Advanced Civilization takes a Huge Step Forward with the Bronze Age

Posted by PITHOCRATES - November 2nd, 2011

Technology 101

Bronze gave the Artisans the Tools to Unleash their Human Capital and Increase the Quality of Life

Two things put man at the top of the food chain.  The ability to think.  And hands that could build the things we thought of.  In particular, tools.  First it was sharpened sticks and antlers.  Stone and flint.  These were steps forward.  But the quality of these tools was poor.  They weren’t ideal.  They were the best we could chip out from what we could find.  And they didn’t hold a sharp edge very long.  But that all changed with metallurgy.

Enter the Bronze Age.  Where man could cast pretty much any tool he thought of.  By pouring molten metal into a mold.  This was a huge step forward.  Because we could make tools to fit the job.  Any job.  They were strong, too.  And could hold a sharp edge for a longer time.  This exploded the growth of cities.  Farms.  And urban life.  Artisans now had the tools to unleash their human capital.  Cities became rich in finished goods.  Things that increased the quality of life.  And attracted the attention of envious neighbors.  And the uncivilized barbarians beyond the civilized frontier.

With bronze they could make better weapons to defend themselves.  And they did.  The Sumerians used bronze to create one of the most formidable defensive units of the time.  The phalanx.  A formation of soldiers armed with bronze-tipped spears.  This spear could reach further than a sword.  So swordsmen attacking a phalanx were at a disadvantage.  The phalanx could stab with the spear before the swordsman could stab with his sword.  The same principle of the defensive mechanism of the porcupine.  The phalanx was such a formidable defensive unit that it saw service for many centuries.  Letting civilizations grow because they could defend themselves from their envious neighbors.

It took Regional and Long Distant Trade to get the Copper and Tin to Smelt into Bronze

The Stone Age lasted a long time.  And the change to the Bronze Age didn’t happen overnight.  Because you don’t mine bronze.  You make it.  When you melt two or more metals together.  And the two most popular metals of the time were copper.  And tin.

The Sumerians used bronze tools and weapons.  But the Fertile Crescent didn’t have any ore deposits.  So the metals necessary to make bronze were not indigenous to the Fertile Crescent.  That land between the Euphrates and the Tigris.  So how did a people with no ore deposits smelt copper and tin into bronze?  Trade.

You have to dig copper out of the ground.  You have to dig tin out of the ground.  And you typically don’t dig copper and tin out of the same mine.  Worse, tin wasn’t as close to the Sumerians as copper was.  So it took regional trade.  And long distant trade.  To get the ore to smelt into bronze.

Trade gave us the Bronze Age and Advanced Civilizations

The Bronze Age created advanced civilizations.  But it took an advanced civilization to make bronze.  So what came first?  The Bronze Age?  Or advanced civilization?  That’s an easy answer.  Trade.

An advanced civilization could create great things.  As long as they had the ingredients to make those things.  Some of these things were indigenous to their civilization.  A lot of them were not.  So you traded.  To get the things you needed but didn’t have.  With the things you had.  And the things you built.  From both.

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