roadway.  It exits the duct at about exhaust pipe level.  This fresh air blows into the rectangular tube where cars are pumping in carbon monoxide.

Other powerful fans are also located at each end of the tunnel that pull air out of the tunnel.  Via the duct over the roadway.  Fresh air comes in from below.  Mixes with the poisonous carbon monoxide.  This gets sucked into openings overhead.  Into the duct over the roadway.  And vents to the atmosphere at either end of the tunnel.  Allowing these poison-making machines to travel underground in an enclosed space without killing people.

A Tunnel is a Complex Machine that requires Intelligent Programming not to put People in Danger

Tunnels through mountains go through porous rock that drip water into the tunnel.  Tunnels under bodies of water are low in the middle and high at the ends.  Making each tunnel portal a massive storm drain when it rains.  And water in a tunnel is a dangerous thing.  It can freeze.  It can get deep.  It can cause an accident.  It can drown people.  So when it enters the tunnel you need to pump it out.  Tunnels have storm drains that drain any water entering the tunnel to a sump at a low point.  And pumps move this water from the sump out of the tunnel.

Ever spend an hour or so shoveling snow on a bright day?  And then go inside only to temporarily lose your vision?  This is snow blindness.  Your pupils shrink down to a tiny dot outside to block much of the bright sun and the light reflecting from the snow and ice. And when you walk inside that tiny dot of a pupil won’t let enough light into your eye so you can see in the reduced lighting level.  After awhile your pupils begin to dilate.  And you can see.  Same thing happens when driving into a tunnel.  Of course, temporarily losing your vision while driving a car can be dangerous.  So they add a lot of lights at the entrance of a tunnel.  To replicate sunlight.  And as you drive through the tunnel the lighting levels fall as your eyes adjust.  At night they reduce the lighting levels to prevent blinding drives as they enter.  And prevent snow blindness when exiting the tunnel.

A bridge doesn’t need any of these systems.  But a tunnel won’t work without them.  As people could die in these tunnels.  Because it’s dangerous when people go below grade with machines that create poison.  So tunnels need computers and control systems.  To monitor existing conditions such as exterior lighting levels, carbon monoxide levels, smoke and fire detection, water levels and high water alarms, etc.  Based on these inputs a control system (or a person) turns lights on or off, increase or decrease supply and exhaust fan speeds, pump down the sump when it reaches a high water level, etc.  Only when these systems are on line and operating properly is driving through a tunnel as safe as driving over a bridge.  Because bridges are dumb things.  They only need to stand there to work.  While a tunnel is a complex machine.  That requires intelligent programming not to put people in danger.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Sounding the Depth, Sea Marks and Bridge Lights

Posted by PITHOCRATES - December 11th, 2013

Technology 101

It’s Important to know both the Depth of the Water beneath you and the Hidden Dangers below the Surface

On November 10, 1975, the Great Lakes bulk ore carrier S.S. Edmund Fitzgerald sank in a powerful Lake Superior storm.  Waves of 35 feet crashed green water across her deck.  But time and again she bobbed back up from under the waves.  Until she began to lose her buoyancy.  No one knows for sure what happened but the Fitzgerald was taking on water prior to her sinking.  One theory said that she bottomed out on Six Fathom Shoal off of Caribou Island.  As she fell into the trough between two huge waves.

A fathom is 6 feet.  So six fathoms would be 36 feet.  Though the water over Six Fathom Shoal could be as shallow as 26 feet.  Which is pretty deep.  But is dangerously shallow for a ship like the Fitzgerald.  For she had a draft of 25 feet.  At best she had 11 feet (36-25) of clearance between the shoal and her hull.  Or in the worst case, 1 foot (26-25).  With the gale force winds pushing the waves as high as 35 feet that would put the trough approximately 17.5 feet (35/2) below the ‘calm’ surface level of the lake.  Which would bring the top of the shoal above the hull of the Fitzgerald.  Thus making a strong case that she bottomed out and fractured her hull and began to take on water.

The theory continues that as she took on water she settled deeper and deeper into the water.  Growing heavier.  And less buoyant.  Until a wall of water swept across her that was too great for her to shake off.  Sending her to the bottom of Lake Superior so quickly that the propeller was still spinning when the bow hit bottom.  Causing the hull to break.  With the torque of the spinning shaft rotating the stern over until she rested hull-up on the bottom.  This is only one theory of many.  People still debate the ultimate cause of her sinking.  But this theory shows the importance of knowing the depth of the water beneath you.  And the great danger of unseen objects below the surface of the water.

