Yorktown, North, Rockingham, Shelburne, Franco-Spanish Alliance, Vergennes, Adams, Franklin, Jay and the Treaty of Paris
For the British to Maintain the Balance of Power in Europe an Independent America actually Helped Them
The war wasn’t over with Cornwallis’ surrender at Yorktown. But his surrender changed everything. The continuing war was becoming more and more unpopular in Britain. And costly. Britain was fighting four wars. One with the Americans. One with the French. One with the Spanish. And one with the Dutch. The debt was growing so great that there were discussions about suspending some interest payments. The British wanted out of these wars. The opposition blamed Lord North for the latest debacle at Yorktown. The Prime Minister resigned. His government fell. And the opposition took power.
The new Prime Minister, Lord Rockingham, had favored American independence. His foreign secretary, Charles James Fox, had favored American independence. In fact, those who had favored American independence filled all cabinet positions. Except for one. The Secretary of Colonial Affairs. Lord Shelburne. Fox and Shelburne did not much care for each other. They quarreled. Each having their own idea of how they should conduct the peace. Fox sent Thomas Green to France to begin negotiations with the French. Shelburne sent Richard Oswald to France to begin negotiations with the Americans (Benjamin Franklin was in Paris).
The French had a debt problem of their own. And they, too, were anxious for the war to end. But on favorable terms. They were looking to change the balance of power with their eternal enemy. The British. And therefore wanted to negotiate the peace for the Americans. Get back some of their lost North American territories. And elsewhere. Meanwhile the Spanish were laying siege to the British in Gibraltar. Anxious to retrieve that from the British. They were greatly interested in blocking American westward expansion. And they also wanted to keep them off the Mississippi River. Which flowed to the Gulf of Mexico through their Louisiana Territory. So the politics were quite complex in negotiating the peace. For the British to maintain the balance of power they enjoyed an independent America actually helped them. While an independent America actually harmed the French and the Spanish.
Shelburne negotiated Directly with the Americans to use them to gain Favorable Terms with their European Enemies
The original peace commission in Paris was just John Adams. Few could be found that were more adamant on American independence than he. And this was a problem for the French foreign minister. Charles Gravier, comte de Vergennes. He didn’t like Adams. Who was not willing to compromise. Vergennes wanted to end the war. And stop the financial hemorrhaging. And he was willing to compromise with the British to make that happen. Willing to compromise away American independence. American navigation of the Mississippi River. American territorial ambitions beyond the Appalachians (leaving Maine, New York City, portions of the Northwest territories, Charleston and Savannah British). And the American fishing rights off Newfoundland. He was willing to give all that up to end the war with Britain. He had only one problem. John Adams. Who refused to give up what the Americans were actually fighting for in the first place.
Vergennes instructed the French minister in America, the Chevalier de la Luzerne, to lobby the Continental Congress. To have them order Adams to be less belligerent. To be more willing to compromise. And to accept the wise counsel of the King of France. The most generous sovereign who made it possible for the Americans to bring the British to the negotiating table. Luzerne was successful. Perhaps with a little bribery. The Congress sent Benjamin Franklin, John Jay and Henry Laurens to join Adams. With the instructions to follow the advice of the French in the peace negotiations.
Fox still favored granting American independence. And he wanted to do it quickly. To split the allies apart. And make separate peace treaties to limit the damage. For the French, Spanish and Dutch could hold out for a grander bargain. Especially if the fortunes of war turned their way. As the Spanish were hoping would soon happen at Gibraltar. So the British warned that their allies could force the Americans to continue the war not for their own interests but that of these Europeans. He told Green to tell Franklin that Britain was prepared to recognize American independence. And that it was in America’s best interests to negotiate a separate peace. Franklin suggested early that Britain may want to throw Canada into the deal. To help pay for all the damage the British did to American property. Shelburne wasn’t about to negotiate away Canada. His answer was to bring up the debt owed to British creditors. And reimbursing the Loyalists who lost their property in America. Things that weren’t high on the American list of demands. Then Rockingham died. Shelburne became prime minister. And Fox quit. Pro-American independence ministers no longer filled the government. Still, Shelburne continued to negotiate directly with the Americans. So he could use them to gain favorable terms with their European enemies.
The American Negotiators were being Played by the Best of European Intrigue
In Franklin’s talks with Oswald he made it clear that independence was a prerequisite for peace. Officially that was a problem for Oswald. For his original commission from Shelburne directed him to negotiate with a commissioner from the colonies or plantations. Not a commissioner from the United States of America. Which, of course, would recognize American independence. Vergennes urged Franklin and Jay to proceed anyway. That official recognition could follow in the final peace treaty. Jay suspected that the French were stalling. He knew of the siege of Gibraltar. And didn’t trust the Franco-Spanish alliance. So he ignored Congress’ order. And did not listen to the wise French counsel. Joining Franklin and Adams in stating that independence was a prerequisite for peace.
The American commission had good reason to not trust their European allies. The French wanted the British to agree to keep the Americans out of the fisheries along Newfoundland. So they could fish these waters. A bitter pill for a New Englander like Adams to swallow. The French were also opposed to the Americans annexing Canada. What they once called New France. Before it became British. While the Spanish were working hard behind the scenes to keep the Mississippi River away from the Americans. Had they gotten their way the Mississippi south of the Ohio River would have been in Spanish hands. As well as the states of Kentucky, Tennessee, Mississippi, Alabama and parts of Louisiana.
The American negotiators were being played by the best of European intrigue. But thanks to the principled men America sent to negotiate the peace the Americans bested the Europeans at their own game. John Adams. Benjamin Franklin. And John Jay. For the Americas got their independence. Territory that stretched to the Mississippi River. And navigation on the Mississippi to the Gulf of Mexico. Even their fishing rights off of Newfoundland (though they would revisit that issue later). It would be America’s greatest achievement in diplomacy. The Treaty of Paris (1783). And they made this treaty without consulting the French. Who were miffed. But thanks to Franklin America and France remained friends. So the Americans won the Revolutionary War. And the peace. While avoiding any entangling alliances with the old European powers. Not bad for a brand new nation on the world’s stage.
Tags: Adams, American Independence, Americans, balance of power, Benjamin Franklin, Britain, Canada, compromise, Dutch, European intrigue, fishing rights, FOX, France, Franco-Spanish Alliance, Franklin, French, Gibraltar, green, Jay, John Adams, John Jay, Lord North, Lord Rockingham, Lord Shelburne, Luzerne, Mississippi River, Newfoundland, North, Oswald, peace commission, Rockingham, separate peace, Shelburne, Spanish, Treaty of Paris, United States of America, Vergennes, Yorktown