Federalists, Anti- Federalists, Washington, Adams, Hamilton, Madison, Jefferson, French Revolution and Hamilton’s Three Reports

Posted by PITHOCRATES - August 9th, 2012

Politics 101

Washington looked upon Hamilton, Madison and Jefferson as the Sons he Never Had

With the new Constitution ratified it was time to put the grand experiment into action.  Beginning with America’s first presidential election.  And the system we now call the Electoral College.  Each state chose their electors.  These electors then voted for the president.  Even this first act of the new federal government was a safeguard to keep its power limited.  (And independent of the Congress.)  By keeping the new republican government from becoming a democracy.  The mob-rule that was the ruin of republics.  By putting intermediaries between the people and the most powerful person in America.  The president.  To prevent anyone rising to power simply by promising to shower riches on the people from the federal treasury.

George Washington did something no one has done since.  He received 100% of the vote.  Every elector voted for him for president.  Unanimously.  John Adams came in second.  Each elector had two votes.  One to cast for president.  The other to cast for vice president.  The one with the greatest number of votes was president.  The one with the next most votes became vice president.  As this was a time before party politics.  There were no political parties yet.  But there would be.  And that would change the way we voted for president.

Both Washington and Adams were Federalists.  They both supported the Constitution.  And the federal government.  As did the other Federalists.  Including Alexander Hamilton.  Who Washington selected as secretary of the treasury.  And would be a major player in the Federalist camp.  His fellow Federalist, James Madison, who coauthored the Federalist Papers with Hamilton (and John Jay) won election to the House of Representative.  Where he introduced and fought for passage of the Bill of Rights.  Thomas Jefferson, author of the Declaration of Independence, was in Europe during the Philadelphia Convention and the ratification process of the Constitution.  But he supported it as long as it included a bill of rights.  Washington selected Jefferson for his secretary of state.  Washington looked upon Hamilton, Madison and Jefferson as the sons he never had.  And loved them as sons.  But that would change.

Born out of Wedlock Hamilton was Never Accepted by those ‘Better’ than Him

Washington being the first president everything he did set a precedent.  And he was very conscious of that.  As well as his place in history.  For he wanted to be remembered as America’s first president of many to come.  Not the man who was at the helm when this experiment in self-government failed.  This is why he created a cabinet quickly.  Even though the Constitution included nothing about a cabinet.  After commanding the Continental Army for 8 years he knew how to give orders and delegate authority.  And after battling Congress during those same years he became a good administrator who understood how to compromise.  He hated politics.  But he understood politics.  And knew it meant compromise on the little things.  And standing resolute on the bigger things.

Hamilton was Washington’s aide-de-camp during the war.  He was smart and understood commerce.  During the war he wrote to Congress about the ruinous inflation crippling the economy.  And starving the army.  Proposing a national bank back then.  Washington trusted and respected Hamilton.  And valued his counsel.  Which is why he made him his secretary of treasury.  The country was in a mess.  In debt.  And it needed a plan to raise revenue.  To pay for government.  And to service that debt.  Even just to understand the debt.  For money was owed at every level of government.  Which was what prompted the Philadelphia Convention in the first place.  To put the nation on a sound footing to move forward.  And there wasn’t a better person available than Hamilton.  Who remains even today America’s greatest treasury secretary.

Hamilton was brilliant.  And he had grand plans for the United States.  He saw the potential in the new nation.  And he wanted to use the power of government to hurry it along.  He was also aggressive.  And combative.  Born out of wedlock he was never accepted by those ‘better’ than him.  So he spent a lifetime fighting this social stigma.  Acquiring a competitive nature.  Making him unpopular.  And obstinate.  He fought long and hard for what he wanted.  Knowing that he was right.  And others were wrong.  Even though this may have been true at times it tended to be off-putting.  So Hamilton would spend his political career making political enemies.  And it started in the Washington administration.

After Hamilton’s Three Reports James Madison parted ways with Hamilton and became an Anti-Federalist

While the Americans were setting up their first national government France was well along the way to the French Revolution.  And Thomas Jefferson was there.  Returning to the United States the same year of the Tennis Court Oath and the Storming of the Bastille (1789).  The French had a taste of liberty from helping the Americans.  And now they wanted it, too.  France was drowning in debt.  A bad growing season caused some famine.  The people were restless.  Poor.  Angry.  And sick of the monarchy.  Jefferson felt the spirit of ’76 again.  He joined the conversations in the clubs where the radicals met.  Enjoying their company.  Sharing their hate of monarchy.  Despite the French Monarchy having financed most of the American Revolution.  And provided much of the material to wage war.  Didn’t matter.  The people’s spirit inflamed him, too.  And he brought that spirit home with him.  Upon arrival Washington asked him to join his cabinet.  He accepted.  And the head butting began.

It started with Hamilton’s three reports.  The Report on Public Credit (January 1790).  The Report on a National Bank (December 1790).  And the Report on Manufactures (December 1791).  Taken together they kind of looked like a plan to turn the United States into another Great Britain.  At least to Jefferson, Madison and anti-Federalists everywhere.  What they saw was a nation with lots of debt, where the rich get a little too cozy with the politicians and the financiers reach deep into the halls of government.  That wasn’t Hamilton’s intent.  Other than wanting to accelerate the Industrial Revolution in American to the level it was in Britain.  The subject of his third report.  Which was a bit mercantilist in nature like Britain.  But the other two were about establishing good credit.  To gain the trust of the credit markets.  For a country in debt had to be able to borrow money to service that debt.  As well as pay for government.  Putting the nation on that sound footing to move forward.  Which he did.  He lowered the per capita debt.  And the nation would go on to enjoy a decade of peace and prosperity thanks to his economic policies.

After Hamilton’s three reports came the great schism.  James Madison parted ways with Hamilton.  Becoming an anti-Federalist.  Along with Thomas Jefferson.  While still a member of the Federalist administration of George Washington (though he didn’t label himself a Federalist or join in any partisan action).  Cabinet meetings became insufferable.  As Hamilton and Jefferson just hated each other.  Who could only behave in the presence of their ‘father’.  George Washington.  But the partisan attacks took to the newspapers.  Lies and slander flew with regularity.  From both directions.  Even attacking Washington.  Jefferson eventually left the administration but continued his attacks through his surrogate James Madison.  The attacks on Washington got so ugly that he never spoke to Jefferson again.   Who turned into a radical partisan.  Washington was never happier when his second term ended.  The new president was John Adams.  Federalist.  His vice president was Thomas Jefferson.  Leader of the anti-Federalists.   Who became the new Democrat-Republicans.  Which is why they had to change the election process for president.  So the president and the vice president belonged to the same political party.  So they worked together instead of leading the attack against each other and their party.

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