Ships use Sea Marks to guide them Safely through Navigable Channels

Those mariners who first crossed the oceans were some of the bravest ever to live.  For if a ship sank in the middle of the ocean chances are people never saw those sailors again.  For there’s nothing to sustain life in the middle of the ocean.  Everything you ate or drank you brought with you.  And crossed at the greatest speed possible to get to your destination before your supplies ran out.  Which was easy to do in the deep waters of the middle of the ocean.  But very dangerous when the water grew shallower.  As you approached land.  Especially for the first time.

If a ship struck a submerged object it could break up the hull and sink the ship.  Especially if you hit it at speed.  This is why they had lookouts high up in the crow’s nest looking for land.  Or indications that the water was growing more shallow.  And they would ‘heave the lead’.  Big burly men (leadsmen) would throw a lead weight on a rope as far out in front of the ship as possible.  Once the lead hit bottom they’d pull it up.  Counting the knots in the rope spaced at 6-foot intervals.  Or fathoms.  Sounding the depth of the water beneath them.  As the sea bottom raced up to the water’s surface they furled their sails to catch less wind.  And slow down.  As they approached land they would approach only so far.  And safely anchor in a safe depth of water near a promising location for a harbor.  Some sailors would then board a dinghy and row into the shallow waters.  Sounding the depth.  And making a chart.  Looking for a safe channel to navigate.  And a place suitable to build a deep-water dock.  Deep enough to sail in to and moor the large sailing vessels that would sail to and from these new lands.

Of course, we could do none of this during the night.  It may be safe to sail in the middle of the ocean at night but it is very dangerous in the shallow waters around land.  At least, for the first time.  After they built a harbor they may build a lighthouse.  A tall building with a beacon.  To guide ships to the new harbor in the dark.  And even add a fog horn to guide ships in when fog obscures the light.  This would bring ships towards the harbor.  But they needed other navigational aids to guide them through a safe channel to the dock.  As time passed we made our navigational aids more advanced.  As well as our ships.  Today a ship can enter a harbor or river in the black of night safely.  Thanks to sea marks.

If Ships wander just Inches off their Course the Results can be Catastrophic

Landmarks are navigational aids on land.  Such as a lighthouse.  While a sea mark is a navigational aid in the water.  Typically a buoy.  A buoyant vessel that floats in the water.  But held in place.  Typically with a chain running from the bottom of the buoy to an anchorage driven into the bottom of the water channel.  Holding it in place to mark the edge of the navigable channel.  In North America we use the colors green and red to mark the channel.  With the “3R” rule “Red Right Returning.”  Meaning a ship returning from a larger body of water to a smaller body of water (and ultimately to a dock) would see red on their right (starboard).  And green on their left (port).  If you’re leaving dock and heading to open water the colors would be the reverse.

As ships move up river the safe channel narrows.  And there are bridges to contend with.  Which compounds the problem of shallow waters.  Fixed bridges will have red lights on piers rising out of the water.  And a green light over the center of the safe channel.  A vertical lift span bridge or a double leaf (lift) bascule bridge will have red lights at either end.  And red lights over the center of the channel when these bridges are closed.  When the center span on a lift bridge is open there will be a green light marking the center of the channel on the lifted center span.  Showing the center of the channel and the safe height of passage.  When the bascule bridge is open there will be a green light on the tip of each open leaf.  Showing the outer edges of the safe channel.

Ships are massive.  And massive things moving have great momentum (mass multiplied by velocity).  The bigger they are and the faster they go the harder it is to stop them.  Or to turn them.  Which means if they wander out of that safe channel they will probably hit something.  And cause great damage.  Either to the ship.  Or to the fixed structures along the waterway.  Like on an Alabaman night.  When a river barge made a wrong turn in poor visibility and entered an un-navigable channel.  Striking a rail bridge.  Pushing the bridge out of alignment.  But not enough to break the welded rail.  Which left the railroad block signal green.  Indicating the track was clear ahead.  The river pilot thought that one of the barges had only run aground.  And was oblivious to what he did.  And when Amtrak’s Sunset Limited sped through and hit that kink in the track it derailed.  Killing 47 people.  About twice the loss of life when the Fitzgerald sank.  Showing the importance of navigation charts, sea marks and bridge lights.  For if ships wander just inches off their course the results can be catastrophic.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

River Traffic, Road Traffic, Ferry Crossings, Vertical Lift Bridges and Bascule Bridges

Posted by PITHOCRATES - August 7th, 2013

Technology 101

(Originally published March 6th, 2013)

Bridges that rise High Enough for Shipping Traffic to Pass Underneath need Long Approaches

As civilizations expanded they followed rivers inland.  People traveled on the river and founded new cites on sites further upstream.  Which they could supply from cities downstream.  Including the materials to build a waterwheel and lumber mill.  They can go upstream to fell trees and float them downriver to the lumber mill.  They can use this lumber to expand the city.  Out away from the river.  On a growing network of roads.  On both sides the river.

As this city grows cross-river traffic increases.  A road on both sides of the river end at a dock.  Between these docks runs a ferry.  That can transport people, horses, carts, wagons, etc.  Allowing people and goods to travel anywhere within this city on the river.  Over time cross-river traffic increases causing backups at the ferry crossing.  Eventually cars replace horses.  Concrete replaces dirt roads.  And vehicular traffic increases.  While railroads connect our cities.  All of which has to cross the river.  While at the same time allowing boats to continue to navigate the river.

If you ever driven on a bridge over a navigable river with shipping traffic you probably noticed a couple of things.  First of all, when you crossed the navigable portion of the waterway you were pretty high in the air.  Second, there was a long approach to that portion of the bridge that allowed you to reach that height over a gradual incline.  And you started that incline about a mile or so away from the river.  Which is fine for an interstate that can rise above a city until it reaches a sufficient height to cross the river without impeding river traffic.  But it’s a bit of a problem for the roads at the river’s edge.  For it is just not practical to drive a mile or so away from the river, cross over on the bridge, and then drive a mile or so back to the river.  Not to mention the incredible cost of such a bridge that would provide only one river crossing.  It would be far more practical and less costly to build multiple bridge crossings at the current elevation of the roads at the river’s edge.  But that would, of course, block river traffic to most commercial shipping.

The Vertical Lift Bridge can lift Heavier Road Sections than Bascule Bridges with the same Size Counterweights

The solution is the moveable bridge.  A bridge at the elevation of the local roads so a car can cross from one shore to the other in the shortest possible distance.  And one that can move to create an opening in the roadway to allow a ship to navigate the river at the bridge crossing.  Because vehicular traffic is greater than river traffic vehicular bridges are normally in a position to allow vehicular traffic to cross.  In places where river traffic is greater than rail traffic rail bridges are normally in a position to allow river traffic to pass.  Which can be a problem for trains that ignore a red signal to stop.  For a train can drive right off the tracks and into a river.  And have.

Two of the most common moveable bridges are the vertical lift bridge.  And the bascule bridge.  Each has benefits.  Each has its faults.  The vertical lift bridge raises a portion of the roadway over the shipping channel.  At each end of the lifting section is a tower.  Inside these towers are counterweights.  The counterweights equal the weight of the section of the moveable roadway.  Because the roadway and the weights are balanced it doesn’t take much force to raise or lower the bridge.  Like an elevator in a building.

Older bridges had a bridge operator that rode up and down with the bridge.  As a ship approached traffic signals would stop traffic.  Once all traffic was off the bridge gates came down blocking further traffic from entering.  Once all vehicles and pedestrians were off the lift portion a signal sounded to warn people the bridge would begin to move.  Then it moved.  The section of roadway traveled up between the two towers.  Creating a safe passage for the ship below.  Most bridges today are automated and unmanned.  The big advantage of the lift bridge is the size of the counterweights.  They only have to equal the weight of the span. Allowing heavier road sections to be lifted.  Making them good for rail bridges.

The ‘Chicago’ Bascule Bridge is the most common Moveable Bridge in the World

The drawback to the vertical lift bridge is that there is still a maximum height of ship that can pass underneath.  Which isn’t a problem for most shipping.  But it can be an issue for some oversized loads or ships with tall masts.  Also, those tall towers can be unsightly.  Consider a city like Chicago.  Which has a lot of tall buildings right on the banks of the Chicago River.  Where a lot of bridge towers at all of those river crossings could really ugly up the Chicago skyline.  So in Chicago you won’t see vertical lift bridges spanning the Chicago River.  Instead you’ll see bascule bridges.

The typical bascule bridge you see in Chicago is a double-leaf bascule bridge.  Bascule is French for seesaw.  Think of a playground seesaw.  When one side goes up the other side goes down.  Each leaf of a bascule bridge is a seesaw.  A teeter-totter.  One side of the seesaw is a metal roadbed.  The other side is a counterweight.  When the bridge opens the counterweight teeters down below the road elevation while the other end teeters up above the road elevation.  Creating an opening over the river for ships to pass through.  To span a river two seesaws are connected together with their metal roadbeds pointing towards each other.  And their counterweights pointing away from the river.  Because the leaf is longer than the counterweight the counterweight has to be heavier than the bridge leaf.  To equal the torque between the leaf and the counterweight.  So it takes the same turning force to raise and lower the bridge leaf.  Keeping both sides of the seesaw balanced so it takes little power to operate a bascule bridge.  Just as it takes little power to raise and lower a vertical lift bridge.

The greater weight of the counterweights makes the bascule bridge more costly than the vertical lift bridge.  But in return for the added cost you get a cleaner bridge installation with no unsightly towers.  And when the bridge is opened there is no limit to how tall a ship can pass through the bridge crossing.  Because there is an open gap in the roadway.  Which creates one additional challenge for the bascule bridge over the vertical lift bridge.  When a lift bridge rises cables can rise with it like in an elevator.  Keeping both ends and the moveable roadway connected to each other electrically.  Both power and communication.  This is not possible in the bascule bridge.  With nothing going over the river crossing when the bridge is open there is only one option for electrically connecting the two ends of the bridge.  If cables can’t go over a ship they must go underneath a ship.  With a bascule bridge submarine power and communication cables interconnect the two bridge ends.  Requiring a diving crew to lay this cable.  Making both the bridge cost and maintenance more costly on a bascule bridge than a vertical lift bridge.  But in return you get a less unsightly installation.  And a shorter time to open and close the bridge.  Making the ‘Chicago’ bascule bridge the most common moveable bridge in the world.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

River Traffic, Road Traffic, Ferry Crossings, Vertical Lift Bridges and Bascule Bridges

Posted by PITHOCRATES - March 6th, 2013

Technology 101

Bridges that rise High Enough for Shipping Traffic to Pass Underneath need Long Approaches

As civilizations expanded they followed rivers inland.  People traveled on the river and founded new cites on sites further upstream.  Which they could supply from cities downstream.  Including the materials to build a waterwheel and lumber mill.  They can go upstream to fell trees and float them downriver to the lumber mill.  They can use this lumber to expand the city.  Out away from the river.  On a growing network of roads.  On both sides the river.

As this city grows cross-river traffic increases.  A road on both sides of the river end at a dock.  Between these docks runs a ferry.  That can transport people, horses, carts, wagons, etc.  Allowing people and goods to travel anywhere within this city on the river.  Over time cross-river traffic increases causing backups at the ferry crossing.  Eventually cars replace horses.  Concrete replaces dirt roads.  And vehicular traffic increases.  While railroads connect our cities.  All of which has to cross the river.  While at the same time allowing boats to continue to navigate the river.

If you ever driven on a bridge over a navigable river with shipping traffic you probably noticed a couple of things.  First of all, when you crossed the navigable portion of the waterway you were pretty high in the air.  Second, there was a long approach to that portion of the bridge that allowed you to reach that height over a gradual incline.  And you started that incline about a mile or so away from the river.  Which is fine for an interstate that can rise above a city until it reaches a sufficient height to cross the river without impeding river traffic.  But it’s a bit of a problem for the roads at the river’s edge.  For it is just not practical to drive a mile or so away from the river, cross over on the bridge, and then drive a mile or so back to the river.  Not to mention the incredible cost of such a bridge that would provide only one river crossing.  It would be far more practical and less costly to build multiple bridge crossings at the current elevation of the roads at the river’s edge.  But that would, of course, block river traffic to most commercial shipping.

The Vertical Lift Bridge can lift Heavier Road Sections than Bascule Bridges with the same Size Counterweights

The solution is the moveable bridge.  A bridge at the elevation of the local roads so a car can cross from one shore to the other in the shortest possible distance.  And one that can move to create an opening in the roadway to allow a ship to navigate the river at the bridge crossing.  Because vehicular traffic is greater than river traffic vehicular bridges are normally in a position to allow vehicular traffic to cross.  In places where river traffic is greater than rail traffic rail bridges are normally in a position to allow river traffic to pass.  Which can be a problem for trains that ignore a red signal to stop.  For a train can drive right off the tracks and into a river.  And have.

Two of the most common moveable bridges are the vertical lift bridge.  And the bascule bridge.  Each has benefits.  Each has its faults.  The vertical lift bridge raises a portion of the roadway over the shipping channel.  At each end of the lifting section is a tower.  Inside these towers are counterweights.  The counterweights equal the weight of the section of the moveable roadway.  Because the roadway and the weights are balanced it doesn’t take much force to raise or lower the bridge.  Like an elevator in a building.

Older bridges had a bridge operator that rode up and down with the bridge.  As a ship approached traffic signals would stop traffic.  Once all traffic was off the bridge gates came down blocking further traffic from entering.  Once all vehicles and pedestrians were off the lift portion a signal sounded to warn people the bridge would begin to move.  Then it moved.  The section of roadway traveled up between the two towers.  Creating a safe passage for the ship below.  Most bridges today are automated and unmanned.  The big advantage of the lift bridge is the size of the counterweights.  They only have to equal the weight of the span. Allowing heavier road sections to be lifted.  Making them good for rail bridges.

The ‘Chicago’ Bascule Bridge is the most common Moveable Bridge in the World

The drawback to the vertical lift bridge is that there is still a maximum height of ship that can pass underneath.  Which isn’t a problem for most shipping.  But it can be an issue for some oversized loads or ships with tall masts.  Also, those tall towers can be unsightly.  Consider a city like Chicago.  Which has a lot of tall buildings right on the banks of the Chicago River.  Where a lot of bridge towers at all of those river crossings could really ugly up the Chicago skyline.  So in Chicago you won’t see vertical lift bridges spanning the Chicago River.  Instead you’ll see bascule bridges.

The typical bascule bridge you see in Chicago is a double-leaf bascule bridge.  Bascule is French for seesaw.  Think of a playground seesaw.  When one side goes up the other side goes down.  Each leaf of a bascule bridge is a seesaw.  A teeter-totter.  One side of the seesaw is a metal roadbed.  The other side is a counterweight.  When the bridge opens the counterweight teeters down below the road elevation while the other end teeters up above the road elevation.  Creating an opening over the river for ships to pass through.  To span a river two seesaws are connected together with their metal roadbeds pointing towards each other.  And their counterweights pointing away from the river.  Because the leaf is longer than the counterweight the counterweight has to be heavier than the bridge leaf.  To equal the torque between the leaf and the counterweight.  So it takes the same turning force to raise and lower the bridge leaf.  Keeping both sides of the seesaw balanced so it takes little power to operate a bascule bridge.  Just as it takes little power to raise and lower a vertical lift bridge.

The greater weight of the counterweights makes the bascule bridge more costly than the vertical lift bridge.  But in return for the added cost you get a cleaner bridge installation with no unsightly towers.  And when the bridge is opened there is no limit to how tall a ship can pass through the bridge crossing.  Because there is an open gap in the roadway.  Which creates one additional challenge for the bascule bridge over the vertical lift bridge.  When a lift bridge rises cables can rise with it like in an elevator.  Keeping both ends and the moveable roadway connected to each other electrically.  Both power and communication.  This is not possible in the bascule bridge.  With nothing going over the river crossing when the bridge is open there is only one option for electrically connecting the two ends of the bridge.  If cables can’t go over a ship they must go underneath a ship.  With a bascule bridge submarine power and communication cables interconnect the two bridge ends.  Requiring a diving crew to lay this cable.  Making both the bridge cost and maintenance more costly on a bascule bridge than a vertical lift bridge.  But in return you get a less unsightly installation.  And a shorter time to open and close the bridge.  Making the ‘Chicago’ bascule bridge the most common moveable bridge in the world.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Iron, Steel, the Steam Engine, Railroads, the Bessemer Process, Andrew Carnegie and the Lucy Furnace

Posted by PITHOCRATES - November 21st, 2012

(Originally published December 14, 2011)

With the Steam Engine we could Build Factories Anywhere and Connect them by Railroads

Iron has been around for a long time.  The Romans used it.  And so did the British centuries later.  They kicked off the Industrial Revolution with iron.  And ended it with steel.  Which was nothing to sneeze at.  For the transition from iron to steel changed the world.  And the United States.  For it was steel that made the United States the dominant economy in the world.

The Romans mined coal in England and Wales.  Used it as a fuel for ovens to dry grain.  And for smelting iron ore.  After the Western Roman Empire collapsed, so did the need for coal.  But it came back.  And the demand was greater than ever.  Finding coal, though, required deeper holes.  Below the water table.  And holes below the water table tended to fill up with water.  To get to the coal, then, you had to pump out the water.  They tried different methods.  But the one that really did the trick was James Watt’s steam engine attached to a pump.

The steam engine was a game changer.  For the first time man could make energy anywhere he wanted.  He didn’t have to find running water to turn a waterwheel.  Depend on the winds.  Or animal power.  With the steam engine he could build a factory anywhere.  And connect these factories together with iron tracks.  On which a steam-powered locomotive could travel.  Ironically, the steam engine burned the very thing James Watt designed it to help mine.  Coal.

Andrew Carnegie made Steel so Inexpensive and Plentiful that he Built America

Iron was strong.  But steel was stronger.  And was the metal of choice.  Unfortunately it was more difficult to make.  So there wasn’t a lot of it around.  Making it expensive.  Unlike iron.  Which was easier to make.  You heated up (smelted) iron ore to burn off the stuff that wasn’t iron from the ore.  Giving you pig iron.  Named for the resulting shape at the end of the smelting process.  When the molten iron was poured into a mold.  There was a line down the center where the molten metal flowed.  And then branched off to fill up ingots.  When it cooled it looked like piglets suckling their mother.  Hence pig iron.

Pig iron had a high carbon content which made it brittle and unusable.  Further processing reduced the carbon content and produced wrought iron.  Which was usable.  And the dominate metal we used until steel.  But to get to steel we needed a better way of removing the residual carbon from the iron ore smelting process.  Something Henry Bessemer discovered.  Which we know as the Bessemer process.  Bessemer mass-produced steel in England by removing the impurities from pig iron by oxidizing them.  And he did this by blowing air through the molten iron.

Andrew Carnegie became a telegraph operator at Pennsylvania Railroad Company.  He excelled, moved up through the company and learned the railroad business.  He used his connections to invest in railroad related industries.  Iron.  Bridges.  And Rails.  He became rich.  He formed a bridge company.  And an ironworks.  Traveling in Europe he saw the Bessemer process.  Impressed, he took that technology and created the Lucy furnace.  Named after his wife.  And changed the world.  His passion to constantly reduce costs led him to vertical integration.  Owning and controlling the supply of raw materials that fed his industries.  He made steel so inexpensive and plentiful that he built America.  Railroads, bridges and skyscrapers exploded across America.  Cities and industries connected by steel tracks.  On which steam locomotives traveled.  Fueled by coal.  And transporting coal.  As well as other raw materials.  Including the finished goods they made.  Making America the new industrial and economic superpower in the world.

Knowing the Market Price of Steel Carnegie reduced his Costs of Production to sell his Steel below that Price

Andrew Carnegie became a rich man because of capitalism.  He lived during great times.  When entrepreneurs could create and produce with minimal government interference.  Which is why the United States became the dominant industrial and economic superpower.

The market set the price of steel.  Not a government bureaucrat.  This is key in capitalism.  Carnegie didn’t count labor inputs to determine the price of his steel.  No.  Instead, knowing the market price of steel he did everything in his powers to reduce his costs of production so he could sell his steel below that price.  Giving steel users less expensive steel.  Which was good for steel users.  As well as everyone else.  But he did this while still making great profits.  Everyone was a winner.  Except those who sold steel at higher prices who could no longer compete.

Carnegie spent part of his life accumulating great wealth.  And he spent the latter part of his life giving that wealth away.  He was one of the great philanthropists of all time.  Thanks to capitalism.  The entrepreneurial spirit.  And the American dream.  Which is individual liberty.  That freedom to create and produce.  Like Carnegie did.  Just as entrepreneurs everywhere have been during since we allowed them to profit from risk taking.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,

Iron, Steel, the Steam Engine, Railroads, the Bessemer Process, Andrew Carnegie and the Lucy Furnace

Posted by PITHOCRATES - December 14th, 2011

Technology 101

With the Steam Engine we could Build Factories Anywhere and Connect them by Railroads

Iron has been around for a long time.  The Romans used it.  And so did the British centuries later.  They kicked off the Industrial Revolution with iron.  And ended it with steel.  Which was nothing to sneeze at.  For the transition from iron to steel changed the world.  And the United States.  For it was steel that made the United States the dominant economy in the world.

The Romans mined coal in England and Wales.  Used it as a fuel for ovens to dry grain.  And for smelting iron ore.  After the Western Roman Empire collapsed, so did the need for coal.  But it came back.  And the demand was greater than ever.  Finding coal, though, required deeper holes.  Below the water table.  And holes below the water table tended to fill up with water.  To get to the coal, then, you had to pump out the water.  They tried different methods.  But the one that really did the trick was James Watt’s steam engine attached to a pump.

The steam engine was a game changer.  For the first time man could make energy anywhere he wanted.  He didn’t have to find running water to turn a waterwheel.  Depend on the winds.  Or animal power.  With the steam engine he could build a factory anywhere.  And connect these factories together with iron tracks.  On which a steam-powered locomotive could travel.  Ironically, the steam engine burned the very thing James Watt designed it to help mine.  Coal.

Andrew Carnegie made Steel so Inexpensive and Plentiful that he Built America

Iron was strong.  But steel was stronger.  And was the metal of choice.  Unfortunately it was more difficult to make.  So there wasn’t a lot of it around.  Making it expensive.  Unlike iron.  Which was easier to make.  You heated up (smelted) iron ore to burn off the stuff that wasn’t iron from the ore.  Giving you pig iron.  Named for the resulting shape at the end of the smelting process.  When the molten iron was poured into a mold.  There was a line down the center where the molten metal flowed.  And then branched off to fill up ingots.  When it cooled it looked like piglets suckling their mother.  Hence pig iron.

Pig iron had a high carbon content which made it brittle and unusable.  Further processing reduced the carbon content and produced wrought iron.  Which was usable.  And the dominate metal we used until steel.  But to get to steel we needed a better way of removing the residual carbon from the iron ore smelting process.  Something Henry Bessemer discovered.  Which we know as the Bessemer process.  Bessemer mass-produced steel in England by removing the impurities from pig iron by oxidizing them.  And he did this by blowing air through the molten iron.

Andrew Carnegie became a telegraph operator at Pennsylvania Railroad Company.  He excelled, moved up through the company and learned the railroad business.  He used his connections to invest in railroad related industries.  Iron.  Bridges.  And Rails.  He became rich.  He formed a bridge company.  And an ironworks.  Traveling in Europe he saw the Bessemer process.  Impressed, he took that technology and created the Lucy furnace.  Named after his wife.  And changed the world.  His passion to constantly reduce costs led him to vertical integration.  Owning and controlling the supply of raw materials that fed his industries.  He made steel so inexpensive and plentiful that he built America.  Railroads, bridges and skyscrapers exploded across America.  Cities and industries connected by steel tracks.  On which steam locomotives traveled.  Fueled by coal.  And transporting coal.  As well as other raw materials.  Including the finished goods they made.  Making America the new industrial and economic superpower in the world.

Knowing the Market Price of Steel Carnegie reduced his Costs of Production to sell his Steel below that Price

Andrew Carnegie became a rich man because of capitalism.  He lived during great times.  When entrepreneurs could create and produce with minimal government interference.  Which is why the United States became the dominant industrial and economic superpower.

The market set the price of steel.  Not a government bureaucrat.  This is key in capitalism.  Carnegie didn’t count labor inputs to determine the price of his steel.  No.  Instead, knowing the market price of steel he did everything in his powers to reduce his costs of production so he could sell his steel below that price.  Giving steel users less expensive steel.  Which was good for steel users.  As well as everyone else.  But he did this while still making great profits.  Everyone was a winner.  Except those who sold steel at higher prices who could no longer compete.

Carnegie spent part of his life accumulating great wealth.  And he spent the latter part of his life giving that wealth away.  He was one of the great philanthropists of all time.  Thanks to capitalism.  The entrepreneurial spirit.  And the American dream.  Which is individual liberty.  That freedom to create and produce.  Like Carnegie did.  Just as entrepreneurs everywhere have been during since we allowed them to profit from risk taking.

www.PITHOCRATES.com

Share

Tags: , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , ,